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7 l the solar system & beyond (boardworks) 7 l the solar system & beyond (boardworks) Presentation Transcript

  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 58 KS3 Physics 7L The Solar System and Beyond
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 58 7L The Solar System and Beyond Contents Days, years and seasons The Moon The Solar System Summary activities Satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 58 The rotation of the Earth
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 58 How long is one day? 24 hours How long is one year? 365¼ days The Earth spins on its axis, which is tilted at an angle of 23.5 , and also orbits the Sun. This causes day and night and the seasons. Day and night
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 58 sunlight It take the Earth 24 hours to complete one rotation about its axis. Day and night
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 58 What time is it?  It is 04:00 in London. What time is it in other parts of the Earth? Place GMT Time Casablanca +1 Pretoria +2 Antanarivo +3 Philippines +8 05:00 06:00 07:00 12:00 Casablanca Philippines Antanarivo Pretoria
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 58 The seasons summer in the UK winter in the UK autumn in the UK spring in the UK
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 58 What is the season?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 58 east west Copy the diagram above and add two ‘sun lines’ – one line for summer and one line for winter. autumn The position of the Sun and the seasons summer winter
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 58 7L The Solar System and Beyond Contents Days, years and seasons The Moon The Solar System Summary activities Satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 58 The Sun and the Moon look about the same size from Earth, but they are not. The Sun is about 400 times wider than the Moon but is 400 times further away! The Moon takes just over 27 days to orbit the Earth. sunlight The Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 58 sunlight These are called the phases of the Moon These are the views of the Moon from Earth. The Phases of the Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. new Moon The Phases of the Moon – new Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. crescent Moon The Phases of the Moon – crescent Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 58 half Moon This is the view of the Moon from Earth. The Phases of the Moon – half Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. gibbous Moon The Phases of the Moon – gibbous Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. full Moon The Phases of the Moon – full Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. gibbous Moon The Phases of the Moon – gibbous Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. half Moon The Phases of the Moon – half Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 58 This is the view of the Moon from Earth. crescent Moon The Phases of the Moon – crescent Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 58 Phases of the Moon activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 58 1. The Moon does not produce its own light - how can we see it? 2. How long does it take the Moon to orbit the Earth? 3. Why do we always see the same side of the Moon? 4. Why do we only see a full Moon once a month? 5. What is a new Moon? 6. What force keeps the Moon in orbit around the Earth? 7. Why is there very little atmosphere on the Moon? Homework: Find out how the Moon causes tides. Questions about the Moon
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 58 A solar eclipse happens when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth. This casts a shadow over the Earth. The last solar eclipse over the UK was on 11th August 1999. Solar eclipses do not occur very often. A lunar eclipse happens when the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon. This casts a shadow over the Moon. Lunar eclipses happen in most years. Eclipses
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 58 Where must the Moon be for a solar eclipse to take place?During a solar eclipse the Moon moves directly between the Sun and the Earth. What happens during a solar eclipse? During a solar eclipse the Moon blocks the Sun’s rays from reaching part of the Earth.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 58 Always use eclipse viewers, NEVER look directly at the sun. The Earth Viewing a solar eclipse
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 58 Where must the Moon be for a lunar eclipse to take place? During a lunar eclipse the Moon is on the opposite side of the Earth to the Sun. What happens during a lunar eclipse? During a lunar eclipse the Earth blocks the Sun’s light from reaching the Moon.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 58 1. Why do eclipses only last a few minutes? 2. Why do you think ancient people were frightened of eclipses? 3. What causes an eclipse of the Sun (a solar eclipse)? 4. What causes an eclipse of the Moon (a lunar eclipse)? 5. What would a lunar eclipse look like if you were an astronaut standing on the Moon? 6. Draw simple ray diagrams of a: a) solar eclipse b) lunar eclipse Questions about eclipses
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 58 7L The Solar System and Beyond Contents Days, years and seasons The Moon The Solar System Summary activities Satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 58 rocky planets gaseous planets Click on the Sun and each planet to learn more. Skip all planet slides The Solar System
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 58 Sun Mass [x Earth] 333000 Diameter [km] 1392000 Surface temp [ºC] 6000Sun viewed in ‘soft’ X ray return to Solar System The Solar System – the Sun
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 58 Mercury Mass [x Earth] 0.05 Diameter [km] 4,880 Distance from Sun [Million km] 58 Time taken to travel around Sun 88 days Time taken to spin once on axis 59 days 0 moons Surface temp [ºC] 350 return to Solar System The Solar System – Mercury
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200532 of 58 Venus Mass [x Earth] 0.81 Diameter [km] 12,112 Distance from Sun [Million km] 107.5 Time taken to travel around Sun 224 days Time taken to spin once on axis 243 days 0 moons Surface temp [ºC] 460 return to Solar System The Solar System – Venus
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 58 Earth Mass [x Earth] 1 Diameter [km] 12,742 Distance from Sun [Million km] 149.6 Time taken to travel around Sun 365 days Time taken to spin once on axis 24 hours 1 moon Surface temp [ºC] 20 return to Solar System The Solar System – Earth
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 58 Mars Mass [x Earth] 0.11 Diameter [km] 6,790 Distance from Sun [Million km] 228 Time taken to travel around Sun 687 days Time taken to spin once on axis 24h 37m 2 moons Surface temp [ºC] - 23 return to Solar System The Solar System – Mars
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200535 of 58 Jupiter Mass [x Earth] 318 Diameter [km] 142,600 Distance from Sun [Million km] 778 Time taken to travel around Sun 11.9 years Time taken to spin once on axis 9h 50m 63 moons [+ 1 ring] Surface temp [ºC] -120 return to Solar System The Solar system – Jupiter
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200536 of 58 Saturn Mass [x Earth] 95 Diameter [km] 120,200 Distance from Sun [Million km] 1,427 Time taken to travel around Sun 29.5 years Time taken to spin once on axis 10h 14m 46 moons [+ rings] Surface temp [ºC] -180 return to Solar System The Solar System – Saturn
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200537 of 58 Uranus Mass [x Earth] 14.5 Diameter [km] 49,000 Distance from Sun [Million km] 2,870 Time taken to travel around Sun 84 years Time taken to spin once on axis 10h 49m 27 moons [+ rings] Surface temp [ºC] -210 return to Solar System The Solar System – Uranus
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200538 of 58 Neptune Mass [x Earth] 17.5 Diameter [km] 50,000 Distance from Sun [Million km] 4,497 Time taken to travel around Sun 165 years Time taken to spin once on axis 15h 48m 13 moons Surface temp [ºC] -220 return to Solar System The Solar System – Neptune
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200539 of 58 Pluto System Mass [x Earth] 0.003 Diameter [km] 2,284 Distance from Sun [Million km] 5,900 [variable] Time taken to travel around Sun 248 years Time taken to spin once on axis 6.4 days 1 moon Surface temp [ºC] -230 return to Solar System The Solar System – Pluto
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200540 of 58 Which planet?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200541 of 58 Using the information about the Solar System, plot a graph of ‘surface temperature’ [y] against ‘distance from the Sun’ [x]: -300 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 distance from the Sun [million km] surfacetemperature[ºC] What happens to the surface temperature of planets as they get further away from the Sun? Predict the surface temperature of a planet that is 7000 km away from the Sun. Temperature in the Solar System
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200542 of 58 1. Choose a planet you would like to know more about. You cannot choose Earth. 2. Using books or any other sources of information find out five facts about that planet. 3. Design a postcard from that planet. You need to draw a front to the postcard that suits your planet. 4. Write a postcard to someone on Earth as if you are visiting the planet you have chosen. You must use your five facts in your postcard. Planet postcards
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200543 of 58 1. Choose a planet you would like to know more about. 2. Find out about that planet using books and other sources of information. 3. Design a travel brochure to encourage people to come and visit the planet. You could tell people: - how they can get there and how long it will take; - the climate of the planet; - where they will stay; - what sights they can see on the planet. Planet travel guides
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200544 of 58 7L The Solar System and Beyond Contents Days, years and seasons The Moon The Solar System Summary activities Satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200545 of 58 For thousands of years, humans have been fascinated by the night sky and what lays beyond it. Beyond the Solar System
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200546 of 58 Science fiction writers first suggested the idea that artificial satellites could be put into orbit around the Earth. This only became reality in 1957 when the Soviet Union placed Sputnik I and Sputnik II into orbit – Sputnik II carried a live dog called Laika! Today, artificial satellites are frequently launched by space shuttles and unmanned rockets. Satellites – science fiction to science fact Artificial satellites have many uses including communications, satellite TV, weather forecasting and navigation.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200547 of 58 Astronomical satellites, such as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), are large telescopes placed in a high orbit far from the effects of the Earth’s atmosphere. These satellites can ‘see’ much further into space and give us images of stars and galaxies many light years away, like this cartwheel galaxy. Using satellites to view space
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200548 of 58 Our search for answers and clues to the origin of the Solar System and the possibility of life elsewhere led to the development of unmanned space probes. For years, science fiction had brought us stories of Martians - but could they really exist or have existed? On 4th December 1996, NASA launched the ‘Pathfinder’ Discovery Mission to Mars. It cost $150 million and took 7 months to reach Mars. Exploring space – mission to Mars When it had landed, the ‘Sojourner Rover’ buggy tested Mars’ atmosphere, surface and weather, amongst other things.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200549 of 58 Mars Mass [x Earth] 0.11 Diameter [km] 6,790 Distance from Sun [Million km] 228 Time taken to travel around Sun 687 days Time taken to spin once on axis 24 h 37m 2 moons Surface temp [ºC] - 23 Mission to Mars – about the planet
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200550 of 58 The Sojourner Rover Mission to Mars – the Sojourner Rover
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200551 of 58 The tests carried out by the Rover showed that Mars is much more like the Earth than was expected. Was Mars like the Earth until something catastrophic happened? Mission to Mars – tests on Mars
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200552 of 58 Why did the volcanoes stop? Did the gases they gave out kill any Martian life? The tests also showed that the crust of Mars is very similar to continental crust on Earth and that volcanoes had played a part in Mars’ formation. Mission to Mars – volcanoes on Mars
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200553 of 58 Did it rain on Mars? How much water was there on Mars? Was there life in the water? The surface of Mars has undergone intense erosion by massive floods and by strong winds. Mission to Mars – erosion on Mars
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200554 of 58 1. Give two uses of artificial satellites. 2. Why can the Hubble Space Telescope ‘see’ much further into space and produce much clearer images than telescopes on Earth? 3. Why didn’t NASA send astronauts to Mars instead of spending millions of dollars on the ‘Pathfinder’ Discovery Mission? 4. Give two reasons why there is unlikely to be life on Mars. Questions about satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200555 of 58 7L The Solar System and Beyond Contents Days, years and seasons The Moon The Solar System Summary activities Satellites and probes
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200556 of 58 Glossary  axis – The line that the Earth rotates about, which is tilted at an angle of 23.5 .  lunar eclipse – The blocking of the Moon’s light, when the Earth passes between the Sun and the Moon.  luminous – An object that gives out light.  orbit – The path of a planet around the Sun, or the path of a satellite around a planet.  satellite – Any object that orbits another object.  seasons – The different periods of a year caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis.  solar system – A star with planets and other objects orbiting around it.  solar eclipse – The blocking of the Sun’s light, when the Moon passes between the Earth and the Sun.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200557 of 58 Anagrams
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200558 of 58 Multiple-choice quiz