Csa+ ChiknSafe 100 tm aplicaciones y bibliografia cientifica e

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Csa+ ChiknSafe 100 tm aplicaciones y bibliografia cientifica e

  1. 1. 2011ChiknSafe 100 TM Clorito Sódico Acidificado Ultrafiltrado (ACS+) ND Pharma & Biotech Scientific Publications 01/10/2011
  2. 2. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better ChiknSafe 100 TM APLICACIONES STATUS DISPONIBLE LUGAR DE APLICACION POST-SACRIFICIO TIPO DE INTERVENCION Tratemiento de Superficie de todas las partes: carcasas, cortes, partes, trozos, picados, etc. REGULACION APROBADO MUNDIALMENTE EFECTIVIDAD Buena si se aplica adecuadamente (correcta configuración de los sprays- inmersión) COSTES Coste inicial de la cabina de chorreado ( si no existiera) y coste continuo de compra del producto RELACION COSTE-EFECTIVO BUENA CAMBIOS EN LA PLANTA Acomodación de las cabinas de chorreado en las instalaciones, ventilación SEGURIDAD adecuada alrededor de la cabina/s de aplicación incluyendo la modificación de la/s cabina/s existente/s IMPACTO MEDIOAMBIENTAL No subproductos tóxicos VENTAJAS No es corrosivo a las concentraciones indicadas No se afecta por la carga organica en el producto Clasificado como un sanitizador de grado alimentario sin riesgos Desventajas / Limitaciones Aplicar sobre toda la materia prima alimentaria para su optimo funcionamiento. www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  3. 3. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better Clorito Sódico Acidificado Ultrafiltrado Ultrarefinado y Estabilizado /CSA+La actividad antimicrobiana del clorito de sodio acidificado estabilizado y ultrafiltrado – ultrarefinado (CSA+), seatribuye al efecto oxidativo del ácido cloroso, que se deriva de la conversión del clorito de iones en su forma ácidabajo condiciones ácidas. Las reacciones ocurren inmediatamente en la mezcla del clorito de sodio con un ácido (en elcaso de nuestra composición, ácido cítrico y glicina anhydro) formando por tanto una solución antibacteriana sedebe aplicar sobre la materia prima alimentaria cárnica en cualquiera de sus fases. ND Pharma & Biotech ha desarrollado un sistema que mezcla los ingredientes de manera estable tanto en su formasólida como en su presentación en líquido o disolución, estabilizandolas y haciendolas estables durante más tiempoy con anteriroridad a su aplicación para maximizar el poder oxidante de la solución.Algunos estudios han demostrado un 1,9 a 2,3 log de reducción de Salmonella y E. coli O157 en canales de vacunocon un lavado o rociado de clorito de sodio activado con ácido cítrico (Ransom et al 2003). Un ensayo de laboratoriodemostró la reducción de 4,6 log en E. coli O157: H7 y Salmonella con un lavado con aguaseguido de un spray de clorito de sodio acidificado (Castillo et al., 1999). Otro los estudios indican un éxito limitado(Gill y Badoni 2004). Parece que el método de activación (es decir, tipo de ácido utilizado), el método deaplicación (por ejemplo, tipo de aerosoles), y el tiempo de contacto con la superficie de la carne tiene muchainfluencia en el éxito de este inhibidor microbiano.De las investigaciones realizadas con clorito sódico acidificado estabilizado con nuestra formula especial paradesinfectar cortes de carne (con ChiknSafe 100 TM) sistema de comercializado por ND Pharma & Biotech) sealcanzaron reducciones de 1.4-2.3 log de E. Coli dependiendo de la velocidad de avance de la aspersión. Hay pruebasque sugieren que ASC+ puede ser un inhibidor microbial de larga duración y puede se adecuado para la carneempacada y los preparados carnicos preenvasados. Bosilevac et al. (2004) ha publicado recientemente los resultadosusando un 300 ppm ASC, en una forma de tratamiento que reduce el recuento total microbiano por 1.0-1.5 deregistro inferior al máximo permisible y manteniendo intactas las cualidades organolépticas de la carne de vacunomolida.El Clorito sódico acidificado está aprobado para su uso de un modo generalizado en todo el mundo, y en lasconcentraciones entre 500-1200 ppm (21 CFR 173.325, FDA 2003). En Australia, FSANZ ha realizado una evaluaciónfinal para la aprobación para el uso de clorito de sodio acidificado como una ayuda a la transformación para su usoen carnes de aves de corral, carne y productos cárnicos forma a una concentración de 500-1200 ppm. La EFSA y otrasautoridades de seguridad alimentaria internacional han estudiado diferentes solicitudes de uso del compuesto y enla actualidad se permite el uso de sodio clorito como agente antimicrobiano para carnes, pescados, frutas yverduras, siempre y cuando se controle que un nivel residual de los compuestos clorosos no se detecta.Existen diferentes tipos de cabinas de rociado, pero nuestra compañía no se encarga del diseño ni d ela construcciónde cabinas de rociado especiales, para ello, nuestra recomnedación es que consulte con una empresa especializada www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  4. 4. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better en este tipo de cabinas o estaciones de procesado para consultar el que mejor se adapta alas condiciones de uso de nuestro preparado, y de los que existen disponibles comercialmente multiples variedadesy opciones de compra. EXTRACTO DEL INFORME DE EVALUACIONParrafos extraidos del informe final de evaluación sobre autorizabilidad del uso del compuesto en las materiasprimas para las que se pretende su utilización y que vienen especificadas en el cuerpo general del escrito decontestación.(…).El informe de evaluación de seguridad del Informe Final de Evaluación, llegó a la conclusión de que si el clorito desodio acidificado es utilizado en las condiciones que se estimen en concordancia con las Buenas Prácticas deFabricación (BPF) la ausencia de residuos que se pueden detectar en los alimentos crudos después de un tratamientoprevio a la venta es manifiesta y por lo tanto no habría problemas toxicológicos. No ha habido ninguna informaciónadicional producida después de la evaluación final que modificara esta conclusión. No hay problemas significativosde salud pública y la seguridad asociados con el uso del agente antimicrobiano.(…)(…)…No hay normas alimentarias internacionales que prohíban el uso de clorito sódico como coadyuvantes deelaboración. Los Estados Unidos permiten el clorito de sodio como aditivo alimentario indirecto y proporcionan losparámetros de procesamiento, tras los que se declaró a este compuesto por su condición de GRAS. ( GeneralmenteReconocidos como Seguros) ( Geenrally Recognized as Safe) En los Estados Unidos – El Código de RegulacionesFederales Volumen 21, 173,325 aprueba una amplia gama de soluciones de clorito de sodio acidificado de 500 a 1200ppm a un pH de 2,3 a 2,9 para las carnes de aves de corral, carnes rojas, procesadas, triturados o forma deproductos cárnicos, frutas intactas y verduras, y frutas y hortalizas transformadas. Se permite el tratamiento demariscos hasta en 50 ppm de clorito de sodio acidificado.(…).Los parámetros de procesamiento (como la concentración de pH y el tratamiento) pueden ser prescritos en la norma.Sin embargo, esto sería incompatible con otras ayudas de procesamiento de cómo están regulados. No seríacoherente que incluya los parámetros de procesamiento en el Código - bajo la Norma 1.3.3, que sentaría unprecedente para futuras solicitudes de ayuda a la transformación. Prescribir los parámetros de procesamiento parael clorito sódico acidificado no es necesario, ya que su uso podría gestionarse más eficazmente, al exigir un nivelmáximo permitido de residuos hasta el límite de determinación. www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  5. 5. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better INVESTIGACION ASOCIADA AL USO DE ESTE COMPUESTO Bibliografia Interactiva 1. Efficacy of acidified sodium chlorite treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Chinese cabbage.by Yasuhiro Inatsu, Md Latiful Bari, Susumu Kawasaki, Kenji Isshiki, Shinichi KawamotoBiological Sciences › Food Science and Technology Papers 2. Comparison of the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and sodium hypochlorite in reducing Escherichia coli.Rachel Ramos Elano, Tomoko Kitagawa, Md Latiful Bari, Susumu Kawasaki, Shinichi Kawamoto, Yasuhiro Inatsuin Foodborne Pathogens And Disease (2010)This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and sodium hypochlorite(NaClO) in reducing several Escherichia coli strains isolated from different retail meat and fresh produce. Fortynonpathogenic E. coli… 3. Prewashing with acidified sodium chlorite reduces pathogenic bacteria in lightly fermented Chinese cabbage.Yasuhiro Inatsu, Yutaka Maeda, M L Bari, Susumu Kawasaki, Shinichi Kawamoto in Journal Of Food Protection (2005)Efficacy of prewashing with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) for the sanitation of lightly fermented Chinese cabbagewas evaluated. The population of the natural microflora on the cabbage leaves was reduced about 2.0 log CFU/g justafter washing with… 4. Effects of postchill application of acidified sodium chlorite to control Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli on commercial broiler carcasses.Omar A Oyarzabal, Christopher Hawk, Sacit F Bilgili, C Cayce Warf, G Kere Kemp in Journal Of Food Protection (2004) www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  6. 6. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better Experiments were performed to assess the reduction of Campylobacter spp. andEscherichia coli in commercial broiler carcasses by postchill dip applications of acidified sodium chlorite. Carcassrinses were collected before the inside-outside-bird… 5. Antimicrobial effect of acidified sodium chlorite, sodium chlorite, sodium hypochlorite, and citric acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and natural microflora of fresh-cut cilantroA ALLENDE, J MCEVOY, Y TAO, Y LUO in Food Control (2009) 6. Effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and other sanitizers to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces.Yasuhiro Inatsu, Tomoko Kitagawa, Md Latiful Bari, Daisuke Nei, Vijay Juneja, Shinichi Kawamoto in FoodbornePathogens And Disease (2010)The use of a suitable sanitizer can reduce the risk of produce-related foodborne illnesses. We evaluated theeffectiveness of several sanitizers to reduce inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of cherry tomatoes(Solanum lycopersicum… 7. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium on beef carcass surfaces using acidified sodium chlorite.A Castillo, L M Lucia, G K Kemp, G R Acuff in Journal Of Food Protection (1999)The efficacy of a phosphoric acid-activated acidified sodium chloride (PASC) spray and a citric acid-activated acidifiedsodium chlorite (CASC) spray applied at room temperature (22.4 to 24.7 degrees C) in combination with a waterwash was compared… 8. Effects of cetylpyridinium chloride, acidified sodium chlorite, and potassium sorbate on populations of Escherichia coli O157 : H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus on fresh beefK Lim, A Mustapha in Journal Of Food Protection (2004)The effects of selected food-grade antimicrobial agents at decreasing the number of pathogenic bacteria on freshbeef were determined. Beef cubes inoculated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, orStaphylococcus aureus were sprayed… www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  7. 7. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better 9. Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.K Harris, M F Miller, G H Loneragan, M M Brashears in Journal Of Food Protection (2006)A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%)were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processingenvironment. The reduction of… 10. Inhibition of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus on sliced roast beef by cetylpyridinium chloride and acidified sodium chlorite.Kyungwha Lim, Azlin Mustapha in Food Microbiology (2007)The effects of 0.5% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), 0.12% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and a mix of equal volumeof the two (0.25% CPC-0.06% ASC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureuswere evaluated on… 11. Combined effect of low-dose irradiation and acidified sodium chlorite washing on Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on mung bean seeds.Daisuke Nei, Md Latiful Bari, Yasuhiro Inatsu, Susumu Kawasaki, Setsuko Todoriki, Shinichi Kawamoto in FoodbornePathogens And Disease (2010)The effect of low-dose irradiation (0.75 and 1.5kGy) in combination with acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on thereduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on mung bean seeds was examined. Washing with ASC (0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and1.2g/L sodium chlorite and… 12. Reducing levels of Listeria monocytogenes contamination on raw salmon with acidified sodium chlorite.Yi-Cheng Su, Michael T Morrissey in Journal Of Food Protection (2003)The antimicrobial activity of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) against Listeria monocytogenes in salmon was studied.Raw salmon (whole fish and fillets) inoculated with L. monocytogenes (10(3) CFU/cm2 or 10(4) CFU/g) were washedwith ASC solution (50… www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  8. 8. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better 13. Efficacy of chlorine and acidified sodium chlorite on microbial population and quality changes of spinach leaves.Daisuke Nei, Ji-Weon Choi, Md Latiful Bari, Susumu Kawasaki, Shinichi Kawamoto, Yasuhiro Inatsu in FoodbornePathogens And Disease (2009)Efficacy of washing with distilled water, chlorine solution, and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution on populationsof microorganisms on spinach leaves was evaluated. Washing with chlorine (100 mg/L) and ASC (sodium chlorite, 15mg/L; citric… 14. Efficacy of two acidified chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants with sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid on prevention of contagious mastitis using an experimental challenge protocol.L Y Oura, L K Fox, C C Warf, G K Kempt in Journal of Dairy Science (2002)Two acidified sodium chlorite postmilking teat disinfectants were evaluated for efficacy against Staphylococcusaureus and Streptococcus agalactiae by using National Mastitis Council experimental challenge procedures. Theeffect of these teat dips… 15. Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite as decontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beef at the purveyor.Alejandro Echeverry, J Chance Brooks, Markus F Miller, Jesse A Collins, Guy H Loneragan, Mindy M Brashearsin Journal Of Food Protection (2010)After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meat products contaminated withEscherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiring establishmentsproducing mechanically… 16. Validation of thiosulfate for neutralization of acidified sodium chlorite in microbiological testing.G K Kemp, K R Schneider in Poultry Science (2000)At low pH, acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) has antimicrobial activity against a variety of foodborne contaminants. Toevaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of ASC at specific time points posttreatment, it is necessary to halt the action ofthe… www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  9. 9. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better 17. Acidified sodium chlorite antimicrobial treatment of broiler carcasses.G K Kemp, M L Aldrich, A L Waldroup in Journal Of Food Protection (2000)An acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution was investigated for its antimicrobial effects on broiler carcassesprocessed under conditions similar to those used in U.S. commercial poultry facilities. Of particular interest was theability of the ASC… 18. Tolerance to sulfur dioxide in transgenic Chinese cabbage transformed with both the superoxide dismutase containing manganese and catalase genes of Escherichia coliMenq-Jiau Tseng, Cheng-Wei Liu, Jinn-Chin Yiu in Scientia Horticulturae (2008)We aimed to improve the tolerance of plants to the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We engineeredtransgenic Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis cv. Tropical Pride) by infection with individualstrains of Agrobacterium… 19. Cyclopropane fatty acids improve Escherichia coli survival in acidified minimal media by reducing membrane permeability to H+ and enhanced ability to extrude H+.Lana Shabala, Tom Ross in Research in Microbiology (2008)The physiological role of cyclopropane fatty acids (CFAs) in acid stress resistance was studied by in situmicroelectrode H+ flux measurements of Escherichia coli Frag1 and its isogenic CFA-deficient mutant JBM 1. Afterexposure to pH 4 for 16h, net… 20. Acidified sodium chlorite treatment for inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes growth on the surface of cooked roast beef.Richelle L Beverly, Marlene E Janes, Grady Oliver in Journal Of Food Protection (2006)The effects of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) against Listeria monocytogenes on the surface of cooked roast beefwere investigated. L. monocytogenes, strain V7, serotype 1/2a, was inoculated at numbers of 6.0 log CFU/g onto 5-gcubes of cooked… www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  10. 10. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better 21. Acidified sodium chlorite solution as an antimicrobial treatment for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets.N Kamireddy, P B Kenney, S Jittinandana, S D Slider in Journal Of Food Protection (2008)Minimizing microbial growth and maintaining overall quality are priorities for intervention strategies that extend theshelf life of fresh, aquatic foods. Four treatments included a control (fresh fillets), water, 50 ppm of acidified sodiumchlorite… www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  11. 11. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better OTRAS FUENTES DE INVESTIGACION Y BIBLIOGRAFICAS RELEVANTES ENGLISH- SPANISH INGLES-ESPAÑOLJ Sci Food Agric. 2011 Oct 10. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4664. [Epub ahead of print]Acidified sodium chlorite optimisation assessment to improve quality of fresh-cuttatsoi baby leaves.Tomás-Callejas A, López-Velasco G, Artés F, Artés-Hernández F.Postharvest and Refrigeration Group, Department of Food Engineering, TechnicalUniversity of Cartagena, P° Alfonso XIII, 48, E-30203 Cartagena, Murcia, Spain.BACKGROUND: The fresh-cut industry commonly uses sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) fordisinfection. However, there are certain problems related to its use, andacidified sodium chlorite (ASC) could be an alternative sanitiser to replace it.There is limited research evaluating the effect of ASC on the overall quality offresh-cut produce, especially sensory quality. In this study the decontaminationefficacy and quality attribute effects of ASC on fresh-cut tatsoi afterapplication and during storage were investigated. RESULTS: Tatsoi baby leaveswere minimally processed at 8 °C and stored under passive modified atmospherepackaging for up to 11 days at 5 and 10 °C. Low to moderate doses of ASC (100-500mg L(-1) ) showed an initial antimicrobial efficacy on natural microflora andEscherichia coli as effective as that of NaClO. Regarding contact time, ASC waseffective in reducting the E. coli population during the first 30 s of washing,and an increase in contact time did not improve the antimicrobial effect. Sensoryquality attributes were well kept for up to 11 days at 5 °C but for only 5 daysat the abusive temperature of 10 °C. CONCLUSION: ASC provides an alternativesanitising technique to NaClO for maintaining the quality and safety of fresh-cuttatsoi baby leaves for up to 11 days at 5 °C. Copyright © 2011 Society ofChemical Industry.PMID: 21987381 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]2. J Oral Implantol. 2011 Sep 9. [Epub ahead of print]The Bactericidal Effects of an Acidified Sodium Chlorite-Containing OralMoisturizing Gel: A Pilot Study.Kuroyama I, Osato S, Ogawa T.a a part-time instructor, Department of Histology, The Nippon Dental UniversitySchool of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the bactericidal effects and www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  12. 12. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better bactericidal time of an acidified sodium chlorite compound gel (ASC-Gel) onbacteria isolated from the peri-implant sulci of 10 patients who receivedimplants 3-27 years previously, and the depth of each peri-implant sulcus was 5mm or less. Porphyromonas gingivalis (ATCC33277) (P. gingivalis) was used as thecontrol bacterium. Five ASC-Gel preparations were created by adding 3.3%, 5.0%,7.0%, 9.0%, and 11.0% citric acid (CA) (condition a, b, c, d, and e,respectively) into an oral moisturizing gel containing sodium chlorite. Theconcentrations of ClO2 generated in ASC-Gel under conditions (ae) were 12.1,14.1, 17.2, 21.2, and 39.3 ppm, respectively. We examined the bactericidaleffects of the 5 ASC-Gel preparations at volumes of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml, andmeasured the bactericidal time when 2.0 ml of ASC-Gel was used under condition(e). The bactericidal effects of ASC-Gel became significantly greater withincreased concentrations of CA and ClO2 and with increased usage (0.52.0 ml) ofthe gel. All bacteria were killed by using 2.0 ml of ASC-Gel under condition (e).ASC-Gel also needed between 45 and 90 min to kill all microbes under condition(e). Within the limits of the present investigation, these results suggest thatASC-Gel is useful as a chemical disinfectant against bacteria in the peri-implantsulcus. Further studies are also required to protect teeth, the surface ofhydroxyapatite-coated implants, and the surrounding soft tissues from effects ofchemical dissolution such as acid erosion due to the low pH of ASC-Gel.PMID: 21905903 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]3. J Food Sci. 2011 Jan-Feb;76(1):M8-M11. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01923.x.Epub 2010 Dec 6.Inappropriate use of D-values for determining biocidal activity of variousantimicrobials.Hines JD, McKelvey PJ, Bodnaruk PW.Ecolab Research Center, 655 Lone Oak Drive, Eagan, MN 55121, USA.The objective of this study was to investigate the application of establishedD-value calculations to survival curves for various bacteria using the followingantimicrobials: acidified sodium chlorite, triclosan, octanoic acid, and sodiumhydroxide. D-values can be calculated in 3 ways, a linear regression, an endpointcalculation, or an average of multiple endpoint calculations. The assumption madein calculating a D-value is that the rate of kill follows 1st-order kineticsunder specified treatment conditions. Each antimicrobial solution was challengedwith approximately 108 CFU/mL of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes,Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, and Escherichia coli independently and intriplicate. Test systems were sampled at each of the 10 time points over a periodof 7 min, neutralized, pour plated then incubated at 35 °C for 48 h (AOACofficial method 960.09). Survival curves using the log-transformed data werecalculated using regression analysis. Correlations coefficients for all linearregression analyses ranged between 0.291 and 0.982, with 6 of the 16 differenttreatment systems having an R2 value below 0.7. Methods used for calculatingD-values should lead to the same result if the survival curve in a givencondition is linear. The calculated D-values were different using endpointanalysis (Stumbo method), linear regression, and average of multiple endpoints.This study demonstrates the nonlinearity of inactivation curves of www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  13. 13. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better antimicrobials. D-value estimations cannot be reliably used to illustratebiocidal activity in antimicrobial test systems.PMID: 21535698 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]4. J Food Prot. 2010 Dec;73(12):2169-79.Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite asdecontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and SalmonellaTyphimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beefat the purveyor.Echeverry A, Brooks JC, Miller MF, Collins JA, Loneragan GH, Brashears MM.Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Box 42141,Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA.After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meatproducts contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety andInspection Service published notice requiring establishments producingmechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beef products to reassess theirrespective hazard analysis and critical control point systems, due to potentialrisk to the consumers. The objective of this study was to validate the use oflactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and lactic acid (LA)sprays when applied under a simulated purveyor setting as effective interventionsto control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 ininoculated U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Choice strip loins (longissimuslumborum muscles) pieces intended for either mechanical blade tenderization orinjection enhancement with a brine solution after an aging period of 14 or 21days at 4.4°C under vacuum. After the mechanical process, translocation of E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from the surface into the internalmuscles occurred at levels between 1.00 and 5.72 log CFU/g, compared withcontrols. LAB and LA reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads up to 3.0 log, whileASC reduced the pathogen 1.4 to 2.3 log more than the control (P < 0.05),respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 was also reduced internally 1.3 to2.8, 1.0 to 2.3, and 1.4 to 1.8 log after application of LAB, LA, and ASC,respectively. The application of antimicrobials by purveyors prior to mechanicaltenderization or enhancement of steaks should increase the safety of these typesof products.PMID: 21219733 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]5. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010 Nov;57 Suppl 1:16-22. doi:10.1111/j.1863-2378.2010.01359.x.Slaughterfloor decontamination of pork carcases with hot water or acidifiedsodium chlorite - a comparison in two Australian abattoirs.Hamilton D, Holds G, Lorimer M, Kiermeier A, Kidd C, Slade J, Pointon A. www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  14. 14. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better South Australian Research and Development Institute, Food Safety ResearchProgram, Adelaide, SA, Australia. david.hamilton@sa.gov.auA decontamination trial on the effectiveness of hot water or acidified sodiumchlorite (SANOVA) treatment on Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Total ViableCount (TVC) was undertaken on pork carcases prior to primary chilling in twolarge pork abattoirs in Australia using belly-strip excision sampling. A total of123 samples from Abattoir A and 400 samples from Abattoir B were cultured andanalysed. Test pigs were selected from herds with a known high level of on-farmSalmonella infection. At Abattoir A, Salmonella spp. were not isolated fromcarcases. The prevalence of E. coli on control carcases was 92.9% compared with9.8% for hot water and 12.5% for SANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) E.coli concentration for control carcases was 0.89 cfu/gram, compared with -0.83cfu/gram from hot water and -0.75 cfu/gram from SANOVA treated carcases. The meanlog(10) TVC for control carcases was 4.06 compared with 1.81 cfu/gram for hotwater and 2.76 cfu/gram for SANOVA treated carcases. At Abattoir B, theprevalence of Salmonella on control carcases was 16% compared with 2.7% for hotwater and 7.0% for SANOVA treated carcases. The prevalence of E. coli on controlcarcases was 69.3% compared with 22% for hot water and 30% for SANOVA treatedcarcases. The mean log(10) E. coli concentration for control carcases was 0.45cfu/gram, compared with -0.65 cfu/gram from hot water and -0.60 cfu/gram fromSANOVA treated carcases. The mean log(10) TVC for control carcases was 3.00cfu/gram compared with 2.10 cfu/gram for hot water and 2.53 cfu/gram for SANOVAtreated carcases. The reductions in prevalence and mean log(10) concentrations inthe present trial were all found to be statistically significant and indicatethat carcases decontamination with either hot water or SANOVA are effective riskmanagement options immediately available to the pork industry.PMID: 21083814 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]6. J Food Sci. 2010 Aug 1;75(6):M377-82.Localization, growth, and inactivation of Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeñopeppers.Liao CH, Cooke PH, Niemira BA.Eastern Regional Research Center, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Wyndmoor, PA 19038,USA.Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has been implicated inone of the largest foodborne illness outbreaks in the summer of 2008. Theobjective of this study was to investigate representative groups of nativemicroflora and the distribution, growth, and inactivation ofexperimentally-inoculated Salmonella Saintpaul on jalapeño peppers. Twogenetically modified strains of Salm. Saintpaul producing either green- orred-fluorescent protein were constructed and used in the study. Microbiologicalanalyses showed that jalapeño peppers contained an average of 5.6 log units oftotal aerobic count and 3.5, 1.8, and 1.9 log units, respectively, ofenterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and yeast/mold per gram of tissue.Strains typical of Pseudomonas accounted for 8.3% of total aerobic count, and0.2% of which exhibited pectolytic activity. On inoculated peppers, a vast www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  15. 15. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better majority (>90%) of Salm. Saintpaul was recovered from stem/calyx and only a smallproportion recovered from fleshy pods. Growth of Salm. Saintpaul on peppers wasindicated by an increase in the population of 3 log units after incubation ofsamples at 20 degrees C for 48 h. Fluorescent Salm. Saintpaul aggregates could bereadily detected on stem/calyx using stereofluorescence imaging microscopy andscanning electron microscopy. Data presented showed that Salm. Saintpaul couldsurvive for at least 8 wk on peppers stored at 4 degrees C. Immersion ofinoculated peppers in 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite, acidified sodium chlorite,or peroxy acetic acid for 10 min could reduce the number of Salm. Saintpaul onstem/calyx by 1.5 to 1.7 and that on flesh by 2.1 to 2.4 log units. PracticalApplication: Consumption of Salmonella-contaminated jalapeño peppers has beenimplicated in foodborne illness outbreaks. The vast majority of SalmonellaSaintpaul recovered from inoculated jalapeño peppers (>90%) was from stem/calyx.Salmonella increased by 3 log units during storage at 68 degrees F (20 degrees C)for 48 h. Salmonella could survive for at least 8 wk on peppers stored at 4degrees C. Immersion of inoculated peppers in 200 ppm of sodium hypochlorite,acidified sodium chlorite, or peroxyacetic acid for 10 min reduced Salmonella onstem/calyx by 1.5 to 1.7 log units, compared with reductions of 2.1 to 2.4 logunits on flesh. These results highlight the need to consider the stem/calyx asthe most likely area for contamination of jalapeño peppers, and to process thiscommodity accordingly to minimize exposure and cross-contaminations.PMID: 20722940 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]7. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010 Dec;7(12):1481-9. Epub 2010 Aug 12.Comparison of the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and sodiumhypochlorite in reducing Escherichia coli.Elano RR, Kitagawa T, Bari ML, Kawasaki S, Kawamoto S, Inatsu Y.Division of Microbiology, Food Development Center, Taguig City, Philippines.This study was designed to compare the effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite(ASC) and sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) in reducing several Escherichia colistrains isolated from different retail meat and fresh produce. Fortynonpathogenic E. coli strains were isolated and used in this study. A type strainof E. coli (JCM 1649) and four O157:H7 serotypes of E. coli (CR-3, MN-28, MY-29,and DT-66) were used as reference. In vitro assay results revealed that theviable cell counts of each isolated E. coli strain and control strains exhibiteda reduction of ∼ 4.3 ± 0.9 log and 7.8 ± 1.7 log CFU/mL after a 3-minute exposureto 100 mg/L NaClO and 20 mg/L ASC (pH 4.6), respectively, at 25°C, when comparedwith the viable bacterial counts obtained from phosphate-buffered saline. The oneexception was the flocs-forming strain, which showed a reduction of only 1.0 logCFU/mL with both disinfectants. However, reductions of only 1.7 ± 0.3 log and 1.9± 0.4 log CFU/g were observed in lettuce after 5 minutes of washing with NaClOand ASC, respectively. On the other hand, reductions of 1.6 ± 0.2 log and 1.6 ±0.4 log CFU/g were observed in spinach after 5 minutes of washing with NaClO andASC, respectively. No reduction in the population was observed after washing theinoculated, fresh-cut vegetables with distilled water only. No significantdifference in the reduction of E. coli was observed among all the tested strainswith both sanitizers in the in vivo assay. These data suggest that the tested www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  16. 16. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better sanitizers exhibit a similar reduction of the surface-attached E. coli on leafyvegetables irrespective of the strain source.PMID: 20704504 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]8. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010 Oct;7(10):1217-23.Combined effect of low-dose irradiation and acidified sodium chlorite washing onEscherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on mung bean seeds.Nei D, Bari ML, Inatsu Y, Kawasaki S, Todoriki S, Kawamoto S.Food Hygiene Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Kannondai 2-1-12,Tsukuba, Japan. nei@affrc.go.jpThe effect of low-dose irradiation (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) in combination withacidified sodium chlorite (ASC) on the reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 onmung bean seeds was examined. Washing with ASC (0.2, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.2 g/L sodiumchlorite and 1.0 g/L citric acid) for 2 h reduced the E. coli O157:H7 populationfrom 5.2 to 2.3-3.3 log CFU/g, depending on the concentrations of sodiumchlorite. Gamma ray irradiation at 0.75 and 1.5 kGy resulted in reductions ofabout 1.8 and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. Therefore, a single treatment with ASCwashing or gamma ray irradiation at 0.75 or 1.5 kGy could not achieve thecomplete elimination of E. coli O157:H7 on mung bean seeds. Conversely, low-doseirradiation (0.75 and 1.5 kGy) followed by washing with ASC (0.5-1.2 g/L) reducedthe population of E. coli O157:H7 to below the detection limit (<1 log CFU/g).However, E. coli O157:H7 was detected in most samples in the enrichment andgermination studies. When the treatment order was reversed (ASC washing followedby low-dose irradiation), the E. coli O157:H7 population was also observed to bebelow the detection limit. Under this treatment, fewer samples (16.7%) were shownto be positive in the enrichment and germination studies, and completeelimination was not achieved. The germination rates of mung bean seeds were notaffected by ASC washing and gamma irradiation; however, the yield and length ofsprouts were decreased by gamma irradiation.PMID: 20618086 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]9. Plant Physiol. 2010 Sep;154(1):121-33. Epub 2010 Jun 30.Imaging cell wall architecture in single Zinnia elegans tracheary elements.Lacayo CI, Malkin AJ, Holman HY, Chen L, Ding SY, Hwang MS, Thelen MP.Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory,Livermore, California 94550, USA.The chemical and structural organization of the plant cell wall was examined inZinnia elegans tracheary elements (TEs), which specialize by developing prominentsecondary wall thickenings underlying the primary wall during xylogenesis invitro. Three imaging platforms were used in conjunction with chemical extraction www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  17. 17. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better of wall components to investigate the composition and structure of single ZinniaTEs. Using fluorescence microscopy with a green fluorescent protein-taggedClostridium thermocellum family 3 carbohydrate-binding module specific forcrystalline cellulose, we found that cellulose accessibility and binding in TEsincreased significantly following an acidified chlorite treatment. Examination ofchemical composition by synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infraredspectromicroscopy indicated a loss of lignin and a modest loss of otherpolysaccharides in treated TEs. Atomic force microscopy was used to extensivelycharacterize the topography of cell wall surfaces in TEs, revealing an outergranular matrix covering the underlying meshwork of cellulose fibrils. Theinternal organization of TEs was determined using secondary wall fragmentsgenerated by sonication. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the resultingrings, spirals, and reticulate structures were composed of fibrils arranged inparallel. Based on these combined results, we generated an architectural model ofZinnia TEs composed of three layers: an outermost granular layer, a middleprimary wall composed of a meshwork of cellulose fibrils, and inner secondarywall thickenings containing parallel cellulose fibrils. In addition to insightsin plant biology, studies using Zinnia TEs could prove especially productive inassessing cell wall responses to enzymatic and microbial degradation, thus aidingcurrent efforts in lignocellulosic biofuel production.PMCID: PMC2938135PMID: 20592039 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]10. Meat Sci. 2009 May 27. [Epub ahead of print]The impact of single antimicrobial intervention treatment with potassium lactate,sodium metasilicate, peroxyacetic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite onnon-inoculated ground beef lipid, instrumental color, and sensorycharacteristics.Quilo SA, Pohlman FW, Dias-Morse PN, Brown AH, Crandall PG, Baublits RT, AparicioJL.Department of Animal Science, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701,USA.The effect of using potassium lactate, sodium metasilicate, acidified sodiumchlorite, or peroxyacetic acid as a single antimicrobial intervention on groundbeef instrumental color, sensory color and odor characteristics, and lipidoxidation was evaluated. Prior to grinding, beef trimmings (90/10) were treatedwith 3% potassium lactate (KL), 4% sodium metasilicate (NMS), 200-ppmperoxyacetic acid (PAA), 1000-ppm acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), or leftuntreated (CON). Ground beef under simulated retail display was measured at 0, 1,2, 3, and 7 of display for instrumental color, sensory characteristics, TBARSvalues, and pH to evaluate the impact of the treatments. The KL, NMS, PAA, andASC were redder (a( *); P<0.05) than CON. All treatments were scored by sensorypanelists to have a brighter (P<0.05) red color than CON during days 1-3 ofdisplay. All treatments had less (P<0.05) lipid oxidation than CON on days 0, 3,and 7 of display. These results suggest that the use of these antimicrobialcompounds on beef trimmings prior to grinding may not adversely affect, and mayimprove bulk packaged ground beef quality characteristics. www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  18. 18. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life BetterPMID: 20416716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]11. Foodborne Pathog Dis. 2010 Jun;7(6):629-35.Effectiveness of acidified sodium chlorite and other sanitizers to controlEscherichia coli O157:H7 on tomato surfaces.Inatsu Y, Kitagawa T, Bari ML, Nei D, Juneja V, Kawamoto S.National Food Research Institute, NARO, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan.inatu@affrc.go.jpThe use of a suitable sanitizer can reduce the risk of produce-related foodborneillnesses. We evaluated the effectiveness of several sanitizers to reduceinoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on the surface of cherry tomatoes (Solanumlycopersicum var. cerasiform). Depending on the method of inoculation(dipping/spotting), each of 80 g (eight tomatoes) of inoculated cherry tomatoeswas washed in 400 mL of sanitizer solutions or 400 mL distilled water for 5minutes. The effectiveness of sanitizers on spot-inoculated E. coli O157:H7 ontomato surfaces was found higher than on dip-inoculated tomatoes. Washing withwater or chlorine water (0.1 g/L as free chlorine) could reduce 1.3 log CFU/g ofE. coli O157:H7 in dip-inoculated (6.8 log CFU/g) tomatoes. Washing with lacticacid (LA) solution (1.0 g/L), phytic acid solution (1.0 g/L), calcinatedseashells (oyster/sakhalin surf clam), and 1.0 g/L chitosan in 0.5 g/L LA (Chito)did not exhibit a significant higher effectiveness than that of water wash alone(1.0 log CFU/g). Acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) solution prepared from 0.5 g/Lof sodium chlorite and 1.0 g/L LA or phytic acid reduced 3.5 log CFU/g of E. coliO157:H7 in dip-inoculated tomato surfaces. ASC (0.5 g/L of sodium chlorite and1.0 g/L of LA) wash followed by a second wash with LA exhibited an additionalsanitary effectiveness compared to a single wash with ASC. However, washing withASC followed by a second wash with Chito exhibited an additional 1.0 log CFU/greduction compared to a secondary wash with water. No significant difference ofcolor, taste, and texture was observed among the washed cherry tomatoes.PMID: 20113205 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]12. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010 Feb 28;137(2-3):130-6. Epub 2009 Dec 3.Effects of exposure to poultry chemical decontaminants on the membrane fluidityof Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains.Alonso-Hernando A, Alonso-Calleja C, Capita R.Area de Nutrición y Bromatología, Departamento de Higiene y Tecnología de losAlimentos, Universidad de León, Spain.There is a lack of work comparing the influence of various poultry chemicaldecontaminants on the membrane fluidity of pathogenic bacteria. In order toassess the possible role of physical membrane changes on bacterial adaptation todecontaminants, fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  19. 19. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better was measured in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica strains before andafter growth in the presence of increasing sub-lethal concentrations ofdecontaminants (trisodium phosphate - TSP, acidified sodium chlorite - ASC,citric acid - CA and peroxyacids - PA). Higher (P<0.05) anisotropy values (lowermembrane fluidity) were observed, both before and after exposure todecontaminants, in strains of L. monocytogenes (average 0.206+/-0.008) than inthose of S. enterica (0.188+/-0.013). Cells exposed to sub-inhibitoryconcentrations of acid decontaminants (CA or PA) showed higher (P<0.05)anisotropy values and percentages of survival to acid stress than unexposedcells, suggesting that adaptation to these compounds is related to changes inmembrane fluidity. Minimal changes in anisotropy values were observed aftergrowth in presence of TSP or ASC. After treatment with strong concentrations ofacid decontaminants (0.05 and 1% ASC, 5% and 10% CA, and 0.1 and 0.25% PA) thehighest anisotropy values (highest membrane rigidity) were shown by cellspreviously grown with sub-inhibitory concentrations of CA or PA, suggesting thatthe synergistic effects of successive applications of various acids should beminimized. Because of the relationship between high membrane rigidity and highresistance to different stresses, the fact that it is essential to ensureadequate, inhibitory, CA or PA concentrations during poultry decontaminationtreatments is underlined.PMID: 20056288 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]13. J Food Prot. 2009 Dec;72(12):2453-60.Use of chemical sanitizers to reduce microbial populations and maintain qualityof whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe.Fan X, Annous BA, Keskinen LA, Mattheis JP.U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Eastern RegionalResearch Center, Wyndmoor, Pennsylvania 19038, USA. xuetong.fan@ars.usda.govWhole cantaloupes either not inoculated or inoculated with Salmonella Poona weresubmerged in water, 180 ppm of chlorine, acidified calcium sulfate (ACS: 1.2%Safe(2)O-ACS50), 1,000 ppm of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), 80 ppm ofperoxyacetic acid (PAA), and a combination of ACS and PAA for 10 min. Althoughonly ASC and the combination of ACS and PAA significantly reduced the aerobicplate count of samples taken from the surface of whole cantaloupe (compared withsamples taken from cantaloupe submerged in water only), all treatments reducedyeast and mold counts on the whole cantaloupe. However, none of the treatments ofwhole cantaloupes consistently reduced yeast and mold counts for the samples offresh-cut cantaloupes. The aerobic plate counts for fresh-cut cantaloupe werereduced by 1 to 2 log CFU/g by sanitization of whole fruit with ASC, ACS, and thecombination of ACS and PAA. The low bacterial population on the fresh-cut fruitwas maintained during 14 days of storage at 4 degrees C. All treatments had alimited effect on the population of Salmonella, achieving no more than a 1.5-logreduction of the pathogen inoculated on the surface of the whole cantaloupes.Salmonella was nondetectable via direct plating (with a detection limit of 0.4log CFU/g) in fresh-cut cantaloupes prepared from whole cantaloupes treated withany of the sanitizers. However, after enrichment, Salmonella often wasdetectable. Color, texture, soluble solids, pH, ascorbic acid, and drip loss of www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  20. 20. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better cut cantaloupes were not consistently affected by any of the whole- fruittreatments. Overall, treatments of whole cantaloupe with ASC, ACS, and thecombination of ACS and PAA at the concentrations tested permitted a significantreduction in Salmonella and native microflora of whole and cut fruit; however,Salmonella still could be found in cut cantaloupes from all treatments.PMID: 20003725 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]14. Food Microbiol. 2009 Dec;26(8):905-9. Epub 2009 Jun 21.Comparative analysis of acid resistance in Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonellaenterica strains before and after exposure to poultry decontaminants. Role of theglutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system.Alonso-Hernando A, Alonso-Calleja C, Capita R.Area de Nutrición y Bromatología, Escuela Superior y Técnica de IngenieríaAgraria, Universidad de León, 24400-Ponferrada, León, Spain.Data on the ability of chemical poultry decontaminants to induce an acid stressresponse in pathogenic bacteria are lacking. This study was undertaken in orderto compare the survival rates in acid broths of Listeria monocytogenes andSalmonella enterica strains, both exposed to and not exposed to decontaminants.The contribution of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) acid resistance system tothe survival of bacteria in acid media was also examined. Four strains (L.monocytogenes serovar 1/2, L. monocytogenes serovar 4b, S. enterica serotypeTyphymurium and S. enterica serotype Enteritidis) were tested before (control)and after exposure to trisodium phosphate, acidified sodium chlorite, citricacid, chlorine dioxide and peroxyacids (strains were repeatedly passed throughmedia containing increasing concentrations of a compound). Stationary-phase cells(10(8) cfu/ml) were inoculated into tryptic soy broth (TSB) acidified with citricacid (pH 2.7 and 5.0) with or without glutamate (10 mM) added, and incubated at37 degrees C for 15 min. Survival percentages (calculated from viable colonies)varied from 2.47 +/- 0.67% to 91.93 +/- 5.83%. L. monocytogenes cells previouslyexposed to acid decontaminants (citric acid and peroxyacids) showed, when placedin acid TSB, a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of survival (average 38.80 +/-30.52%) than control and pre-exposed to non-acidic decontaminants strains (22.82+/- 23.80%). Similar (P > 0.05) survival percentages were observed in previouslyexposed to different decontaminants and control Salmonella strains. The GAD acidresistance system did not apparently play any role in the survival of L.monocytogenes or S. enterica at a low pH. This study demonstrates for the firsttime that prior exposure to acidic poultry decontaminants increases thepercentage of survival of L. monocytogenes exposed to severe acid stress. Theseresults have important implications for the meat industry when considering whichdecontaminant treatment to adopt.PMID: 19835779 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]15. J Food Sci. 2009 Aug;74(6):M308-13. www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  21. 21. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better Ultrasound enhanced sanitizer efficacy in reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7population on spinach leaves.Zhou B, Feng H, Luo Y.Dept. of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,Urbana, IL 61801, USA.The use of ultrasound to enhance the efficacy of selected sanitizers in reductionof Escherichia coli O157 : H7 populations on spinach was investigated.Spot-inoculated spinach samples were treated with water, chlorine, acidifiedsodium chlorite (ASC), peroxyacetic acid (POAA), and acidic electrolyzed waterwith and without ultrasound (21.2 kHz) for 2 min at room temperature. The effectsof ultrasound treatment time and acoustic energy density (AED) were evaluated atan ASC concentration of 200 mg/L. The effect of ASC concentration, with a fixedAED of 200 W/L, was also examined. Microbial analysis indicated that ASC reducedE. coli O157 : H7 population by 2.2 log cycles over that of water wash, while thereduction from other sanitizers was about 1 log cycle. Ultrasonicationsignificantly enhanced the reduction of E. coli cells on spinach for alltreatments by 0.7 to 1.1 log cycle over that of washes with sanitizer alone. Anincrease in the ASC concentration enhanced the efficacy of the combined treatmentof ASC and ultrasonication, especially at ASC concentrations of < 300 mg/L.Increasing the ultrasound treatment time from 0 to 4 min and AED from 0 to 500W/L were both effective in increasing the effectiveness of the ASC and ultrasoundcombined treatments. In addition, E. coli O157 : H7 inoculated on the undersideof spinach leaves (rough side) were more difficult to remove than thoseinoculated on the upper side (smooth side).PMID: 19723216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]16. J Food Prot. 2009 Aug;72(8):1616-23.Validation of intervention strategies to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 andSalmonella typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced beef.Echeverry A, Brooks JC, Miller MF, Collins JA, Loneragan GH, Brashears MM.Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Box 42141,Lubbock, Texas 79409, USA.After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meatproducts contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Department ofAgriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiringestablishments producing mechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beefproducts to reassess their respective hazard analysis and critical control pointsystem, due to potential risk to the consumers. The purpose of this study was todetermine the effectiveness of different intervention strategies (lactic acid,lactic acid bacteria, and acidified sodium chlorite) to control E. coli O157:H7and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage type 104 inmechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced beef strip loins when applied to thesteaks prior to packaging and shipment for processing. After the mechanicalprocess, translocation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.
  22. 22. ND Pharma & Biotech Making Life Better the surface into the internal muscles occurred at levels between 2.0 and 4.0 logCFU/g (from an initial inoculation level of 5.0 log) after mechanicaltenderization, and at levels of 1.0 to 3.0 log CFU/g after injection, with allthe interventions consistently presenting lower microbial counts (P < 0.05) thandid the controls. Lactic acid bacteria reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads 1.2to > 2.2 log cycles, while the acidified sodium chlorite and lactic acid reducedthem between 0.8 and 3.0 log, respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 wasalso reduced internally after application of all interventions between 0.9 and2.2 log. The application of antimicrobials to the steaks prior to packaging andshipment on day 0 was effective in reducing internalization of both pathogens innonintact beef products stored for both 14 and 21 days.PMID: 19722392 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]17. J Food Sci. 2009 May-Jul;74(4):M159-64.Acidified sodium chlorite as an alternative to chlorine for elimination ofsalmonella on alfalfa seeds.Liao CH.Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Dept. ofAgriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038, USA.ChingHsing.liao@ars.usda.govThe health and environmental hazard associated with the use of chlorine for foodprocessing has been documented previously. This study was conducted to determineif acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) could be used to replace calcium hypochlorite(Ca[OCl](2)) for disinfection of alfalfa seeds. Contaminated seeds containingapproximately 1.5 x 10(7) CFU/g of Salmonella were treated with ASC or Ca(OCl)(2)at different concentrations and for different periods of time. Results showedthat the efficacy of ASC and Ca(OCl)(2) for elimination of Salmonella oncontaminated seeds could be improved greatly by extending the treatment time fromthe traditional 15 to 45 min. Treatment of seeds with 800 ppm of ASC for 45 minreduced the number of Salmonella by 3.9 log units, approximately 1.2 log unitshigher than that treated with 20000 ppm of Ca(OCl)(2). Treatment of seeds with alower concentration (100 to 400 ppm) of ASC for 45 min reduced the number ofSalmonella by 1.3 to 2.2 log units. Soaking alfalfa seeds in 800 ppm of ASC for45 min did not affect seed germination. However, soaking seeds in 20000 ppm ofCa(OCl)(2) for 45 min reduced seed germination by 20%. Unlike Ca(OCl)(2),antimicrobial efficiency of ASC was not affected by pre-exposure to alfalfaseeds. Data presented also showed that Salmonella on newly inoculated seeds thathad been stored at 4 degrees C for less than 7 d were more sensitive to sanitizertreatment than those on seeds that had been stored for 4 wk or longer.PMID: 19490333 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]18. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009 Jun 30;132(2-3):134-40. Epub 2009 Apr 16.Efficacy of chlorine, acidic electrolyzed water and aqueous chlorine dioxide www.ndpharmabiotech.com ndpharmabiotech@europe.comND Pharma & Biotech is a leading company in natural food preservation, fine chemicals, organic chemistry, bio-pharmaceutical and biotechnology company with years experience in the development, manufacturingand marketing of these products in a broad range of industries. ND Pharma & Biotech operates production plants in the USA, Spain, Latin America and China (Mainland) and markets its products through aworldwide network of sales offices and distributors. ND Pharma & Biotech is headquartered in Spain.© Copyright 2011. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied, downloaded, reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanicalphotocopied, recorded or otherwise, without permission of the publisher. No representation or warranty is made as to the truth or accuracy of any data, information or opinions contained herein or as to theirsuitability for any purpose, condition or application. None of the data, information or opinions herein may be relied upon for any purpose or reason. ND Pharma & Biotech disclaims any liability, damages, losses orother consequences suffered or incurred in connection with the use of the data, information or opinions contained herein. In addition, nothing contained herein shall be construed as a recommendation to use anyproducts in conflict with existing patents covering any material or its use.

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