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The world copper factbook 2012

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Resumen de los datos más importantes de la industria del cobre en 2012.

Resumen de los datos más importantes de la industria del cobre en 2012.

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  • 1. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production World Copper Mine Production, 1900-2011 (thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Concentrates SX-EW Since 1900, when world production was less than 500 thousand tonnes copper, world copper mine production has grown by around 3% per year to reach over 16 million tonnes in 2011. SX-EW production, virtually non-existent before the 1960s, reached nearly 3.4 million tonnes copper in 2011.International Copper Study Group 8
  • 2. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production by Region, 1960, 1980 & 2011p* Copper Mine Productionmetric tonnes copper) 1980 & 2011p (Thousand by Region, 1960, (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Source: ICSG 1960 1980 2011p 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Africa Asia Europe Latin America North Oceania America From less than 750 thousand tonnes copper in 1960, copper mine production in Latin America surged to around 7 million tonnes in 2011. *preliminary dataInternational Copper Study Group 9
  • 3. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Mine Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p (Thousand metric tonnes) Source: ICSG Chile China Peru United States Australia Russian Fed. Zambia Canada Indonesia Mexico Congo Poland Kazakhstan Iran Brazil Papua New Guinea Laos Mongolia Argentina Bulgaria 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 Chile accounted for over one-third of world copper mine production in 2011 with mine output of nearly 5.3 million tones copper.International Copper Study Group 10
  • 4. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Copper Mining Capacity, 1995-2015 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 28,000 26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 - 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Concentrates SX-EW Total Mines Copper mining capacity is estimated to reach 26.2 million tonnes copper in 2015, with 22% being SX-EW production.International Copper Study Group 11
  • 5. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Mines by Capacity, 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSG Rank Mine Country Owner(s) Source Capacity 1 Escondida Chile BHP Billiton (57.5%), Rio Tinto Corp. (30%), Japan Escondida (12.5%) Concs & SX-EW 1,250 Codelco Norte 2 (includes Chuquicamata, Radomiro Chile Codelco Concs & SX-EW 920 Tomic, Mina Ministro Hales project) 3 Grasberg Indonesia P.T. Freeport Indonesia Co. (PT-FI), Rio Tinto Concentrates 750 4 Collahuasi Chile Anglo American (44%), Xstrata plc (44%), Mitsui + Nippon (12%) Concs & SX-EW 520 5 Los Pelambres Chile Antofagasta Plc (60%), Nippon Mining (25%), Mitsubishi Materials (15%) Concentrates 470 6 El Teniente Chile Codelco Concs & SX-EW 434 Taimyr Peninsula (Norilsk/ 7 Russia Norilsk Nickel Concentrates 430 Talnakh Mills) 8 Morenci United States Freeport-McMoRan Inc 85%, 15% affiliates of Sumitomo Corporation Concs & SX-EW 420 BHP Billiton (33.75%), Teck (22.5%), Xstrata plc (33.75%), Mitsubishi Corp. 9 Antamina Peru Concentrates 370 (10%) 10 Andina Chile Codelco Concentrates 300 11 Bingham Canyon United States Kennecott Concentrates 280 PT Pukuafu 20%, Newmont 41.5%, Sumitomo Corp., Sumitomo Metal Mining & 12 Batu Hijau Indonesia Concentrates 250 Mitsubishi Materials 31.5%, PT Multi Daerah Bersaing 7% 12 Kansanshi Zambia First Quantum Minerals Ltd (80%), ZCCM (20%) Concs & SX-EW 250 14 Los Bronces Chile Anglo Amercian 75.5%, Mitsubishi Corp. 24.5% Concs & SX-EW 246 15 Zhezkazgan Complex Kazakhstan Kazakhmys (Samsung) Concentrates 230 16 Olympic Dam Australia BHP Billiton Concs & SX-EW 225 17 Rudna Poland KGHM Polska Miedz S.A. Concentrates 215 18 Sarcheshmeh Iran National Iranian Copper Industry Co. Concs & SX-EW 204 19 Spence Chile BHP Billiton SX-EW 200 20 La Caridad Mexico Mexicana de Cobre S. A. (Grupo Mexico) Concs & SX-EW 195International Copper Study Group 12
  • 6. The World Copper Factbook 2012  Energy: coal is the fuel chosen to power main copper minesConstraints on Copper Supply and processes… climate change may increase costs.  Resource nationalism: It has become a priority for certainWith copper concentrate in strong demand, there has been growing governments to develop their mineral resources that have notinterest in understanding the obstacles that can prevent copper mine been exploited until now. While willing to develop their naturalsupply from coming on-stream. During 2008-2009, the ICSG Secretariat resources, countries might be seeking to extract strong revenueconducted a project on Constraints on New Copper Supply Coming On flows from them. It will be important to balanceStream, with the final project report completed in October 2009. Below royalty/taxation levels with the need to encourage capitalare some of the operational and financial constraints identified from the investment to develop their rising industries.study. For more information about ICSG research related to constraints on  Shipping costs: not an issue for copper... for nowcopper supply, please contact the ICSG Secretariat at mail@icsg.org  Sulphuric acid supply and price: 16% cost factor for SX-EW projects Falling Ore Grades: a serious issue in developed copper areas  Skilled labor: open labor markets would help address this such as the USA and Chile constraint Project finance: cost of capital is a central factor. High interest  Labor strikes: tend to increase when refined prices are high and rates may reduce supply significantly GDP is growing faster, but tend to be longer and less frequent in cool economic times and also when copper prices are down Capital cost overruns: in the past. underestimations of US  High  domestic  costs  if  there  is  “dutch  disease”  (resulting  in   dollar inflation was source of many cost overruns higher exchange rates due in part to strong exports)  Rate between imported inputs and domestic input costs Tax & investment regimes: recent research indicates these are affected by the currency strength of the producer less important than geological endowments  Market power/concentration: risks have moved to the import demand side versus export supply side in recent years Water supply: a critical issue in dry mining districts  Peace and security is also a key factorInternational Copper Study Group 13
  • 7. The World Copper Factbook 2012Copper Smelter Production World Copper Smelter Production, 1976-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 16,000 13,500 11,000 8,500 6,000 1976 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Primary Feed Secondary Feed Smelting is the pyrometallurgical process used to produce copper metal. In 2011, world copper smelter production reached 15.8 million tonnes copper. Recently, the trend to recover copper directly from ores through leaching processes has been on the increase. Primary smelters use mine concentrates as their main source of feed (although some use copper scrap as well). Secondary copper smelters use copper scrap as their feed.International Copper Study Group 14
  • 8. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Copper Smelting Capacity, 1995-2015 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 - 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Flash/Continuous Reverb/Blast/Rotary Modified Reverb/Convert Electric Low Grade EW UnkownInternational Copper Study Group 15
  • 9. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Smelter Production by Region, 1990-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1998 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 1997 1999 2001 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Asia’s  share  of  world  copper  smelter  output  jumped  from  27%  in  1990  to   55% in 2011 as smelter production in China expanded rapidly.International Copper Study Group 16
  • 10. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper Smelter Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Japan Chile Russian Fed. India Germany United States Korean Rep. Poland Zambia Australia Kazakhstan Canada Peru Bulgaria Indonesia Iran Spain Brazil Sweden 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 In 2011, China accounted for around 30% of world copper smelter output, followed by Japan (9%), Chile (9%) and the Russian Federation (5%).International Copper Study Group 17
  • 11. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Smelters by Capacity, 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSGRank Smelter Country Operator/Owner(s) Process Capacity 1 Guixi (smelter) China Jiangxi Copper Corp. Outokumpu Flash 900 2 Birla Copper (Dahej) India Birla Group Outokumpu Flash, Ausmelt, Mitsubishi Continuous 500 3 Codelco Norte (smelter) Chile Codelco Outokumpu/ Teniente Converter 450 3 Saganoseki/ Ooita (smelter) Japan Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd Outokumpu Flash 450 3 Hamburg Germany Aurubis Outokumpu, Contimelt, Electric 450 3 Besshi/ Ehime (Toyo) Japan Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. Outokumpu Flash 450 3 Saganoseki/ Oita (smelter) Japan Pan Pacific Copper Co. Ltd Outokumpu Flash 450 8 El Teniente (Caletones) Chile Codelco Chile Reverberatory/ Teniente Conv. 400 8 Jinchuan (smelter) China Jinchuan Non- Ferrous Metal Co. Reverberatory/ Kaldo Conv. 400 8 Norilsk (Nikelevy, Medny) Russia Norilsk G-M Reverb, Electric, Vanyukov 400 11 Sterlite Smelter (Tuticorin) India Vedanta Isasmelt Process 380 12 Ilo Smelter Peru Southern Copper Corp. (Grupo Mexico 75.1%) Isasmelt Process 360 13 Altonorte (La Negra) Chile Xstrata plc Noranda Continuous 350 Tongling Nonferrous Metals Corp. (57.4%), Sumitomo 13 Jinlong (Tongdu) China Flash Smelter 350 (35%), Pingguo Aluminium Co. 13 Yunnan China Yunnan Copper Industry Group (Local Government) Isasmelt Process 350 Mitsubishi Materials Corp. (49.29%), Dowa Metals & 16 Onahama/ Fukushima Japan Mining Co. Ltd.(31.15%), Furukawa Metals & Resources Reverberatory 322 Co. Ltd. (12.67%) 17 Onsan II Korean Republic LS-Nikko Co. (LS, Nippon Mining) Mitsubishi Continuous 320 17 Huelva Spain Atlantic Copper S.A. (Freeport McMoran) Outokumpu Flash 320 17 Garfield (smelter) United States Kennecott (Rio Tinto) Kennecott/ Outokumpu 320 20 Naoshima/ Kagawa (smelter) Japan Mitsubishi Materials Corp. Mitsubishi Continuous 306International Copper Study Group 18
  • 12. The World Copper Factbook 2012Refined Copper Production World Refined Copper Production, 1960-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 20,000 17,500 15,000 12,500 10,000 7,500 5,000 2,500 0 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 Refinery Primary Refinery Secondary Refinery SX-EW With the emergence of solvent extraction-electrowinning (SX-EW) technology, refined copper produced from leaching ores has been on the rise, increasing from less than 1% of world refined copper production  in  the  late  1960’s  to  17% of world output in 2011.International Copper Study Group 19
  • 13. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Trends in Refined Capacity, 1995-2015 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 28,000 26,000 24,000 22,000 20,000 18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 - 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 Electrolytic Electrowinning Fire Refining This chart shows world copper refinery capacity by refining process. The ratio between production and capacity is called the capacity utilization rate. The world refinery capacity utilization rate was around 80% in 2011.International Copper Study Group 20
  • 14. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Production by Region, 1990-2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 Africa America Asia Europe Oceania Region with the highest output of refined copper in 1990: the Americas (4,250 kt), followed by Europe (3,004 kt) Leading region in the world in 2011: Asia (9,024 kt) as compared to 2,500kt in 1990.International Copper Study Group 21
  • 15. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Refined Copper Production by Country: Top 20 Countries in 2011p Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China Chile Japan United States Russian Fed. Germany India Korean Rep. Poland Zambia Australia Belgium Peru Spain Mexico Congo Kazakhstan Indonesia Canada Iran 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000International Copper Study Group 22
  • 16. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Top 20 Copper Refineries by Capacity, 2011 Thousand metric tones copper Source: ICSG Rank Refinery Country Owner(s) Process Capacity 1 Guixi China Jiangxi Copper Corporation Electrolytic 900 2 Chuquicamata Refinery Chile Codelco Electrolytic 600 3 Yunnan Copper China Yunnan Copper Industry Group (64.8%) Electrolytic 500 3 Birla India Birla Group Hidalco Electrolytic 500 3 Jinchuan China Jinchuan Non Ferrous Co. Electrolytic 500 6 Codelco Norte (SX-EW) Chile Codelco Electrowinning 470 7 Toyo/Niihama (Besshi) Japan Sumitomo Metal Mining Co. Ltd. Electrolytic 450 7 Amarillo United States Grupo Mexico Electrolytic 450 9 El Paso (refinery) United States Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc. Electrolytic 415 10 Las Ventanas Chile Codelco Electrolytic 400 Tongling NonFerrous Metal Corp. 52 %, Sharpline International 13%, 10 Jinlong (Tongdu) (refinery) China Electrolytic 400 Sumitomo Corp. 7.5%, Itochu Corp. 7.5% 12 Hamburg (refinery) Germany Aurubis Electrolytic 395 13 Sterlite Refinery India Vedanta Electrolytic 380 13 Pyshma Refinery Russia Uralelectromed (Urals Mining & Metallurgical Co.) Electrolytic 380 15 CCR Refinery (Montreal) Canada Xstrata plc Electrolytic 370 16 Ilo Copper Refinery Peru Southern Copper Corp. Electrolytic 360 16 Morenci (SX-EW) United States Freeport-McMoRan Copper & Gold Inc./Sumitomo Electrowinning 350 16 Escondida (SX-EW) Chile BHP Billiton (57.5%), Rio Tinto Corp. (30%), Japan Escondida (12.5%) Electrowinning 350 16 Zhangjiagang China Tongling Non Ferrous Co. Electrolytic 350 20 Olen Belgium Aurubis Electrolytic 345 20 Norilsk Refinery Russia Norilsk Nickel Electrolytic 330International Copper Study Group 23
  • 17. The World Copper Factbook 2012Semis Production Copper and Copper Alloy and Casting Production, 1980-2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 27,000 24,000 21,000 18,000 15,000 12,000 9,000 6,000 3,000 0 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Copper Semis Copper Alloy Semis Not specified (1) Foundry Castings (1) Includes all semis production of not specified composition. China data included here since 2009 as no breakdown available Semis fabricators process refinery shapes such as cathodes, wire bar, ingot, billet slab and cake into semi-finished copper and copper alloy products using both unwrought copper materials and direct melt scrap as raw material feed. Semis fabricators are considered to be the  “first   users”  of  refined  copper  and  include  ingot  makers,  master  alloy  plants,  wire  rod  plants,  brass  mills,  alloy  wire  mills,  foundries and foil mills.International Copper Study Group 24
  • 18. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis and Casting Production by Region, 1980 & 2010 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG 16,000 14,000 1980 2010 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0 Africa Asia Europe North America Oceania South America Asia accounted for 66% of semis production in 2010, or more than 15.2 million metric tonnes, up from 22% in 1980.International Copper Study Group 25
  • 19. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper & Copper Alloy Semis Capacity by Region & Product Semis Production Capacity by Region, 2011 (%) Semis Production Capacity by Product, Source: ICSG 2010 vs 2011 (kt gross weight) Source: ICSG Africa Russian Fed. & Central Asia 50,000 1% 5% 45,000 Middle East 40,000 5% 35,000 South Asia & China Oceania 30,000 32% 7% 25,000 Americas 20,000 14% 15,000 10,000 5,000 North Asia (ex- EU27, Norway & China) Switzerland - 15% 21% 2010 2011 Wire Rod PSS RBS Tubes Unclassified Alloy Wire Ingots Foil Powder In 2011, China accounted for the largest share of Wire rod plants are estimated to have accounted world semis capacity production (32%) and the for just under half of all first use capacity in 2011, largest number of semis plants (499). or nearly 21 Mt.International Copper Study Group 26
  • 20. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Copper and Copper Alloy Semis Production Capacity by Country: Top 20 Countries, 2011 Thousand metric tonnes Source: ICSG China USA Japan Germany Korea Italy India Taiwan Russia Turkey France Brazil Belgium Spain Thailand United… Indonesia Egypt Poland Iran 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000International Copper Study Group 27
  • 21. The World Copper Factbook 2012 1Major International Trade Flows of Copper Ores and ConcentratesMajor Trade Flows of CopperOres and Concentrates1Major Exporters of Major Importers ofCopper Ores and Copper Ores andConcentrates, 2010 Concentrates, 20101. Chile 1. China2. Peru 2. Japan3. Indonesia 3. India4. Australia 4. Korean Rep.5. Canada 5. Spain6. Brazil 6. Germany7. Argentina 7. Philippines8. Papua New 8. Bulgaria Guinea 9. Brazil9. Mongolia 10. Finland10. Kazakhstan1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes.
  • 22. The World Copper Factbook 2012Major International Trade of Copper BlisterMajor International Trade Flows of Copper Blister and Anode1and Anode1Major Exporters of Major Importers ofCopper Blister and Copper Blister andAnode, 2010 Anode, 20101. Chile 1. China2. Netherlands 2. Belgium3. Belgium 3. Netherlands4. Finland 4. Australia5. Spain 5. Canada6. Bulgaria 6. Mexico7. Canada 7. Korean Rep.8. Peru 8. Austria9. USA 9. USA10. Armenia 10. Germany1 Figure is intended to illustrate trade flows but not actual trade routes.International Copper Study Group 30
  • 23. The World Copper Factbook 2012 Major Uses of Copper: Usage by Region and End Use Sector, 2010 Basis: copper content, thousand metric tonnes Source: International Copper Association North America Europe 10% Latin 22% America 6% Building Construction 32% Equipment 54% Infrastructure 14% Asia 62%International Copper Study Group 47