Multimedia Information Organization and Visualization Matt Beeman, Magdalen Kadel and Cedomir Kovacev Standards & Metadata...
THESAURI ~ THEIR STRUCTURE AND USE Acknowledgments Google Images. Amanda Piekart, Michelle Strassberg and Carla Edwards A ...
Ontologies and Digital Libraries Nicholas C. Jackson & Erin Elliot What is an Ontology “ What exists is that which can be ...
<ul><li>Tags: terms used to identify resources for retrieval; created and defined by users who are both the providers of c...
Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO) Introduction to CCO Historical Overview Recommended Elements Managing Content & the Futu...
Personal Information Management Matt Flaherty, Jessica Brooks, Maggie Balistreri <ul><li>Since the Beginning </li></ul><ul...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Pratt Sils LIS653 4 Fall 2007

1,265 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,265
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
20
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pratt Sils LIS653 4 Fall 2007

  1. 1. Multimedia Information Organization and Visualization Matt Beeman, Magdalen Kadel and Cedomir Kovacev Standards & Metadata DCMI - Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) EXIF - Exchangeable Image File Format XMP - eXtensible Metadata Platform IPTC – Int’l Press Telecommunications Council PLUS - Picture Licensing Universal System DIM2 – Digital Image Management TEI – Text Encoding Initiative / EAD – Encoded Archival Description / METS – Metadata Encoding & Transmission Standard / MARC – Machine Readable Cataloging / MPEG-7 – Motion Pictures Expert Group / NISO IMG (Z39.87) A DAM workflow <ul><li>Citation Indices </li></ul><ul><li>Citation indices are a way to compare: </li></ul><ul><li>Authors and scholars </li></ul><ul><li>Journals within the same field </li></ul><ul><li>Articles within a field </li></ul>Eigenfactor map example Uses for knowledge visualization The h -index is graphed by most online citation indexes, to compare scholars within a field. Other projects have used the information in citation indexes to visualize relationships between fields, as above. Features Collections / Database / Enterprise capability /Asset versioning / Manage intellectual property rights / Administration of access rights / Metadata flexibility / Controlled vocabularies / Search technology / Automated publishing mpeg-7 TV shopping? Education? Art? References Krogh, Peter. (2005). The Dam Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers Digital Asset Management: A Closer Look at the Literature (A Research Monograph of the Printing Industry Center at RIT, March 2005) Import
  2. 2. THESAURI ~ THEIR STRUCTURE AND USE Acknowledgments Google Images. Amanda Piekart, Michelle Strassberg and Carla Edwards A Brief History of the Thesaurus  Derived from the Greek “Thesauros,” which means “treasury or storehouse.”  Many thesauri are now available on the Internet. They are important for creating a “controlled vocabulary” when conducting searches. <ul><li>Why Thesauri are important </li></ul><ul><li> Create a “controlled vocabulary” for searching </li></ul><ul><li> Help locate “preferred terms” used by the particular search engine or database </li></ul><ul><li>Aid in producing best results from searching </li></ul><ul><li>Address a specialized audience </li></ul>Figure 2. Getty Thesaurus of Art and Architecture. Figure 1. Finding the right words... Figure 3. ERIC Thesaurus. Figure 4. Thesaurus of Astronomical Terms. <ul><li>How Thesauri are used </li></ul><ul><li> Most are available in print and online versions </li></ul><ul><li> Inputting keywords will lead searcher to preferred terms </li></ul><ul><li>Special Features </li></ul><ul><li>Can search in a variety of ways </li></ul>Figure 5. The Visual Thesaurus. Future of Thesauri  More online thesauri  Thesauri will be embedded in search engines  More user-friendly References Visual Thesaurus http://www.visualthesaurus.com Thesaurus of Art and Architecture http://www.getty.edu/research/conducting_research/vocabularies/aat/index.html Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors http://www.eric.ed.gov/ Thesaurus of Astronomical Terms http://www.mso.anu.edu.au/library/thesaurus Types of Thesauri For this presentation we will focusing on:  Thesaurus of Art and Architecture  Visual Thesaurus  Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors  Thesaurus of Astronomical Terms
  3. 3. Ontologies and Digital Libraries Nicholas C. Jackson & Erin Elliot What is an Ontology “ What exists is that which can be represented! ontology is the study of what is real, what is reality, and or what existence” (Gruber,1). “An ontology is an explicit description of a domain; concepts, properties and attributes of concepts, constraints on properties and attributes, individuals” (Noy, 2). Ontology Engineering “ Defining terms in the domain and relation among them. Defining concepts in the domain (classes), arranging the concepts in a hierarchy (subclasses-superclasses hierarchy), defining which attributes and properties classes can have and constraints on their values, defining individuals and filling in values.” (Noy, 3). PRATT Uses in digital libraries “ The ontology enables concept-based searching that can improve precision of results far beyond common keyword matching” “The ontologies has the potential to offer navigation support that would facilitate the seeking process…” It “provide a conceptual structure that” organization and arrangement information (2006, Patuelli, 4). Ontology vs. Vocabulary, Taxonomy, and Thesauri “ A controlled vocabulary is a list of terms. A taxonomy is a collection of controlled vocabulary terms organized into a hierarchical structure. A thesaurus is a networked collection of controlled vocabulary terms. A formal ontology is a controlled vocabulary expressed in an ontology representation language” (Jernst, 1). PRATT Jernst. (2003). What are the difference between a vocabulary, a taxonomy, a thesaurus, an ontology, and a meta-model? McGuinness, D. L. (2003). Ontologies Come of Age. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World wide Web to Its Full Potential. MIT Press. Marcum, . 2002. Noy, N. F. McGuinness, D. L. (2000) Ontology Development 101: A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology. Stanford University. James W. (2002) Beyond Visual Culture: The Challenge of Visual Ecology . Portal: Libraries and the Academy, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 189-206. Noy, N. F., Ontology Engineering for the semantic web and beyond. Pattuelli, M.C. (2006). Context for content: Shaping learning objects and modeling a domain ontology from the teachers' perspective. In Blandford A. & Gow, J. (Eds.). Proceedings of the Workshop on Digital Libraries in the Context of Users' Broader Activities (DL-CUBA), pp. 23-27. JCDL 2006, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. http://www.isi.edu/isd/LOOM/LOOM-HOME.html “ The rise of the digital library is an important step in the development of the library as a cultural resource” (Marcum, 2002, 201). Digital Library? “ the use of computers to store library materials appearing in electronic (digital) format.” Digital records of collections “encoded in order to be stored, retrieved, and read by computer to collect, organize, preserve, and access information and knowledge records in digital form.” UMDL Ontology- http://www-personal.umich.edu/~peterw/Ontology/Beethoven/demo.html UMDL Ontology- http://www-personal.umich.edu/~peterw/Ontology/Beethoven/demo.html McGuinness, D. L. (2003). Ontologies Come of Age. Spinning the Semantic Web: Bringing the World wide Web to Its Full Potential. MIT Press. dog mammal animal rabid dog sick animal disease rabies rabid animal has has has
  4. 4. <ul><li>Tags: terms used to identify resources for retrieval; created and defined by users who are both the providers of content and the end-users </li></ul><ul><li>Folksonomies: composed of user-generated metadata, created by tagging pieces of digital information with their own searchable keywords </li></ul><ul><li>broad: third-party users assign tags to the same content, creating metadata for their bookmarks; sites aggregate this metadata, make it searchable </li></ul><ul><li>narrow: users tag their own content so that they can easily retrieve it and help others find it; useful for assigning metadata to unique content </li></ul><ul><li>Museum/Archival Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Tagging: dialog between viewer and work as well as viewer and museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourages personal interpretations of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fosters/maintains museum relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serves altruistic purpose of museums </li></ul></ul><ul><li>steve.museum (www.steve.museum) </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative research project (launched in 2005) that explores the potential for tagging within the context of museums. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivate users to tag, guide them through the process, and reward them when done (create prolonged and repeat use by giving users control) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate contributed data into local documentation systems to improve access to collections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage engagement with cultural content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Traditional Library Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Venues </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GoodReads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information Management Sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LibraryThing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PennTags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Towards a shelfless library </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Items in multiple “locations” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Towards a personal experience </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evocation of personal feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement away from Library-centeredness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PennTags </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emergence of Folksonomies </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional subjects reaffirmed </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional facets reaffirmed </li></ul><ul><li>New descriptors emerge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal descriptions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New representations of the traditional emerge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative combinations </li></ul></ul>Tagging & Folksonomies Social Applications <ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>User-generated vocabulary based on personal understanding of object </li></ul><ul><li>“ Placing Hooks” </li></ul><ul><li>Serendipitous browsing capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive way to create order and community </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><li>www.Flickr.com </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo sharing and management site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>www.Del.icio.us </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social bookmarks manager </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>No synonym control </li></ul><ul><li>No hierarchal structure </li></ul><ul><li>Do not consider the future </li></ul><ul><li>Pros: </li></ul><ul><li>supplements traditional cataloging by increasing access points, findability </li></ul><ul><li>encourages discovery/rediscovery and sharing of information </li></ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul><ul><li>no controlled vocabulary, synonym/homonym control; lack of hierarchy </li></ul><ul><li>tags may be imprecise, ambiguous, inconsistent, or overly personal </li></ul>Goals: introduce controlled vocabulary to tagging systems; tools should be simple, efficient and not require large investments of capital; they should make it easier to locate new and older materials and allow reuse/remix of content and data to produce new collections and online tools
  5. 5. Cataloging Cultural Objects (CCO) Introduction to CCO Historical Overview Recommended Elements Managing Content & the Future of CCO <ul><li>Cultural Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>Created by members of a culture </li></ul><ul><li>Found in texts, objects, images, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal access benefits the community </li></ul><ul><li>Need for CCO </li></ul><ul><li>Attempted to use MARC & AACR, which fell short </li></ul><ul><li>Community created a shared element set (VRA Core) in 1990’s </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized need for data content and data format standards </li></ul><ul><li>Museums needed a more compact element set for exchanging data </li></ul><ul><li>Working Together </li></ul><ul><li>Forums organized by the National Initiative for a Networked Cultural Heritage </li></ul><ul><li>VISION & REACH project </li></ul><ul><li>VRA & CCO project </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Provide guidelines for cataloging cultural objects </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes good descriptive cataloging, shared documentation, and superior end-user access </li></ul><ul><li>Assists in the development of in-house cataloging rules or manuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a guide to building consistent cultural heritage documentation in a shared environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Audience/Users </li></ul><ul><li>Museum catalogers, curators, archivists, librarians </li></ul><ul><li>System designers </li></ul><ul><li>Scope </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive metadata & authority control data </li></ul><ul><li>Points out term choices, defines order, syntax & form </li></ul><ul><li>Work Record </li></ul><ul><li>Object Naming, Creator info, Physical characteristics, Stylistic, Cultural & Chronological, Location & Geography, Subject, Class , and Description </li></ul><ul><li>Image Record </li></ul><ul><li>View Info </li></ul><ul><li>Authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Personal & Corporate Name </li></ul><ul><li>Geographic Place </li></ul><ul><li>Concept </li></ul><ul><li>Subject </li></ul><ul><li>The Getty Vocabularies </li></ul><ul><li>Metadata & Standards </li></ul><ul><li>CDWA </li></ul><ul><li>CDWA Lite </li></ul><ul><li>VRA Core 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>VRA Core 4.0 XML </li></ul><ul><li>Crosswalks & Mapping </li></ul><ul><li>CCO maps to CDWA & VRA 4.0 core elements </li></ul><ul><li>CCO works with the standard element sets of CDWA & VRA Core 4.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Content Management Systems (CMS) </li></ul><ul><li>Manage visual information </li></ul><ul><li>digital Visual Information Management (dVIM) provides discovery, distribution & display of digital images </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of dVIM </li></ul><ul><li>Mdid - Madison Digital Image Database </li></ul><ul><li>Insight - Luna Imaging </li></ul><ul><li>CONTENTdm - DiMeMa/OCLC </li></ul><ul><li>Innovative interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Digitool - Ex Libris </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Asset Mgmt </li></ul><ul><li>Telescope </li></ul><ul><li>Artesia </li></ul><ul><li>Mediabin </li></ul><ul><li>Canto </li></ul><ul><li>Piction </li></ul><ul><li>Moving Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Educational outreach </li></ul><ul><li>Future webpage allocated to training, tools, & presentations </li></ul>Jamee Ard, Adrid Santos, Fumi Kelleher & Erica McDonald
  6. 6. Personal Information Management Matt Flaherty, Jessica Brooks, Maggie Balistreri <ul><li>Since the Beginning </li></ul><ul><li>An issue ever since information has been available </li></ul><ul><li>It is the practice and study of acquiring, organizing, maintaining, and retrieving of personal information items </li></ul>Personal Information Management Tools (reflects individual needs, preferences, and styles) E-mail: file organization, filters, chatting Calendar: reminders, calendar sharing Computer desktop: file finder tools, widgets Internet: search engines, RSS feeds Websites, Wikis, & Blogs: circulating information versus absorbing information Figure 2. Structure of Information System (Barreau, 1995). Figure 1. Ten Commandments. Key Image 1 Key Image 2 Figure 3. Before utilizing computer PIM tools. Figure 4. After utilizing computer PIM tools. Meta PIM: The PIM of a PIM Project Three individuals collaborate on a Personal Information Management project. Each uses, and all coordinate using, the following tools: E-mail, calendar, phone/text messaging, personal computer/desktop, Internet search tools, and a Wiki . Figure 5. PIM Wiki for PIM Group Project. Implications of PIM Save what? More digital space means we can save everything. Save where? Data saved across multiple tools benefits from an integration method. Retrieve how? Saving more and more personal information results in increased reliance on robust search tools, tagging, and metadata. References Barreau, D.K. (1995). Context as factor in personal information management systems. JASIS, 46 (5), 327-39. Jones, William and J. Teevan, editors. Personal Information Management . University of Washington Press: 2007. <ul><li>An Information System </li></ul><ul><li>PIM Systems have the same key components as other information systems such as catalogs and indexes </li></ul><ul><li>However, PIM differs because it is designed to meet the needs specific to an individual and not the general needs of multiple users </li></ul>Input User Input Information Information System Acquisitions Organization Maintaining Retrieval Output Answers Reports Summaries

×