Bottle it up! We can use it!
Scientific studies on Human Urine
Financial support for this thesis was provided
by Arghyam Foundation.

This is a visual representation of
Ph.D thesis Stud...
ALW = Anthropogenic Liquid Waste = Human Urine
scientific method
a method of procedure that has characterized natural science
since the 17th century, consisting in syste...
SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THIS STUDY

Hypothesis

Application of ALW*
as a nutrient source
has a positive
impact on soil
proper...
ALW IN NUMBERS
ALW

1.37 liters/day

500 liters /year

NPK consumption in
Agriculture in India

generated in a year

1 Bil...
INSTANCES OF ALW USAGE
2003
NETHERLANDS

12th Century
CHINA

ALW integrated
Ecosan projects

Recycled ALW for
farming

199...
EXPERIMENT DESIGN (Completely Randomized)
PHASE I

PHASE II

PHASE III

Protocol Development

ALW

+

• Incubation studies...
Hypothesis

ALW EFFECT ON SOIL
MACRO
NUTRIENTS

1 ALW :2 Water(T4)

Zinc

1 ALW: 3 Water(T5)

pH

MICRO
NUTRIENTS

Nitroge...
Hypothesis

ALW EFFECT ON MAIZE
MICRO
NUTRIENTS

EFFECT ON COB
SIZE

ALW in 6 split irrigations +
gypsum(T6)

50

Zinc

Ni...
Hypothesis

ALW EFFECT ON BANANA
MICRO
NUTRIENTS

EFFECT ON
YIELD/HA

ALW in 8 split irrigations +
gypsum(T6)

35

ALW(T3)...
Hypothesis

ALW EFFECT ON RADISH
40
35

30.51 31.51 30.29 31.12
28.97 29.73

30
25

31.28 32.34

34.92 35.02

26.23 26.33
...
INFERENCE

Hypothesis

What does the data suggest?

1. Shows healthier crop
growth
ALW

G in splits
on

6 splits

2. Build...
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Ecosan Visualization

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First among the series of visualization of ecological -sanitation research work conducted by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam Foundation.

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Ecosan Visualization

  1. 1. Bottle it up! We can use it! Scientific studies on Human Urine
  2. 2. Financial support for this thesis was provided by Arghyam Foundation. This is a visual representation of Ph.D thesis Studies on the effect of anthropogenic liquid waste (ALW) on soil properties and crop growth by G.Sridevi (PAK 5072). The research was conducted at Department of Soil Science and Agriculture Chemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore and submitted in October 2008.
  3. 3. ALW = Anthropogenic Liquid Waste = Human Urine
  4. 4. scientific method a method of procedure that has characterized natural science since the 17th century, consisting in systematic observation, measurement, and experiment, and the formulation, testing, and modification of hypotheses. - Oxford Dictionary
  5. 5. SCIENTIFIC METHOD IN THIS STUDY Hypothesis Application of ALW* as a nutrient source has a positive impact on soil properties and crop growth. Test Tested on Observe •Changes in soil parameters with varying ALW concentrations. •Comparative study of maize & banana crop growth with varying treatment with fertilizer , ALW & different ALW combinations. Inference A combination of ALW + gypsum gives crop growth results at par (partially higher) with recommended dose of fertilizer. •Pot experiment with radish plants. *ALW - Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (Urine)
  6. 6. ALW IN NUMBERS ALW 1.37 liters/day 500 liters /year NPK consumption in Agriculture in India generated in a year 1 Billion kg N kg P kg K N-Nitrogen | P- Phosphorus | K-Potassium million tons million tons million tons *WASTED N P K million tons million tons million tons **REQUIRED
  7. 7. INSTANCES OF ALW USAGE 2003 NETHERLANDS 12th Century CHINA ALW integrated Ecosan projects Recycled ALW for farming 1990s SOUTH AFRICA 2003 INDIA Compost latrines and ALW diverting system introduced ALW used as fertilizer for potatoes and chillies in Manipur 12th Century JAPAN Recycled ALW for farming 18th Century NEPAL ALW used for growing fodder crops
  8. 8. EXPERIMENT DESIGN (Completely Randomized) PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III Protocol Development ALW + • Incubation studies Application of ALW ALW ALW ALW Hypothesis + + + • Lab Analysis Lab study T1 — T2 — T3 — T4 — T5 — T1— T2 — T3 — T4 — T5 — T6 — T7 — T8 — Effect of ALW on soil studied by treating soil with various dilutions of ALW and water (T 1,T 2…T 5) Data interpretation & Statistical analysis Field study Effect of ALW on maize and banana crop studied separately by treating the crops with various dilutions of ALW, water, urea, gypsum & fertilizer separately (T 1,T 2…T8) Plot size: Gross- 7.2 m2 Net- 3.24 m2 F RDN supplied by ALW treatment of soil G in splits G ALW in splits Water U U U U U U F G Potted plant study Effect of ALW studied in potted radish plants alone. Only nitrogen (N) supplied as nutrient source through ALW(dosage based on RDN). Doses given in combination of dilution and splits. Test Observe Fertilizer G Gypsum U Urea RDN Recommended dose of nitrogen Inference
  9. 9. Hypothesis ALW EFFECT ON SOIL MACRO NUTRIENTS 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) Zinc 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) pH MICRO NUTRIENTS Nitrogen SOIL CHARACTERISTICS Test 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) Tap water(T1) 0 0 2 4 6 50 100 150 0 8 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) ALW(T2) 10 20 30 Iron Phosphorus Electrical Conductivity ALW(T2) Observe 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 2 5 0 200 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 0 1 2 3 1 ALW: 3 Water(T5) 1 ALW :2 Water(T4) 1 ALW :1 Water(T3) ALW(T2) Tap water(T1) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1- T5 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage. •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg 1 Copper Potassium Organic Carbon Content Tap water(T1) 400 600 Inference
  10. 10. Hypothesis ALW EFFECT ON MAIZE MICRO NUTRIENTS EFFECT ON COB SIZE ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 50 Zinc Nitrogen MACRO NUTRIENTS ALW(T3) 43.36 40 35.58 30.55 30 Fertilizer(T2) 25.66 Test 20 10 Control(T1) 0 2 0 2.2 20 40 60 80 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Iron Phosphorus 1.8 CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) Control(T1) 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 50 Observe 100 ALW in 6 split irrigations + … ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Fertilizer(T2) Copper Potassium ALW(T3) Control(T1) 1.2 1.4 1.6 Control(T1) 0 10 20 30 0% 20% 40% Cost •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1,T2,T3 &T6 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage of maize grain •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg 60% 80% 100% Benefit Inference
  11. 11. Hypothesis ALW EFFECT ON BANANA MICRO NUTRIENTS EFFECT ON YIELD/HA ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) 35 ALW(T3) 24.92 25 20 Fertilizer(T2) 19.93 Test 15 10 Control(T1) 5 0 0.5 1 1.5 0 2 0 10 20 30 Control(T1) 40 Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Iron Phosphorus 30 28.41 30 Zinc Nitrogen MACRO NUTRIENTS Control(T1) 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0 100 200 300 400 CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) Observe ALW in 6 split irrigations … ALW in 8 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Fertilizer(T2) Copper Potassium ALW(T3) Control(T1) 0 1 2 •Mean value of each parameter is plotted against dilutions T1,T2,T3 &T6 •Macro nutrients expressed in percentage of banana fruit •Micro nutrients expressed in mg/Kg Control(T1) 0% 0 10 20 30 40 20% 40% Cost 60% 80% 100% Benefit Inference
  12. 12. Hypothesis ALW EFFECT ON RADISH 40 35 30.51 31.51 30.29 31.12 28.97 29.73 30 25 31.28 32.34 34.92 35.02 26.23 26.33 22.67 20 15 Effect on Plant Height (in cm) 10 5 0 180 160 126 140 120 125.28 118.5 120.99 111.27 130.23 111.93 86.58 Test 142.83 153.84 142.65 Observe 97.95 100 80 60 40 20 0 59.73 Effect on Root Yield (g/ plant) Inference
  13. 13. INFERENCE Hypothesis What does the data suggest? 1. Shows healthier crop growth ALW G in splits on 6 splits 2. Builds higher nutrient content and mass in the grain/fruit/root of the respective crops. Test Observe 8 splits 3. Cost- Benefit ratio marginally better than chemical fertilizer Inference
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