Ecosan advocacy Presentation

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This is an advocacy presentation prepared from the research conducted on Ecological Sanitation and its benefits to agriculture by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam …

This is an advocacy presentation prepared from the research conducted on Ecological Sanitation and its benefits to agriculture by University of Agricultural Sciences in collaboration with Arghyam foundation.

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  • 1. ECOSAN A value proposition not to be flushed! a primer on ecological sanitation WHAT
  • 2. In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking sanitation is not quite easy!
  • 3. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION BIG PICTURE Access Quality Water use Innovation Sustainability of current sanitation system SANITATION
  • 4. 1 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION Access India is still far from universal access to clean sanitation Only 34% of the population has access to improved sanitation nationally BIG PICTURE 626 million of population still practices open defecation in India
  • 5. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 2 Quality Poor sanitation has tremendous impact on quality of water BIG PICTURE 0.35 Million children die from water-related diseases annually
  • 6. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 3 Water use Water Use: The current form of sanitation is water intensive 23% of the population have access to household connections nationally BIG PICTURE With increasing water scarcity, sanitation's water demand has become difficult to meet
  • 7. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION SANITATION 4 Innovation Research on alternative sanitation systems is completely absent BIG PICTURE A paradigm shift in approach to sanitation is required.
  • 8. 5 MAJOR ROADBLOCKS IN SANITATION 5 Sustainability of current sanitation system Waste disposal in the conventional system puts enormous stress on carrying capacity of the soil BIG PICTURE Dependence of current septic tank/pit based toilets on water and availability of land limits its use in high population density areas
  • 9. A sanitation re-think is called for if we are to improve sanitation in the next decade! Conventional Toilet Soil Water Resources
  • 10. Paradigm Shift
  • 11. … from ‘flush and forget’ to ‘collect and reuse’ Ecosan Toilet Soil
  • 12. Is there a system that can address the road blocks by: Environment Sustainability minimizing freshwater consumption reduction of water pollution efficiently managing solid waste making waste recycling a value proposition APPROACH Water closing the ecological loop containing the waste generated at its point of origin
  • 13. ECOLOGICALSANITATION can address these roadblocks A possible alternative to sanitation's ‘flush and forget’ problem ECOLOGICAL SANITATION also potentially address NUTRITION It is an approach to sanitation where human waste is seen as a reusable nutrient source, which must be returned to the soil thereby “closing the ecological nutrient cycle” (soil nutrient to food production to food consumption to soil nutrient).
  • 14. ECOLOGICALSANITATION Design Innovation can address these roadblocks Academic Research also potentially address NUTRITION
  • 15. Design Innovation ECOLOGICALSANITATION Can address these roadblocks Wash area Hole for defecation Pan for urination 10’ 1’6 ’ ’’ 4 ’’ 1’4 ’’ 4’2’ 10’ ’ 1’2 ’’ ’ 6’0’’ Door 2’8’’ Ground level Based on region, availability of resources, time and budget a definite design can be selected for building an ecosan toilet 3’6’’ 3’ 6’4’’ A typical single seat ecosan toilet can be constructed for as low as Rs. 5000
  • 16. ECOLOGICALSANITATION The Process can address these roadblocks 1. Appearance of a typical ecosan toilet. 2. Urine is collected in the middle basin. A pipe leads it to a container outside. Conversion from waste to wealth 3. Fecal matter is deposited in the storage compartment. 4. A handful of ash, dried leaves, sawdust or grain husk is spread over it and covered with lid. 5. Washing is done in the wash area. The water collects outside through a pipe. 6. Second chamber is used when first fills up. During this time the solid waste in the first chamber decomposes into manure.
  • 17. ECOLOGICALSANITATION Using the manure can address these roadblocks + = Urine Wate r Collected urine is diluted with water (1:1) and used after storing for 2-4 weeks. Urine and water mixture is applied to plants in regulated quantity. Decomposition of solid waste into manure takes 8-12 months. After this it is applied/added to the soil as such.
  • 18. Our field experiments in DESIGN Bihar Flood prone 6 toilets Gujarat Coastal region 20 toilets Manipur Prevent water contamination 20 toilets Chitoor, Andhra Pradesh Water Scarcity 20 toilets Kolar & Mysore,, Karnataka Hard rock and water scarce area 204 toilets in 4 villages
  • 19. Academic Research RESEARCH also potentially address NUTRITION Collaboration with UAS, Bangalore to conduct research in nutritional value of human waste beginning with human urine.
  • 20. Instances of Urine used as fertilizer 12th Century CHINA ALW integrated Ecosan projects Recycled ALW for farming 1990s SOUTH AFRICA 2003 INDIA Compost latrines and ALW diverting system introduced ALW used as fertilizer for potatoes and chillies in Manipur 12th Century JAPAN Recycled ALW for farming 18th Century NEPAL ALW used for growing fodder crops RESEARCH 2003 NETHERLANDS
  • 21. Scientific studies on human urine Application of ALW* as a nutrient source has a positive impact on soil properties and crop growth. Test Tested on Observe Inference •Changes in soil parameters with varying ALW concentrations. •Comparative study of maize & banana crop growth with varying treatment with fertilizer , ALW & different ALW combinations. A combination of ALW + gypsum gives crop growth results at par (partially higher) with recommended dose of fertilizer. •Pot experiment with radish plants. *ALW - Anthropogenic Liquid Waste (Urine) RESEARCH Hypothesis
  • 22. Urine in numbers 1.37 liters/day 500 liters /year NPK consumption in Agriculture in India generated in a year 1 Billion kg N kg P kg K N-Nitrogen | P- Phosphorus | K-Potassium million tons million tons million tons *WASTED N P K million tons million tons million tons **REQUIRED RESEARCH ALW
  • 23. Inference Experiment on soil 1. Application of ALW + Soil ALW Water F Fertiliser G Urea RD N 8 G in splits in splits G 2. Highest content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, exchangeable calcium, magnesium and microU U U G nutrients in soil was recorded in plots treated with recommended doses of nitrogen through human urine along with gypsum in three split doses. 3. The highest total soluble solids were recorded when both laterite and red soil were applied with twice the recommended dose of N through human urine. U U U Gypsum U RDN supplied by ALW Recommend ed dose of nitrogen RESEARCH F Plots treated with only human or cattle urine have shown higher pH level in soil when compared to plots treated with FYM. However, plots treated with human/cattle urine and gypsum have similar pH level as plots treted with FYM. Similar observation has been made in electrical conductivity of soil. 4. Soil microbes like soil fungi, bacterial, actinomycetes, N-fixers and P-solublizer population is found higher in soil treated with two doses of urine and least in soil treated with chemical fertilisers.
  • 24. Inference Experiments with crops Best results are observed in vine length, leaf area index, number of branches, leaves per plant of most of the study plants, with application of human urine with gypsum in 3 split doses. 2. Human urine applied with gypsum in 3 splits to Ashgourd, French beans, pole beans and pumpkin has given better yield in comparison with chemical fertilizer/ FYM,/cattle urine applied singly or in different combinations. 3. Content of nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper and manganese is higher in fruit (Ashgourd, french beans, pole beans and pumpkin) harvested from the plot treated with recommended dose of human urine in combination with gypsum supplied in three split doses. 9 RESEARCH 1.
  • 25. What did we find? ALW G in splits on Crops and Soil 2. Builds higher nutrient content and mass in the grain/fruit/root of the respective crops. 3. Cost- Benefit ratio marginally better than chemical fertilizer RESEARCH 1. Shows healthier crop growth
  • 26. What did we find? EFFECT ON COB SIZE EFFECT ON YIELD/HA 40 35.58 24.92 25 30.55 30 30 28.41 30 43.36 20 25.66 19.93 15 20 10 10 5 0 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) 0 Control(T1) Fertilizer(T2) ALW(T3) ALW in 6 split irrigations + gypsum(T6) CULTIVATION ECONOMICS (C:B) ALW in 6 split irrigations … ALW in 6 split irrigations + … ALW(T3) ALW(T3) Fertilizer(T2) Fertilizer(T2) Control(T1) Control(T1) 0% 20% 40% Cost CORN 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% Cost Benefit BANANA 60% Benefit 80% 100% RESEARCH 35 50
  • 27. In a ‘flush and forget’ world, talking sanitation is not quite easy!
  • 28. FUTURE We know that acceptance won’t be easy. Intensive behaviour-change-communication will be necessary for widespread adoption
  • 29. FUTURE This is a small but important part of the overall solution. We feel this story should be told now!
  • 30. FUTURE What will Arghyam do ? What can the government do ? •Continue the research, take research results to trial in pilot implementations •Facilitate the ongoing research and provide design inputs (ICAR institutions, NID etc.) •Continue funding ecosan toilets •Promote and support this approach (KVKs, women’s groups, media) •Explore how this can be implemented in small municipal settings through our urban projects •Integrate this knowledge into water and sewerage planning, pollution control planning, seed distribution