Ecosan -there is more to it!

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This is another presentation visualizing the work on Ecological Sanitation by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam Foundation.

This is another presentation visualizing the work on Ecological Sanitation by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam Foundation.

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  • 1. Don't let it 'just' flow alternative uses of human urine as fertilizer WHAT HOW WHY RESEARCH
  • 2. What is Sanitation? World Health Organization states: "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.” India Status 841 million people - NO access to improved sanitation [a] 626 million - practice open defecation [a] 1000 children die everyday from diaahorea [b] a. b. 1 Joint Monitoring Program Report 2012 , http://www.wssinfo.org/ UNICEF India, http://www.unicef.org/india/reallives_6575.htm WHAT 3
  • 3. What is ecological sanitation? It is an approach to sanitation where human waste is seen as a reusable nutrient source, which must be returned to the soil thereby “closing the ecological nutrient cycle” soil nutrient food production food consumption waste generation soil nutrient A toilet designed to enable this process of using human waste is called ecosan toilet. In comparison to conventional toilets, ecosan toilets require very little water and exhibit efficient solid-liquid waste management, thus making it environmentally sustainable Conventional Toilet Fecal matter and urine collected in the same tank Solid-liquid waste mix remains in soak pit /septic tank /feeds into sewerage system Nutrients lost A conventional toilet is a system primarily designed for disposal of human waste. The fate of human waste or its environmental impact is given little consideration. Typically solid and liquid waste gets mixed and is either stored in a septic tank for long durations or fed into sewerage systems. This requires large amounts of water. 2 Ecosan Toilet separation at source Urine used as fertiliser supplement Soil Solid waste decomposes gradually and used as manure Nutrients returned to soil An ecosan toilet incorporates wider considerations of environmental impact and sustainability in management of human waste. It does not merely restrict itself to disposal. Human waste is seen as a vital source of nutrients which can be reused and fed back into the ecological cycle. The result of this process is efficient solid-liquid waste management. The cost of an ecosan toilet varies from Rs 7000 to Rs 15000 based on different types of materials used for construction of the superstructure. WHAT
  • 4. How does an ecosan toilet work? Using the toilet 2 (a). Fecal matter is deposited in the storage chamber. Appearance of a typical 1. Urine is collected in the ecosan toilet. middle basin. A pipe leads it to a container outside. 2 (b). A handful of ash, dried leaves, sawdust or grain husk is spread over it and the compartment is covered with lid. 2 (c). The second chamber is used when first fills up. By the time the second chamber fills up, the solid waste in the first chamber decomposes into manure. 3. Washing is done in the wash area. The water collects outside through a pipe. Using the manure + Urine 3 = Water Collected urine is diluted with water (1:1) and used after storing for 2-4 weeks. Urine and water mixture has a potential as fertiliser. Decomposition of solid waste into manure takes 8-12 months. After this it can be applied/added to the soil as such. HOW
  • 5. Why ecosan? Ecosan toilets are appropriate for: Environment Water Sustainability 4 Ecosan is a paradigm shift from the ‘flush and forget’ approach to sanitation. It concerns itself with the fate of waste after it is generated and mere disposal is not its ultimate goal. This approach to human waste impacts the environment significantly. Geography Water Quality Poor access to sanitation and low levels of sewage treatment implies that human waste is a significant contributor to both ground and surface water pollution. Water Consumption Compared to conventional toilets (5/8 liters of water/use) this system involves minimal use of water. Ecosan is an effective approach to augment ecological nutrient recycling. The chain from soil nutrient to food production, its consumption and waste generation and placing nutrition back to the soil is completed by ecosan. Water scarce area: Since this toilet requires water only for washing (after defecation) it is suitable for these areas. High water table and flood prone area: In these regions toilets contaminate groundwater with fecal matter, as the waste easily leaches into ground water. Rocky area: Conventional toilets are difficult to construct in rocky areas because waste collection and drainage lies below ground level. Whereas ecosan toilets can be constructed entirely above ground level. Relevance of ecosan toilets during natural disasters and emergencies: The simple design, low cost and short time required for construction makes ecosan toilets very suitable during natural disasters and emergency situations. Productive potential of human urine We have a an unconsidered source of free fertiliser in human waste. Experimental results reveal crop productivity comparable to chemical fertilisers Design and use of ecosan toilets Economics Ecosan toilet designs are versatile and can be built from a variety of building materials which are locally available. Due to this, cost of construction can also be tailored to the users’ budget. WHY
  • 6. Why Urine? Every person produces around 500 liters o urine in a year which contains 1.5 Kg of Nitrogen, 0.85 kg of Phosphorus and 0.8 Kg of Potassium. Ideally if we collect all the urine produced from a billion people we can produce 1.5 million tons of Nitrogen,0.85 tons of Phosphorus and 0.8 tons of Potassium. This means we could offset national agricultural demand for Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium by 9, 12 and 22 percent respectively. NPK requirement for agriculture in India ALW 500 liters /year 1.37 liters/day generated in a year 1 Billion kg N kg P kg K million tons million tons million tons WASTED N - Nitrogen | P - Phosphorus | K - Potassium 5 N P K million tons million tons million tons REQUIRED WHY
  • 7. Initiating Studies in human urine Arghyam has lead several initiatives in sustainable sanitation and alternatives for waste reuse. Some evidences related to productive and environmentally safe appropriate use of human waste has emerged from these initiatives. Academic research Lack of any scientific study on the ‘protocol to apply urine’ and ‘its implication on crop yield and soil productivity capacity’ has always concerned the farmers, partner organizations and Arghyam. This gave rise for a need to conduct academic research to understand use o human waste as manure. 6 Objective 1. To develop a protocol on frequency and quantity of application of human liquid waste for selected crops. In 2008, Arghyam partnered with University of Agriculture Sciences (UAS), Bangalore. Being a premier institute in agriculture research and studies, UAS brings with it credibility and their work is thoroughly validated and accepted among the scientific community.UAS led research in ascertaining the use of anthropogenic liquid waste (ALW) or urine as a probable source of soil macronutrients and in characterisation of human urine for its nutrient content. This study was conducted in Bangalore, Karnataka over a period of 4 years on soil types so and so. 2. To study the effect of application of human liquid waste on growth and yield of crops and economics of cultivation. 3. To study the effect of application of human liquid waste on physical, chemical and biological properties of soil. Experiments conducted on Soil Maize Banana Radish Pumpkin Ash Gourd Tomatoes French and Pole beans Other Crops RESEARCH
  • 8. Research Methedology Hypothesis Application of ALW* as a nutrient source has a positive impact on soil properties and crop growth. Test Observe Tested on Maize & Radish Banana Pumpkin Soil Ash Gourd Tomatoes Other crops 7 *ALW - Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (Urine) ** Farm Yard Manure French and Pole beans •Comparative study of crop growth with varying treatment using fertilizer , FYM**, ALW & different ALW combinations with gypsum. •Changes in soil parameters after treating it with varying ALW concentrations and cattle urine with and without gypsum. Inference •A combination of ALW + gypsum gives crop growth results at par (partially higher) with recommended dose of fertilizer. •pH levels of soil treated with a combination of ALW + gypsum and soil treated with FYM are similar in values. •Pot experiment with radish plants. RESEARCH
  • 9. Inference Experiment on soil 1. Application of ALW ALW + Soil RDN supplied by F G Plots treated with only human or cattle urine have shown higher pH level in soil when compared to plots treated with FYM. However, plots treated with human/cattle urine and gypsum have similar pH level as plots treted with FYM. Similar observation has been made in electrical conductivity of soil. in splits in splits G U U U U U U G 2. Highest content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, exchangeable calcium, magnesium and micro-nutrients in soil was recorded in plots treated with recommended doses of nitrogen through human urine along with gypsum in three split doses. ALW Water F Gypsum U Urea RDN 8 Fertiliser G Recommended dose of nitrogen 3. The highest total soluble solids were recorded when both laterite and red soil were applied with twice the recommended dose of N through human urine. 4. Soil microbes like soil fungi, bacterial, actinomycetes, N-fixers and P-solublizer population is found higher in soil treated with two doses of urine and least in soil treated with chemical fertilisers. RESEARCH
  • 10. Inference Experiments with crops 1. Best results are observed in vine length, leaf area index, number of branches, leaves per plant of most of the study plants, with application of human urine with gypsum in 3 split doses. 2. Human urine applied with gypsum in 3 splits to Ashgourd, French beans, pole beans and pumpkin has given better yield in comparison with chemical fertilizer/ FYM,/cattle urine applied singly or in different combinations. 3. Content of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese is higher in fruit (Ashgourd, french beans, pole beans and pumpkin) harvested from the plot treated with recommended dose of human urine in combination with gypsum supplied in three split doses. 9 RESEARCH
  • 11. Protocol to use urine for different crops S.No. Crop Name Recommended dosage of NPK (kg/hectare)1 Total Urine Required (in litres) Per M 2 2.1 Interval of Application5 No. of Splits 3 I Sowing time3 II 2 25-30 days III2 15-20 days 1. French Beans 63:100:75 Per Acre 8400 2. Field Beans 25:50:25 3333 0.8 3 Sowing time 25-30 days 15-20 days 3. Tomato 250:250:250 83333 0.8 4 Transplanting time 30 days 30 days 4. Brinjal 125:100:50 16667 4.2 3 Sowing/transp 30 days lanting time 50 days 5. Lady Finger 125:75:63 16667 4.2 3 6. Finger Millet 100:50:50 13333 3.3 5-6 10 Sowing time 30 days 50 days Sowing time Transplant Active ing tillering Ideal Quantity of Application IV 2 -- V2 -- 50 percent during sowing , rest 50% in two splits4 --50 percent during sowing, rest 50% in two splits 30 days -25 percent during transplanting /sowing, rest 75% in three splits --50 percent during transplanting /sowing, rest 50% in two splits --50 percent during sowing, rest 50% in two splits 25% of 50% 25% during sowing and flowering of 25% after floweri transplanting, rest 50% ng in three splits
  • 12. Protocol to use urine for different crops S.No. Crop Name Recommended dosage of NPK (kg/hectare)1 Total Urine Required (in litres) Per Acre 7. No. of Splits Per M 2 Interval of Application5 I II 2 III2 Ideal Quantity of Application IV 2 V2 100:50:50 13333 3.3 5-6 Sowing time Flag leave stage Active tillering 8. Paddy in aerobic condition Maize 150:75:40 20000 5 2-3 30 days 50 days -- -- 9. Soybean 30:80:38 4000 1 2 50 days 50 days -- -- 10. Cluster bean 25:75:60 3333.2 0.33 2 Sowing time Sowing time Sowing time 45 days 50 days -- -- 11. Marigold 225:60:60 30,000 7.5 4 Transplanti ng 30 days 45 days 60 days -- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 11 As per the Karnataka Package of Practices (PoP) After the previous application It is compulsory to apply urine during sowing/transplanting time Always should be given as top dressing Recommended time for application of urine is either in early morning (6 to 7 am) or in evening (5-6 pm) (after sunset) Urine should be applied with rose can or any plastic bowl Recommendations are made for soil application only Panicle Booting 25% during sowing, rest initiation 75% in four splits 50% during sowing, rest 50% in two splits 50% during sowing, rest 50% in applications 50 percent during sowing, rest 50% in 2 applications 25 percent during transplanting, rest 75% in three splits
  • 13. About Arghyam Text from Madhavi/Surashree 12 1 UAS, Bangalore Text from Surashree
  • 14. Published By: Arghyam, Bangalore, India Citation: Don't let it 'just' flow Produced By: Arghyam, 2012 Arghyam acknowledges the support of its partners University of Agriculture Sciences, who have contributed to Arghyam’s ecosan initiative. Available From: ARGHYAM, #599, 12th Main, HAL 2nd Stage,Indiranagar, Bangalore, Karnataka INDIA. PIN- 560008 Email: info@arghyam.org | Phone: +91 (080) 41698941 / 42 Fax: +91 (080) 41698943| www.arghyam.org