Well laid broad objectives,accordingly: To abate pollution and improve water quality To conserve biodiversity To develop an integrated river basin management approach To conduct comprehensive research to further these objectives To gain experience for implementing similar river clean up programs in other polluted rivers in India. SWOT Analysis of GAP
SWOT Analysis of GAP Implementation The objective, at the time of launching the Ganga Action Plan in 1985, was to improve the water quality of Ganga to acceptable standards by preventing the pollution load from reaching the river. Later, in 1987, on the recommendations of the Monitoring Committee of GAP, the objective of the Plan was modified to restoring the river water quality to the Designated Best Use class of Ganga, which is “Bathing Class” (Class B).
Review of Ganga Action Plan Strengths: A start has been made. Some wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure has been created. Civil society, politicians and other decision makers are now aware of the issues concerning water quality of rivers in the Ganga basin. There is a consensus for strong action to improve river water quality in Ganga river basin. There is clarity regarding wastewater treatment technologies to be adopted. Availability of Data and Information
Review of Ganga Action Plan Weaknesses Failure of GAP to improve the river water quality sufficiently due to various reasons, i.e., non-functioning of wastewater collection and pumping infrastructure, non-functional wastewater treatment plants, insufficient wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure, etc. Lack of clarity regarding wastewater treatment technologies to be adopted, e.g., anaerobic versus aerobic technologies. The plan for operation and maintenance of assets created was flawed, e.g., lack of trained personnel, funds, and electricity for operating wastewater treatment plants, capacity and priority of local bodies Quality of Data and accessibility of data/information and analysis
Review of Ganga Action Plan Opportunities There is sufficient expertise in the country for formulating and implementing large river basin management plans. There is clarity regarding reasons behind failure/sub-optimal performance of a majority of projects sanctioned under GAP 73rd & 74th Amendment – Strengthening Local Government There is clarity regarding policy gaps/failures during implementation of GAP River monitoring & performance evaluation of STPs
Review of Ganga Action Plan Threats Failure to learn the lessons from technological and policy failures encountered during GAP Sanctioning of projects in an unplanned manner without clearly specified objectives. Not having clearly specified mid-term goals/benchmarks to judge the progress of the plan. Chlorination of treated sewage is proposed or carried out to comply with effluent discharge standards of MPN. DBPs thus introduced are not removed in conventional water treatment plant.
Action in the interim period, i.e., before a GRBMP is in place Creation of wastewater diversion infrastructure, i.e., construction of intercepting sewers, nala interception, pumping, etc. These projects shall ensure that a) there is NO wastewater disposal (treated or untreated) to rivers in certain critical stretches, and (b) all wastewater generated in urban centers can be collected for treatment.
Action in the interim period, i.e. before a GRBMP is in place Preparation of comprehensive wastewater management plans for urban centers with a time horizon of 50 years. Such plans must clearly specify how all wastewater generated in urban centers over the next 50 years will be collected treated and disposed/reused/recycled.
Action in the interim period, i.e. before a GRBMP is in place Strengthen Panchayatiraj Institutions Complete collection, interception and diversion (Close coordination with MoUD) Acquisition of Land considering 50 Years planning period Excellent Preliminary and Primary Treatment including sludge management Secondary Treatment Tertiary Treatment
Action in the interim period, i.e. before a GRBMP is in place Achieve Zero Discharge Concept at Key places Haridwar/Rishikesha; Garhmukteshwar; Kanpur; Allahabad and Varanasi Best Available Practices for Industries discharging in Ramganga, Kali, and directly in Ganga (Kanpur)