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This is set of infographics based on the report content (NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES FRAMEWORK STUDY ) for widespread sharing and dissemination. …

This is set of infographics based on the report content (NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES FRAMEWORK STUDY ) for widespread sharing and dissemination.
This report was researched and prepared by CEEW, Delhi

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  • 1. NATIONAL WATER RESOURCES FRAMEWORK STUDY
  • 2. Core Team Senior Policy Adviser & Project Coordinator: Senior International Water Resources & Irrigation Specialist: Senior National Water Resources & Irrigation Specialist: Senior International Water Supply & Regulation Specialist: Senior National Water Supply & Regulation Specialist: Arunabha Ghosh Martin Anthony Burton Rahul Sen Simon Gordon-Walker Anand K. Jalakam Copyright © 2011 Council on Energy, Environment and Water All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission. A report on a national water resources framework study for the Planning Commission, Government of India. This document is a summary presentation of a report prepared by the Council on Energy, Environment and Water with a research team comprising independent experts. The report was commissioned on the request of the Planning Commission of India to the 2030 Water Resources Group, via the International Finance Corporation. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the Council on Energy, Environment and Water or of the 2030 Water Resources Group. The Council on Energy, Environment and Water (CEEW) is an independent, not-for-profit, policy research institution. CEEW works to promote dialogue and common understanding on energy, environment and water issues in India, its region and the wider world, through high quality research, partnerships with public and private institutions, and engagement with and outreach to the wider public. For more information, visit http://www.ceew.in.
  • 3. India’s Usable Supply of Water 1
  • 4. 1. India’s Usable Supply of Water Vs Projected Demand (2030) 2
  • 5. 2. Business-as-Usual Demand Projections Sectoral shift in water demand (in BCM) 3
  • 6. Two premises underlie the need for a sustainable water future 1. 2. 4 India’s usable supply of water by 2030 could fall short of projected demand by 50% Sectoral shift in water demand will add to the stress on available water resources
  • 7. Overview Government asked + Team investigated 5 Insights + Recommendations NWR Framework
  • 8. Overview Government asked + Team investigated •What works 53 Questions •Experiences Insights + Recommendations •Diagnosis •Data •Interconnections NWR Framework Study 6 •Policy & Regulation •Management •Service Delivery •Complementary Interventions Roadmaps for Reforms
  • 9. NWRF Study Planners & Policymakers 7 can use NWRF Study to manage Water Resources Sustainably & Equitably
  • 10. NWRF Study Planners & Policymakers can use State National International NWRF Study to manage Water Resources a comprehensive study across IRRIGATION 8 URBAN & INDUSTRIAL WRM INSTITUTIONAL Sustainably & Equitably
  • 11. NWRFS Focus Areas 9
  • 12. NWRFS Focus Areas Silos? 10
  • 13. NWRFS Focus Areas Sectoral Use & Demand 11 Law, Regulation & Management
  • 14. NWRFS Focus Areas Sectoral Use & Demand Water Utility Performance Law, Regulation, & Management What should be functions of regulators? Effective Public Private Partnerships Addressing intersectoral demand Improving farmer participation and service delivery Implementing Effective regulation Energy -Water Nexus 12
  • 15. Case Studies: International United Kingdom Poland Austria Kyrgyzstan China Spain France Germany Mexico Italy Chile USA 13 Argentina Egypt Turkey Australia
  • 16. Case Studies: India Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Gujarat Maharashtra Karnataka 14 Orissa Chattisgarh Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu
  • 17. Study Outcomes 1. Evidentiary basis for proposing reforms 2. Case Studies 4. Recommendations for 12th FYP 15 3. Answers relevant to policymakers 5. Roadmaps for long term reforms
  • 18. NWRFS Focus Areas Discussion 16
  • 19. Irrigation 1. Re-engaging with Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) 2. Reforming Management in the Irrigation and Drainage (I&D) Sector 3. Performance Management in the I&D Sector 17
  • 20. History: Participatory Irrigation Management in India 18
  • 21. “At the heart of the reform agenda is irrigation management transfer to farmers. As found in countries such as Mexico, Turkey, Chile, and Australia, etc. farmers can better manage and maintain systems than government, and have the direct incentive to do so.....” - Report on the Irrigation Sector (World Bank, 1998) 19
  • 22. WUAs in India Functions • Implementing O&M • Crop planning, crop water budgeting & raising irrigation water demand • Implementing water distribution • Support in estimating and collecting water charges 20 No. of Water User Associations (WUAs) per 1000 Ha
  • 23. Re-engaging with PIM Key Issues Recommendations • ID currently focused on construction rather than MOM (management, operation and maintenance) Short term (12th FYP) • ID staffed with civil engineers rather than water management engineers. • Lack of understanding/ interest in water users and irrigated agriculture. • Very poor standard of training and HRD in ID. • Gain acceptance at all levels in ID/WRD for PIM • Establish WUA Support Units at field level • Provide continuous training and support for WUAs • Change WUA laws to allow for WUA charter, fee setting and collection, etc • Change water tax to a service fee collected by WUAs Long Term (10 – 20 Yrs) • Maintain support to WUAs over 10-15 year transition period until fully institutionalized 21
  • 24. Andhra Pradesh 1984 Andhra Pradesh Pipe Committees formed under AP Irrigation and Command Area Development Act. These Committees prove unsustainable once the CAD programme had withdrawn from the scheme. 1997 AP Government took a policy decision to promote and support PIM and enacted the AP Farmer‘s Management of Irrigation Systems (APFMIS) Act. 22 Lessons for WUAs 1. Have proper legal status 2. Have a proper legal entitlement to water 3. Make WUAs accountable (to the ID) for the water used and area irrigated 4. Investment of time and resources is required in the short term to build WUA capacity 5. To succeed, water users (through WUAs) need to be given more responsibility with associated rights (such as being able to set, collect and utilise service fees independent of the ID)
  • 25. AP - PIM AP PIM PROCESS • Meso-level management model • Participatory Self Assessment (PSA) by WUAs • Participatory Action Planning (PAP) to review performance, annual planning and implementation • Maintenance through 100% tax re-plough + additional budgetary support • Project level water scheduling plan • Kharif planning by farmer organisation and engineers to save about water (20TMC in 2010) • Synchronising crop sowing to reduce water release 23
  • 26. AP - PIM Capacity Building WUOs Strategy for sustainability | FTCs at circle level | Professional Training Coordinators | Exposure visits Irrigation Engineers Management Development Programme | Technical programme including PIM | Exposure visits to farmer managed system Participatory Self-Assessment (PSA) Indicators Administration Sustainability General Body Meeting Water Use Efficiency O&M Works Managing Committee Meeting Tail end Issues Area Under Second Crop Maintenance of Records Water Release Schedule Tax Collection Resolving Conflicts Warabandi Implementation Joint Azmoish Transparency 24 Water Management Innovations in Water Management Additional Resource Mobilisation
  • 27. AP - Enhancing irrigated agriculture productivity Increase in productivity - 15 to 20 % Cost reduction - Rs.1500/- to 2500/on inputs - KC Canal / Krishna Delta Crop diversification to maize in Rabi Higher C/B ratio & duty Zero tillage in maize - Cost reduction Rs.2000/- per acre - Krishna Delta System / SRSP Rotational irrigation in paddy Higher productivity & duty Farmer Field Schools 25
  • 28. AP - Financial Sustainability 26
  • 29. Reforming Management in I&D Budget allocation to I&D (%) has decreased overtime 28
  • 30. Little Irrigation Potential Remains (data for selected states, 2001) Ultimate Irrigation Potential vs. Potential Created vs. Potential Utilised 29 Source: Planning Commission; Central Water Commission, Ministry of Water Resources, Government of India; NWRF Study Working Paper 3, Table 7 , Page 154
  • 31. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Significant growth in ground water pumping 1951 – 2009 Agricultural electric pump sets increased from 26,000 to 16.2 million Agricultural diesel pump sets from 83,000 to 9.2 million No. of pumps (in Thousands) 30000 25000 9,200 20000 Diesel Pumps 15000 Electric Pumps 4,659 10000 16,184 5000 83 3,101 230 0 26 160 1,546 1,618 1951 1961 1972 1982 9,696 8,446 1991 2003 3,568 Years 30 7,237 2009
  • 32. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Vicious circle of energy-ground water circle Power Utilities • • • Financial losses due to low agricultural flat tariff Poor voltage and frequency power supply Huge T&D losses due to power theft & unauthorised pump sets On farm • 31 Water overuse to hedge against poor voltage and infrequent power supply
  • 33. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Agricultural Power Consumption Subsidy 10% of Total cost of supply 240 Billion / yr 25% of India’s fiscal deficit Rs 32
  • 34. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Technical Options HVDS conversion in AP Regulate power supply to agriculture Restricts power theft Continuous and quality power supply 33 Agri Feeder HVDS Conversion Reduces T&D losses BEE certified high efficiency pumps Potentially save 30% power Effect Agri Feeder Separation Pilots in AP Option Jyotirgram Scheme, Gujarat Cases MP and Gujarat : 20-40% power saving Gaothan Scheme, Maharashtra
  • 35. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Comprehensive Agriculture-Demand Side Management Strategy • Separation of Feeders and conversion to HVDS • Rational flat tariff strategy • Replacement of pumps. Improving pumping system efficiency & management • Participatory Groundwater Management (PGM) • Agriculture Extension and Marketing Services (AES) • Improving Water Application Efficiency – micro irrigation & agronomic practices 34
  • 36. Managing Groundwater for Irrigation Ag-DSM Comprehensive Model - Process Legend 35
  • 37. Widening performance gaps in irrigation 36
  • 38. Issues Large no. of small landholdings Low Solutions • Need better understanding within ID of on-farm water management to match supply and demand Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery crop yields • Allocate annual and seasonal volumetric water entitlements water use productivity • Form effective WUAs with O&M staff Inadequate water distribution organisation planning for conjunctive use of SW & GW uptake of modern technologies • Allow, plan and manage for conjunctive use • Increase availability and uptake of modern technologies and improvements (drip irrigation, land levelling, SRI, etc.) Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes 37
  • 39. Issues Top-down approach by ID Lack of service delivery agreements between ID and WUAs Solutions • Create service delivery culture in the ID • Have service delivery agreements between ID Irrigation Issues On farm and WUAs • Link service fees paid to service delivered on individual schemes • Partnership of WUAs and ID for enhanced agricultural production and productivity of water on individual schemes Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes Current payment and service delivery arrangements Ideal service delivery relationships 38
  • 40. Lost Productive Potential Due to Poor O&M Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes 39
  • 41. Issues Solutions Operation ( Main System) • Inadequate • assessment of individual scheme performance. • • use of modern technology for water • management. • discharge measurement in irrigation systems. • on-farm knowledge amongst ID staff of crop and • • irrigation water management. • conjunctive use of SW & GW • Look at system for covering costs of recharging GW from SW Modernise system operation (use RS, GIS, MIS, etc.) Introduce performance management for individual schemes Introduce water audits, assess costs of poor O&M Significantly improve ability to measure, record and utilise discharge data Allow, plan and manage for conjunctive use Maintenance (Main System) Lack of • funds for maintenance • transparency and accountability No Links • between maintenance needs and water • 40 charges between water charges collected and maintenance work carried out on individual systems Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance • • • Use (participative) AMP to identify maintenance, operation and management costs Link maintenance expenditure on a system to service fees collected Quantify costs of failing to properly maintain I&D systems HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes
  • 42. Need for comprehensive asset management Irrigation plan Issues On farm Asset Surveys Create Asset Database Performance Surveys Identify Current Standards and Levels of Service Liaise with Water Users on Level of Service Provision Specify and agree Standards and Level of Service targets Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Formulate Asset Management Plan Assess Water User’s Ability to Pay Finance HR development Maintain Asset Database Implement Asset Management Plan Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes Monitor Implementation of Asset Management Plan 41 Monitor Level of Service Requirement and Provision
  • 43. Issues Fund Allocation top-down inadequate for system MOM Out-dated approach to assessment and collection of water charges (labour intensive) No link water charge and service provided Solutions Irrigation Issues • Convert the water tax to a service fee On farm • Use AMP to make assessments of MOM costs and fees required at (i) on-farm level, (ii) main system level Service delivery • Reduce water tax/service fee transaction costs by allowing WUAs to collect the fee • Look to increase the contribution of water users to system MOM by allowing WUAs to set, collect and utilise service fee, retaining on-farm portion and passing main system portion to ID Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes 42
  • 44. Issues HR management is relatively weak: Solutions Improve HR management by modernising: • lack of timely promotion of the more capable staff • promotion system to encourage more able staff • inadequate training in system operation and maintenance • recruit professionally trained HR personnel • training provided (remote sensing, GIS, MIS, computer scheduling, etc.) Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes 43
  • 45. Issues Current implementation of WALMIs poor: • Solutions Improve the quality of WALMIs: • inadequate number of experienced and skilled trainers • greater support from senior ID management (including more funds) dramatically change staff appointment system upgrade trainers’ knowledge and skills • inappropriate/non-experienced staff transferred to WALMIs • lack of adequate funds • Support ID staff in attending postgraduate courses • relatively few trained irrigation/water management professionals within the ID • Create associated positions to allow staff to apply new knowledge • Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes 44
  • 46. Solutions Issues • • • • • Focused on construction rather than management Few professionals other than civil engineers Top-down attitude to water users Lack of focus on overall scheme performance and outputs Staff are often transferred after 3 years, insufficient time for working knowledge Change • • • Step Changes in Management Effort culture of ID from construction to MOM focus charter of ID to allow employment of a wider range of professionals attitude of ID personnel from seeing farmers as “beneficiaries” to seeing them as customers Develop • • an ethos of service delivery culture of performance based management (adopt benchmarking, as in Maharashtra) Encourage • 45 early promotion of younger and more able staff Irrigation Issues On farm Service delivery Operation ( Main System) Maintenance (Main System) Finance HR development Education and Training Management, Policy & Processes
  • 47. Complementary Interventions Reengaging with PIM: • • • • From construction focus to a MOM focus Focus on service delivery and performance management Change of attitude by ID staff to water users and PIM concept Farmer field schools to enhance irrigated agriculture productivity Reforming I&D and Performance Management in I&D: • Change of culture within ID and farming community to paying by volume delivered. • Development of a service delivery and performance management culture with the ID • Acceptance by state politicians and senior ID managers of the role for management initiatives to increase agricultural production and water use productivity 46
  • 48. Water Resource Management (WRM) 1. 2. Water Resources Management 3. Role of the Water Regulator in WRM 4. 47 Managing Ground Water for Multiple Uses Perspectives on Legal Frameworks for WRM
  • 49. Ground water stress and overdraft All figures in BCM 48
  • 50. GW stress across sectors will increase Domestic & Industrial Demand Projection Across States All figures in BCM 49
  • 51. WRM Ground Water Rights • Under Indian common law there is no property in ground water until it has been the object of an ‘appropriation’ - by being pumped from a bore hole • Transfer of Property Act IV, 1882 and the Land Acquisition Act, 1894 - Right to ground water use is tied to land ownership • Indian Easement Act, 1882, establishes limited links between ground water ownership and land ownership “The right of every owner of land to collect and dispose within his own limits of all water under the land which does not pass in a defined channel and all water on its surface which does not pass in a defined channel.” 50 Legal Frameworks • • • • Ground water Rights Public Trust Doctrine GW Regulation CGWA Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators
  • 52. Public Trust Doctrine for Natural Resources WRM Supreme Court in M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath guides the legal framework governing water resources “Our Indian legal system, which is based on English common law, includes the public trust doctrine as part of its jurisprudence. The State is the trustee of all natural resources, which are by nature meant for public use and enjoyment. Public at large is the beneficiary of the seashore, running waters, airs, forests and ecologically fragile lands. The State as a trustee is under a legal duty to protect the natural resources. These resources meant for public use cannot be converted into private ownership. … Thus, the Public Trust doctrine is a part of the law of the land” The applicability of PTD to groundwater, however, remains unclear due to the two contrary orders pronounced by the Kerala High Court. Perumattty Gram Panchayat vs. State of Kerala (2003) Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages (P) Ltd vs. Perumatty Gram Panchayat (2005 51 Legal Frameworks • • • • Ground water Rights Public Trust Doctrine GW Regulation CGWA Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators
  • 53. WRM Ground Water Regulation • • Authority can declare any area to be a ‘notified area’ if control, regulation, extraction and use of GW is deemed necessary • Anyone (except small and marginal farmers) wishing to sink a well for any purpose within the notified area must obtain a permit from the authority • GW users in the State need a Certificate of Registration recognising its existing use and authorising the continued use of GW Ground Water for Multiple Users • Authority could take steps to ensure that exploitation of GW resources does not exceed the natural replenishment to the aquifers Water Resources Management • 52 State governments have power to restrict construction of groundwater abstraction Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal enacted ground water (regulation) legislation Legal Frameworks • • • • GW Rights Public Trust Doctrine GW Regulation CGWA Role of Water Regulators
  • 54. WRM Ground Water Regulation - CGWA • Central Ground Water Authority constituted under sub-section (3) of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 • Areas of activity • Notification of areas for regulation of GW development • Regulation of GW abstraction by industries • Registration of drilling agencies for assessment of pace of development of GW and regulation of well drilling activities • Representation in the National Coastal Zone Management Authority and other Expert Committees of Ministry of Environment & Forests • Undertaking country-wide mass awareness programmes and training in rain water harvesting for ground recharge “The problem is not in enactment but in enforcement.” 53 Legal Frameworks • • • • GW Rights Public Trust Doctrine GW Regulation CGWA Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators
  • 55. Managing Ground Water: Regional Problem? WRM Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users • Supply side management • Demand side management Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators State of Ground Water in India 54
  • 56. Supply Side Management WRM • More enthusiasm towards augmenting supply of GW resources than containing demand is seen Legal Frameworks • Harvesting rainfall & tanks, dug wells, streams and canals use for GW recharge is becoming increasingly common • Watershed Development programme Watershed development undertaken by various ministries (in million ha) by GoI for GW recharge: 0.07 • 18 • Rs 17035 crore spent on covering 45.4 Mn Ha. cumulatively Rs 36,000 crore for 36 Mn Ha. proposed in 11th FYP 28 Ministry of Agriculture ( Department of Agriculture & Cooperation) Ministry of Rural Development ( Department of Land resources) Ministry of Environment & Forests 55 Source: WP5, Table 9, here you can find the FYP for Rs.17035 crore also Ground Water for Multiple Users • Supply side management • Demand side management Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators No hard evidence of significant and sustained improvement in GW status at sub-basin level
  • 57. Demand Side Management – WRM Participatory Groundwater Management Legal Frameworks Increase in ground water pumping 7% Intermittent decrease in ground water pumping 51% • • Decrease in ground water pumping 42% • APFAMGS Project: 650 villages, 62 hydrological units, 7 drought prone districts Platform of Farmer Water Schools Participatory Hydrological Monitoring: farmers equipped to record & analyse GW level and rainfall data • Environmental Viability Assessment: Farmers equipped to assess GW recharge & utilisation in given unit. • Crop Water Budgeting: Crop selection according to water availability, Crop water budget session at start of the Rabi season for alternative agriculture practices w.r.t GW availability 56 Ground Water for Multiple Users • Supply side management • Demand side management Water Resources Management Role of Water Regulators
  • 58. Gaps in Water Resource Management WRM Accounting for • • All uses: Agriculture, Domestic, Industry and Environment Rise in urban population: 40% by 2030 , 48-60% by 2050 Need for • • • • Professional management of water resources Conjunctive use of surface and groundwater resources Long-term vision on WRM in India Engagement with stakeholders and end-users River Basins • • Many already ‘closed’ Continuous focus on irrigation sector is no longer sustainable Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators 57
  • 59. Phases in River Basin Development WRM Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators 58
  • 60. WRM Water Resource Management Legal Frameworks Management decisions at different phases of development Construct Legislate Enforce Manage demand Empower WRM Time Threats and opportunities: • • • • • • 59 • Reducing reserve for development Increased risk (from droughts) Climate change Management options constrained Involvement of stakeholders Need for dialogue Need for information dissemination Areas for action • Engagement with stakeholders • Re-education of water professionals, politicians and planners • Knowledge management and dissemination • Improved efficiency and productivity of water • Water trading • Institutional reform in the water sector Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators
  • 61. Integrated Planning of Water Resources WRM Benefits • • • • • • • Better utilisation of available water resources Reduction in conflict More intensive, and safe, use of wastewater Improved water quality for both natural and human environment Recovery of depleted groundwater resources Inclusion of a wider range of stakeholders Forum for resolution of crisis situations (natural or man-made) Constraints • • • • • Requires genuine collaboration between agencies, organisations and individuals Planning and decision-making can be more complex and time-consuming Costs may be significant Some stakeholders may need to relinquish power “to the common good” Potential opposition to transparent and accountable decision-making Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators 60
  • 62. WRM Conditions Enabling conditions for WRM Legal Frameworks Political attributes Informational attributes Legal authority Resources Attributes Balanced power Process transparency Adequate powers Human Representation of interests Informational availability Appropriate Institutions Financial Information accessibility Institutional Infrastructure 61 Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators
  • 63. Additional requirements for WRM WRM Institutional Legal Frameworks • A Water Resources Act • To establish the proposed organisational framework • To establish rights to water and conditions of use • To cover both surface and groundwater • An apex coordination body • An executive body • Separation of water resources allocation and water delivery • Consultative bodies to engage local stakeholders in water resource planning, allocation and management 62 Data • Mapping of all water resources (surface and groundwater) • River and stream flow measurements • Lake/reservoir water levels and volumes • Groundwater levels and quality in aquifers • Details of all water abstractions (type of abstraction, use, location, quantities abstracted, etc.) • Wastewater discharges into water bodies (volumes, location, type, quality, etc.) • Flood levels, flows and areas inundated • Type and location of infrastructure (dams, barrages, pump stations, wastewater treatment plants, etc.) Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • Phases in River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators
  • 64. Water Resource Administration WRM Possible Organisational Structure for WRM Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resource Administration Role of Water Regulators 63
  • 65. Alternative governance structures Andhra Pradesh Maharashtra Planning Planning Water Management Committee Council under CM – Board under Chief Secretary Tariff Group of Ministers fix Tariff Regulatory Authority Regulation Regulatory Commission – Quality, service standards and publication of annual audit report Regulation Regulatory Authority assumes basic governance functions WRM Legal Frameworks Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management • Gaps • River Basin Management • Governance of River Basins • Water Resources Administration Role of Water Regulators 64
  • 66. WRM Water Regulator Regulatory functions needed • • • Set service fees (tariffs)- to sustain physical infrastructure over time Provide water users with rights or entitlements to water Plan and manage water resources in a rationale, transparent and accountable manner Required To monitor tariff To ensure service quality 65 Not necessary Tariff could be set by service provider Entitlements could be set by government Ground Water for Multiple Users Water Resources Management Is a water regulator required? Arguable Legal Frameworks Neither necessary nor desirable No national irrigation/ bulk water supply market Role of Water Regulators • Regulatory functions needed
  • 67. Urban and Industrial Water Use 1. Developing a Water Conservation Strategy for Industry 2. Water Utility Management: Urban Water Supply Reform and Use of Public Private Partnerships 3. Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector 4. Regulation of Water Supply and Waste water 66
  • 68. Increasing Sector Demands Issues • • • • Water conservation and efficiency across all sectors Increasing water and sanitation demands in the urban environment Support industrial and business growth Lack of governance expertise in delivering the infrastructure and management systems Business-as-Usual Scenario Prediction (figures in BCM) 67
  • 69. Urban & Industrial Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Evolution in India PPP Way Ahead? Now Mid decade Mid to Late 90s −India −International • Lessons and Policy Considerations Around 2000 Initial Market Development • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies KUWASIP Success International interest Efforts to prepare PPP projects Many ongoing initiatives Operator Sponsored High NGO opposition First Long term Lease signed Poor results High profile projects run a ground About 10 projects in progress Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Source: Crisil 2011 68 Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation
  • 70. Public Private Partnerships (PPP) Motivation Urban & Industrial PPP • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies • Economic reform - business opportunities - generate economic growth • Develop capacity in management and technical skills • Catalyse investment in essential infrastructure −India −International • Improvement of governance of urban services • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 69
  • 71. Urban & Industrial Public Private Partnership (PPP) Types and Allocation Options Ownerships Service Contract Public Management Contract Public Lease Public Concession Public BOT/BOO Private & Public Private / Private Privatisation & Public PPP O&M Capital Commercial Risk Private Public Private Duration 1-2 years Private Private Private Private Public Public Public Private Private Private Private Private 3-7 years 8-20 years 20-30 years 20-30 years Private Private Private Indefinite Increase in Risk • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 70
  • 72. Urban & Industrial Public Private Partnership (PPP) Models of Water Utility BULK Water source WATER INTAKE, TREATMENT & PUMPING WAREHOUSING STORAGE & TRANSMISSION RETAIL DISTRIBUTION, BILLING & COLLECTION PPP • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International 24 x 7 RECYCLE Pollution Control Board SEWAGE OFFTAKE, TRANSMISSION, TREATMENT & DISCHARGE CUSTOMER • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) SEWERAGE COLLECTION NETWORK Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 71
  • 73. Public Private Partnerships (PPP) India Experience • • • North Karnataka Cities, Nagpur, Alandur (Tamil Nadu) & Khandwa (MP): make PPP potential solution for improving services Problems with not so well prepared or high risk PPP contracts: Mysore Delegated Management Contract and Aurangabad Water Supply Improvement Project Emerging social enterprise industry What has possibly changed? • • • • • • • Demonstration of success stories Focus shift from investment to management efficiency Public finance and private management is increasingly accepted Recognition of need for cost recovery Increasing domestic entrepreneur interest Selective outsourcing in utilities Recognition of limitation of public sector service rules to manage essential round the clock service delivery Urban & Industrial PPP • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 72
  • 74. Urban & Industrial Case Studies - (PPP) Kanpur Water Account 2009-10 PRODUCTION 650/410 AT RESERVOIR 400 168 Ganga + 200(GW) • Lessons and Policy Considerations UNTREATED TREATED 100 COLLECTION 280 SEWAGE Experience in Karnataka (3 cities) Before After Supply frequency No. of connections 73 650/410 – Design/Average Production Capacity All numbers in average million litres/day (MLD) • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International 180 171/100 PPP AT CUSTOMER 2 hrs in 3 - 10 days 16399 24 hours 24145 Non Revenue Water 45% 6% Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation
  • 75. Case Studies - (PPP) International Urban & Industrial PPP • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 74
  • 76. End goal is water utility management Lessons • “Political” commitment, leadership, agreement and stability are critical: at all levels • PPP is not an objective in itself • Each situation is different: no “standard” models Policy Considerations • • • • • • • Arrangements are consistent with national objectives PPP targets: realistic, unambiguous & set in context of verified data Pro poor & community participation PPP partner company must have: financial strength and management integrity Clear process of tariff setting Political interference ‘free’ regulation Ensure good governance and accountability in public interest Urban & Industrial PPP • Evolution in India • Motivation • Types and allocations • Models of Water Utility • India’s Experience • Case studies −India −International • Lessons and Policy Considerations Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 75
  • 77. Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Potential water saving (%) in industry sector Urban & Industrial PPP • • Best Practice Guidance – • Delivery of WCS knowhow for businesses • Case Studies and industries − International • 76 Information and target Water Conservation setting by industry type Strategy (WCS) • Potential water saving (in percentage) from measures applied in the industry sector Partnerships with industry Grant programmes and Governing the incentives linked to Entrepreneurial abstraction regulation and Sector pricing policy Regulation
  • 78. Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) International Examples Urban & Industrial PPP Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) • Delivery of WCS • Case Studies − International Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 77
  • 79. Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Forging Working Relationships • Water supply sector should embrace opportunities and services that entrepreneurs bring to improving water and sanitation • Acceptance of entrepreneurial contributions through regulation: recognise their investment, protect them from unfair competition • Entrepreneurship should be regarded in wider context: maintenance, outsourcing of services, suppliers of equipment • Encourage the working of water supply sector: private sector relationship through legislation and by establishing an appropriate system of regulation 78 Urban & Industrial PPP Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation
  • 80. Regulation of industry water use Regulation Objectives • Over-arching objective: “that investments are used effectively in a way that maximises their benefits to all water users and to provide a framework that induces public and private sources to finance investment projects” Urban & Industrial PPP Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) • Public sector control over utility service providers (public or private) • Ensuring service providers have financial resources to operate and invest Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Good regulation in water supply: as a balance Regulation Regulate prices quality access 79 but also - Protect & operations and investments from arbitrary government decisions Allow businesses sufficient freedom to manage according to business judgement
  • 81. Options for regulation of industry water use Urban & Industrial PPP Water Conservation Strategy (WCS) Governing the Entrepreneurial Sector Regulation 80
  • 82. Institutional Reforms 1. Water Governance at the State Level 2. National Water Commission 81
  • 83. Water Governance at the State Level Possible Organisational Structure for WRM Institutional Reforms Water Governance at the State Level • Possible organisational structure for WRM • Possible State Water Administration Structure National Water Commission (NWC) 82
  • 84. Water Governance at the State Level Institutional Reforms Possible State Water Administration Structure Water Governance at the State Level • Possible organisational structure for WRM • Possible State Water Administration Structure National Water Commission (NWC) 83
  • 85. National Water Commission (NWC) Premise • • • By some estimates usable supply of water will fall short of project demand in the next fifteen years There is expected to be a shift in the sectoral demand for water No alternative than to view the planning and management of water from a national perspective- if supply is fixed & demand rises Rationale for an NWC: Gaps in current water management • • • • 84 Technical assessment of projects – No mandate for assessing the state of water resources as a – No obligation to continue assessments after clearances have been awarded Treating water as a national resource Availability of timely and usable information Capacity for management – No countrywide institution that has the responsibility to assess the skills gap, identify the balance of human resources in different water subsectors Institutional Reforms Water Governance at the State Level National Water Commission (NWC) • Premise • Role of NWC • 12 FYP • Long term
  • 86. National Water Commission (NWC) Role of NWC Institutional Reforms Technical assessor to monitor progress during construction and timely completion of projects, and to continuously assess the management of projects after completion (support PC & MoEF) Water Governance at the State Level • Guardian or watchdog of national water resources, states' rights and individual entitlements • Aggregator and public communicator of data and information • Premise • Role of NWC • 12 FYP • Long term • Facilitator and capacity developer – Support states with advice on institutional design, capacity and skills development – Offer technical advice and inputs • 85 National Water Commission (NWC)
  • 87. National Water Commission (NWC) Specific functions during the 12th FYP • • Empowered Working Group to start working on a National Water Strategy and submit proposals to the National Development Council Information collection and dissemination (up-to-date macro data to develop the broad elements, stimulate public debate) • Capacity building activities, assessing skill gaps for water management through a service delivery mode • Coordination and networking across sectors and levels of government • Engagement with potential local and foreign investors – full transparency concerning all contract details of individual projects 86 Institutional Reforms Water Governance at the State Level National Water Commission (NWC) • Premise • Role of NWC • 12 FYP • Long term
  • 88. National Water Commission Institutional Reforms Long Term Guardian and overseer of the National Water Strategy once it has been approved and adopted by the National Development Council Water Governance at the State Level Technical advice to central and state water administrations National Water Commission (NWC) • Watchdog of the rights of all water stakeholders and particularly the state of the country’s water resources • Premise • Role of NWC • 12 FYP • Long term • Continuous benchmarking of best institutional practices, efficiency standards, human resource and capacity requirements • Continuing role in information dissemination, transparency, capacity building, and public education and advocacy • • 87
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