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  • 1. 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Scent has a lot to do with how people react towrads people. Having that scent makes the person more comfortable with. The problem is, in these perfumes they may have nice and soothing scents but they can really have a bad effect in our environment and even to orselves because of the chemical used in making it. The researchers thought of a way in which they can produce a soothing and great scent without harming the surroundings and community. The researchers will test if the fruit extract of can be a better distributer rather than other esential oil. The study tries to help the environment by substituting the chemicals used in a perfume by using Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) which is abundant in our country. The Calamansi’s native homeland is in Southeast Asia. Tthe calamansi is easy to cultivate. The plant grows well in cool and elevated areas and in sandy soils rich in organic matter. It can also lessen the expenses of the people that will buy perfumes. Calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) has been proven to help alleviate depression and anxiety. It is also among the few aromatics that not just masks bad smell, but completely neutralizes them, making the essential oil a great additive to cleansing products. Inventing a perfume that has a citrus scent, cheap, doesn’t have a bad effect towards our environment and our health and is made from something that is abundant in our country is very helpful.
  • 2. 2 Statement of the Problem Main Problem: Can calamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa) fruit extract be a better substitute for perfumes? Specific Questions: 1. At which concentration of calamansi extract will be the most effective as perfume? a.) 25 mg/ml b.) 30 mg/ml c.) 45 mg/ml 2. How efficient is Calamansi extract as a Perfume in terms of: a.) Fragrance b.) Price This study wants to test the calamansi extract as an alternative material to substitute expensive perfumes. This is because calamansi is abundant here in the Philippines. The Process of making the calamansi perfume has easier and cheaper steps than making those expensive ones. Significance of the Study Other perfumes have bad effects caused by the chemicals. This is where the researchers fiund their foundation and possible soultion. The researchers thought of a
  • 3. 3 way in which they can produce a soothing and great scent without harming the surroundings and community and without spending a lot of money. The researchers desire is to make a good-smelling perfume which does not have a bad effect in our environment. The benifit involves the environment, health of the people and the economy of the Philippines. It will not use much harmful chemicals used in other perfumes. It has a natural component. It will also expand the market for Filipino farmers because this will enhance their rural economic development. Scope and Limitation of the Study The purpose of the study is finding a better perfume, which is cheaper and does not harm our environment. The experimental study will be conducted to certify if the fruit extract of the calamansi, used in making perfume is better than others in terms of benifits and smell. The study would be done at the Makati Science as well as the Department of Science and Technology that would around 4 weeks to finish the study. It would be a big constraint for the researchers to perform the study because of their lack of facilities which is gravely required for the study. It would also be difficult for the researchers to find the right equpments and materials necessary for the study. The study focuses on the fragrance only of the perfume. The researchers intended to solve these problems by asking for assistance from the Science and Technlogy Department of Makati Science High School for help and support to handle and borrow the equipment needed for the study.
  • 4. 4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Related Literature The researchers are looking for a cheaper perfume with ingredients that are usually found locally. Calamansi is an example of this local ingredient that is needed for the perfume. Citrofortunella microcarpa is a shrub or small tree growing to 3–6 metres (9.8–20 ft). The fruit of the calamondin resembles a small, round lime, usually 25- 35mm in diameter, but sometimes up to 45mm. The centre pulp and juice is the orange colour of a tangerine with a very thin orange peel when ripe Citrofortunella microcarpa, the calamondin or calamansi, is a fruit tree in the family Rutaceae native Asia. Other English language common names include calamonding, calamandarin, golden lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange, acid orange. Its cultivation has spread throughout Southeast Asia, India, Hawaii, the West Indies, and Central and North America. The plant is characterized by wing-like appendages on the leaf stalks and white or purplish flowers. Its fruit has either a spongy or leathery rind with a juicy pulp that is divided into sections. The fruit is indigenous and widely cultivated in the Philippines, Malaysia and neighbouring northern parts of Indonesia. It is available year-round in the Philippines and is usually seen in its unripened green state. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces a pleasant scent The Fragrance wheel is a relatively new classification method that is widely used in retail and in the fragrance industry. The method was created in 1983 by Michael Edwards, a consultant in the perfume industry, who designed his own scheme of
  • 5. 5 fragrance classification. The new scheme was created in order to simplify fragrance classification and naming scheme, as well as to show the relationships between each of the individual classes and cases. The five standard families consist of Floral, Oriental, Woody, Fougère, and Fresh, with the former four families being more "classic" while the latter consisting of newer bright and clean smelling citrus and oceanic fragrances that have arrived due to improvements in fragrance technology. Each of the families are in turn divided into sub-groups and arranged around a wheel. Plants have long been used in perfumes as a source of essential oils and aroma compounds. These aromatics are usually secondary metabolites produced by plants as protection against herbivores, infections, as well as to attract pollinators. Plants are by far the largest source of fragrant compounds used in perfumery. The sources of these compounds may be derived from various parts of a plant. A plant can offer more than one source of aromatics, for instance the aerial portions and seeds of coriander have remarkably different scent from each other. Orange leaves, blossoms, and fruit zest are the respective sources of petitgrain, neroli, and orange oils Related Studies Local Calamansi, is a sour fruit that resembles a small mandarin, it is also called calamondin, calamonding, calamandarin, golden lime, Panama orange, Chinese orange, acid orange. This fruit is indigenous to the Philippines that is usually used in beverages, or in sauces to enhance the flavor of food. It is sold cheap in the market and can be found in residential backyards as ornaments. Calamansi can be considered
  • 6. 6 as one of the super foods because of the many health benefits and uses which can be derived from it. Calamansi is a small citrus fruit, like a small orange, with skin and flesh that are green in color. The pulp of the lime taste sour, and the fruit contains twice the amount of juice as the yellow, larger lemon. The juice, as a drink, makes one of the best thirst- quenchers. The acid content of lime is known to slow down the oxidation of fresh- cut fruits and vegetables, thus preventing discoloration and acting as preservatives. Calamansi has several alternative medicinal uses, Like lightens freckles, good as mouth wash, Cure coughs and expel phlegm, Helpful in dealing with hangover, prevent and cure Osteoarthritis, Maintains kidney health, great tonic for the liver, prevent Diabetes, lightens urine color, lowers body cholesterol and as a perfume. Foreign Calamansi’s cultivation is spread throughout Southeast Asia, Central and North America, India and Hawaii. It is also called Golden Lime, Acid Orange, Calamondin and Calamonding. It is also known as Kalamansi in the Philippines. Calamansi is also used as a stain removal. They conducted this research to protect the hands from the strong chemicals of Zonrox and to make an alternative product for removing stains because Calamansi is cheaper. It is cheap and don’t contain harmful chemicals that may irritate your skin. Calamansi is also used in medical purposes. In some medical products, Calamansi is used as a Vitamin C supplement, because Calamansi is rich in Vitamin C. It is also known to cure cough and colds because of its Vitamin C. Calamansi leaves can be an herbal tea that can also be used to cure coughs.
  • 7. 7 Calamansi is also used as a skin moisturizer, skin whitener or cure for pimples by rubbing the Calamansi on your skin. It is also used to treat dandruffs. Calamansi is also known to heal wounds and can prevent damage from the eyes. Calamansi can also clean your body and can also prevent body odor. It is also sometimes used to clean and disinfect chopping boards. It also prevents decay and loosening of the teeth, dental caries, toothache, bleeding of the gums and fragility of bones. Theoretical Framework Figure 1.1 Flow chart showing the potential of the frut exractof the calamansi as a perfume. Citrofortunella microcarpa (Calamansi) is a citrus fruit, with a sour flavour said to resemble a cross between mandarin and lime. As seen on Figure 1.1 its fruit extract has citric acid which is a common scent in perfumes. The researchers think that the citric acid found in the calamnsi may be the compound that is effective in making perfume because of its natural fragrance. Calamansi/Calamansi fruit Calansi Extract Citric Acid Compound that can be used in making Perfumes
  • 8. 8 Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) also has this compound, in which grapefruit is use in other perfumes. The calamansi has citric acid that is a auramatic compound used in other perfumes. In which is why the researchers thought it would be a good idea to use calamansi since it is abundant in the Philippines and calamansi is naturally cultivated in the Phillipines. The calamansi extract can be an effective substitute to the harmful chemicals that are used in making perfumes. Conceptual Framework Input Process Output Figure 1.2 Paradigm of the concepts of the reearchers from input, process, and to the output of the researchers. It provides the researchers’ overviewof the processes, the testing and the output. to the people who will use it from the input, process and to the output of the research. The citrus and the nature of the calamansi will serve as the primary source of the information of the said experiment and will serve input. As the experiment is conducted, the scented effect of the Calamansi will be tested and validated. The experiment will produce an effective Calamansi fruit perfume. Nature of the calamansi Nature in making Natural Perfume Effective method of extracting the Calamansi fruit. A perfume that uses calamansi fruit extract as a substitute for the chemicals used in making perfumes. Testing the fruit extract from the calamansi used to substiture to the other chemicals and if it has a good scent Testing of the fragrance and effectivity of it as a perfume
  • 9. 9 Hypotheses Problem: Can calamansi fruit extract be an alternative substite for the chemicals used in making perfumes. Null Hypothesis : Calamansi fruit extract cannot be an alternative substite for the chemicals used in making perfumes. Alternative Hypothesis Calamansi fruit extract can be an alternative substite for the chemicals used in making perfumes. Definition of Terms Citric Acid - Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits. It is a natural preservative and is also used to add an acidic (sour) taste to foods and soft drinks. Extracts - An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water. Extracts may be sold as tinctures or in powder form. Volatile Aroma - Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of plant-derived, aromatic essential oils to promote physical and psychological well-being. It is sometimes used in combination with massage and other therapeutic techniques as part of a holistic treatment approach. Fragrance - a pleasant, sweet smell
  • 10. 10 METHODOLOGY Research Design For the study, the researchers will use Completely Randomized Design. There will be four independent variables: the three calamansi fruit extracts with different concentrations, with the calamansi fruit extract with 100 % (25 ml.) concentration as Treatment A, the calamansi fruit extract 100% (30 ml.) concentration as Treatment B, the calamansi fruit extract 100 % (45 ml.) concentration as Treatment C respectively and the commercialized perfume. ,. There would be a total of 16 sets of subjects. Using simple random sampling, four of these sets are to receive each of the four treatments. Table. Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with corresponding treatments on each subject 1. A 2. B 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. C 7. D 8. B 9. C 10. D 11. B 12. D 13. D 14. A 15. A 16. B
  • 11. 11 Legend: A- 25 mL. calamansi fruit extract B- 30 mL. calamansi fruit extract C- 45 mL. calamansi fruit extract D- Control Group – commercialized perfume Sampling Design and Technique The Researchers will use Complete Randomized design in order to determine which of the 4 treatment is the most effective. One of the easiest ways to do this is by the Lottery method, in which the researchers would use slips of paper to determine what subjects will receive the treatments. For the researchers, this will be the most appropriate and efficient sampling technique for the research. There are four set-ups: the first set-up is the clamansi perfume will be tested to thirty people and will be answering a observation sheet. The answers will be recorded.The second set-up, the expensive perfume will be tested to the same thirty people, they will be answering an observation sheet. The records will be compared to indicate which is better.
  • 12. 12 Procedures, Materials, and Equipments Preparation of the materials and equipements Preparing the finished product Recording, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Gathered Mixing all the elements Adding the essential oil and vodka Collection of calamansi Extraction of calamansi fruit
  • 13. 13 Preparation of the materials and equipements – The procedures will start with preparing of the materials. The researchers will need a syringe, bowl, glass, clean bottle (to put on the finished product), calamansi fruit, water, ethyl alcohol, and vodka Collection of calamansi – The researchers will collect calamansi fruit. They may buy calamansi fruit at 10 php per pack or if they have a calamansi tree, they may pick some calamansi fruits. Extraction of calamansi fruit – The researchers will have to extract the juice from the calamansi fruit. Put it in a clean glass or bowl. The perfume will make use up to 70% to 80% of calamansi fruit extract Adding the essential oil and vodka – The researchers will have to buy or use (if they have a stock) essential oil and vodka. The perfume will have atleast 15% to 30% of essectial oil, and 5% to 10% of vodka Mixing all the elements – The researchers will mix the extracted juice from the calamansi fruit, the essential oil, and vodka. They will use a syringe and a mixer in mixing all these elements to measure the amount of materials they are using. Recording, Analysis and Interpretation of Data Gathered –. The other questions like the money spent, level of safety and contribution to the environment will be answered when the data gathered from the experiment is recorded, analyzed and interpreted.
  • 14. 14 Preparing the finished product – To make it look presentable, the researchers will put the perfume in a clean bottle. Statistical Treatment of Data The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of calamnsi fruit extract as a perfume. The independent variable of this study is the calamansi fruit extract. There is one hypothesis in this research that is indicated in the second chapter of this investigation. The alternative hypothesis states that there will be a significant difference in the effectiveness between the commercialized perfume and the calamnsi perfume. The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the effectiveness between the commercialized perfume and the calamnsi perfume. The statistical treatment that will be used in this study is inferential statistics. Since it is an inferential statistics, it is used to determine the significant difference of the variables collected from the experimental research. The confidence level of the researchers is 85 %. This means that the researchers believe 85 % that the alternative hypothesis shall overtake the null hypothesis.
  • 15. 15 BIBLIOGRAPHY Calderon, J.(1993).Methods of Research and Thesis Writing. Pines cor. Union Sts. Mandaluyong City: Cacho Hermanos, Inc. Sawamura, M. Citrus Essential Oils: Flavor and Fragrance. John Wiley & Sons. Copyright. Lorenzo, R.(October 25,2013). Benefits of Calamansi Essential Oil. I got this last January 7,2014, in http://blog.thecasadelorenzo.com/2013/10/benefits-of-calamansi- essential-oil.html Hayes, M.(December 2009). What Are The Chemical Components Of Calamansi Extract? I got this last January 5,2014, in http://science.blurtit.com/2086939/what-are- the-chemical-components-of-calamansi-extract Apostol,V. (August 2013).Kalamansi. retrieved last January 8, 2014, in http://www.stuartxchange.com/Kalamansi.html Horticulture, A.(May 31, 2011). Calamondin – The Most Versartile Fruit. Retrieved last January 10, 2014, in http://aggie- horticulture.tamu.edu/PATIOCITRUS/calamondin.html Cathcart, R. III.(May 16,2011). Medicinal Uses or Benefits of Calamansi. Retrieved last January 12, 2014, in http://calaman-c.weebly.com/1/post/2011/05/medicinal-uses- or-benefits-of-calamansi.html Anonymus.(April 2011). Health Benefits of Calamansi. Retrieved last January 7, 2014, in http://healthbenefitsofcalamansi.blogspot.com/
  • 16. 16 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Fatima Serene S. Desuasido Birthdate: March 14, 2001 Birthplace: Makati City Parent: Girlie Grace Desuasido and Noel Desuasido Personal Qualifications Year: 2013 – Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007 – 2013 Course: Grade School School: Pitogo Elementary School Works / Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors / Awards Received Honors: 2nd Honor (Grade School) Pitogo Elementary School Research Conduct Fatima Serene S. Desuasido with co-authors Julienne Mae V. Potonia, Elisha A. Vinarao, Justine M. Canlas, Arthur David F. Del Rosario and Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume
  • 17. 17 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Julienne Mae V. Potonia Birthdate: October 27, 2000 Birthplace: Manila Parents: Maria Fe and Ferdinand Potonia Educational Qualifications Year: 2013 - Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007 – 2013 Course: Grade School School: South Cembo Elementary School Works/Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors/Awards Received Honors: 7th honor (Grade School) South Cembo Elementary School Research Conducted Julienne Mae V. Potonia, with co-authors Fatima Serene S. Desuasido, Elisha A. Vinarao, Justine M. Canlas, Arthur David F. Del Rosario and Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume
  • 18. 18 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Elisha A. Vinarao Birthdate: October 29, 2000 Birthplace: Las Pinas City Parents: Mateo and Ma. Ruby Vinarao Educational Qualifications Year: 2013 - Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007 – 2013 Course: Grade School School: Fort Bonifacio Elementary School Works/Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors/Awards Received Honors: 4th honor (Grade School) Fort Bonifacio Elementary School Research Conducted Elisha A. Vinarao with co-authors Fatima Serene S. Desuasido, Julienne Mae V. Potonia, Justine M. Canlas, Arthur David F. Del Rosario and Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume.
  • 19. 19 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis Birthdate: March 22, 2001 Birthplace: Quezon City Parents: Beth Sansolis and Rolando Sansolis Educational Qualifications Year: 2013 - Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007-2013 Course: Grade School School: Comembo Elementary School Works/Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors/Awards Received Honors: 2nd Honor (Grade School) Comembo Elementary School Research Conducted Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, with co-authors Fatima Serene S. Desuasido, Julienne Mae V. Potonia, Elisha A. Vinarao, Justine M. Canlas and Arthur David F. Del Rosario, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume.
  • 20. 20 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Justine M. Canlas Birthdate: March 31, 2001 Birthplace: Mandaluyong City Parent: Lenith M. Canlas Personal Qualifications Year: 2013 – Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007 – 2013 Course: Grade School School: Rizal Elementary School Works / Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors / Awards Received Honors: None Research Conduct Justine M. Canlas with co-authors Julienne Mae V. Potonia, Fatima Serene S. Desuasido, Elisha A. Vinarao, Arthur David F. Del Rosario and Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume.
  • 21. 21 CURRICULUM VITAE Personal Information Name: Arthur David F. Del Rosario Birthdate: July 28 2001 Birthplace: Manila City Parent: Fernando and Crisanta Del Rosario Personal Qualifications Year: 2013 – Present Course: High School School: Makati Science High School Year: 2007 – 2013 Course: Grade School School: St. Anthony of Makati Montessori Inc. Works / Research Agencies Year: 2013 – 2014 Position: Student Researcher Agency: Makati Science High School Honors / Awards Received Honors: 2nd Honor (Grade School) St. Anthony of Makati Montessori Inc. Research Conduct Arthur David F. Del Rosario with co-authors Julienne Mae V. Potonia, Fatima Serene S. Desuasido, Elisha A. Vinarao, Justine M. Canlas and Louie Artagnan P. Sansolis, 2013, Makati Science High School, Calamansi Fruit Extract as Perfume.