7 d variation & classification (boardworks)
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7 d variation & classification (boardworks)

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  • Note that this activity may raise some discussion, as some of the features are of course affected by both genetics and environment. The answers for this activity have been worked out on the most simple scenario. See the following two slides for a discussion of the more real but a bit more complicated situation. <br />

7 d variation & classification (boardworks) 7 d variation & classification (boardworks) Presentation Transcript

  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20051 of 34 KS3 Biology 7D Variation and Classification
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20052 of 34 7D Variation and Classification Contents Spotting variation What causes variation? Summary activities The classification system
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20053 of 34 What are the differences between these organisms? Spot the differences
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20054 of 34 There are lots of differences between these organisms. For example:  some have leaves;  some lay eggs;  some eat plants. These organisms are different because they are all from different species. Spot the differences
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20055 of 34 There are also differences between organisms of the same species. For example, these people are all from the same species but how many differences between them can you spot? Spot the differences – same species
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20056 of 34 Even though people are all from the same species, there are many ways in which they are different from each other. Some of them are male, some are female, some are tall, some are short. The differences that occur both between different species and within the same species are called variation. What is variation?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20057 of 34 Contents Spotting variation What causes variation? Summary activities The classification system 7D Variation and Classification
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20058 of 34 Variation is caused by two factors: 1. Some features are cause by inherited factors. These are features that are passed on from parents. For example, natural hair colour is an inherited feature. 2. Some features are caused by environmental factors. These are features that are affected by the surroundings. For example, someone can be born with brown hair which then gets lighter in the Sun or might be dyed a different colour. What causes variation?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 20059 of 34 Environmental or inherited?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200510 of 34 Sometimes it is not easy to determine whether a feature is inherited or environmental. Scientists have now decided that only four characteristics are truly inherited and not affected by the environment at all. Can you guess what they are? Environmental or inherited? 1. natural eye colour 2. natural hair colour 3. blood group 4. some inherited diseases
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200511 of 34 Some features are caused by a mixture of inheritance and the environment, for example, nose shape. Someone might have a nose that looks just like their mum’s. How can the environment affect skin colour? What about other features? But if they were in an accident, they might break their nose and put a kink in it. So their initial nose shape was probably inherited but over time it is likely to have been affected by the environment.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200512 of 34 Contents Spotting variation What causes variation? Summary activities The classification system 7D Variation and Classification
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200513 of 34 There is a lot of variation between organisms, but some organisms also have many features in common. How many features common to both cows and dolphins can you think of? Common features Compare a cow and a dolphin, you might think they do not have many things in common but you will be surprised.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200514 of 34 Common features
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200515 of 34 Cows and dolphins have several features in common. Many other organisms also share common features. Scientists use common features to put organisms into groups. Grouping organisms based on their common features is called classification. What is classification?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200516 of 34 Sort these organisms into four groups based on their similarities. Classification – grouping organisms
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200517 of 34 One way that a scientist might have grouped these organisms is to put them into the following four groups: These groups come from the scientific system for classifying organisms. Classification – grouping organisms 1. Plants 2. Birds 3. Mammals 4. Reptiles
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200518 of 34 The classification system begins with very big groups that include a lot of organisms and then moves down to smaller groups made up of fewer organisms. The biggest groups are called the kingdoms. All living things are classified into five different kingdoms. The classification system plants protoctistaanimals monerafungi living things
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200519 of 34 The five kingdoms
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200520 of 34 Which kingdom?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200521 of 34 Classifying animals How can different types of animals be classified?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200522 of 34 Animal classification invertebratesvertebrates animals Invertebrates are animals that do not have a backbone. They have soft inner bodies which are held in shape by a flexible covering of outer cells or by a hard covering called an exoskeleton. Vertebrates are animals that have a backbone. They have a firm body because of the muscles that connect to their skeleton. The animal kingdom is divided into two groups:
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200523 of 34 Animal classification
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200524 of 34 Animal classification – activity
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200525 of 34 Features of vertebrates
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200526 of 34 Which type of vertebrate?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200527 of 34 Which classification group?
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200528 of 34 whaletuna perch shark sprat sturgeon trout flounder salmon seahorse In terms of classification, which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? The odd one out The whale is the odd one out. All of the rest are fish, a whale is a mammal. whale
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200529 of 34 ravenpenguin platypus duck kiwi swan robin eaglepigeon owl In terms of classification which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? The odd one out The platypus is the odd one out. All of the rest are birds, a platypus is a mammal. platypus
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200530 of 34 In terms of classification which of these organisms is the odd one out and why? caterpillar ladybird ant moth horse fly silverfish scorpion cockroach lice cicada The odd one out The scorpion is the odd one out. All of the rest are insects, a scorpion is an arachnid. scorpion
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200531 of 34 Contents Spotting variation What causes variation? Summary activities The classification system 7D Variation and Classification
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200532 of 34 Glossary classification – Sorting living things into groups. environmental variation – Differences between organisms that are due to the environment. inherited variation – Differences between organisms that are due to their parents. invertebrate – An animal without a backbone. kingdom – The largest groups that living things are sorted into. species – A group of organisms that can reproduce with each other to produce viable offspring. variation – The differences between living things. vertebrate – An animal with a backbone.
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200533 of 34 Anagrams
  • © Boardworks Ltd 20041 of 20 © Boardworks Ltd 200534 of 34 Multiple-choice quiz