Pratt SILS Knowledge Organization Spring 2011Presentation Transcript
Q: What is IRMA (Image Retrieval in Medical Applications) missing? A: Metadata to describe image facets such as anatomical location, injury or disease, prognosis. Combine existing MeSH headings with IRMA classification: Images IRMA example: 1111 – 216 – 200 – 100 Biological Code for system examined Technical code for imaging modality Directional code for imaging orientation Anatomical code for body region By: Johanna Blakely-Bourgeois, Eloise Flood, Susan Marcinek April 28, 2011 Pratt SILS: LIS 653-02 Knowledge Organization
Embedded Meta Data: Like this UPI Press Wire photo, embedded data allows for the combination of meta data and content. Embedded Metadata Is Found In
Explore Embedded Meta data: http://www.EmbedMyData.com Embedded Meta Data Matt Miller & Chris MullinLIS 653-02 Spring 2011
Non-Western Cataloging Through History and Today: Three Case Studies Clare O’Dowd, Cynthia Wang, and Victoria Ludas Dr. Pattuelli LIS 653-02 Knowledge Organization Spring 2011 Chinese Classification Schemes Since the first century BC, imperial Chinese catalogers have devised schemes to catalog and classify the works found in dynasty libraries. These schemes were hierarchically based on the dominant ideology, Confucianism, and the first class in any scheme before the twentieth century was always "Classics." This trend continued in the modern Chinese Library Classification, whose first class is "Marxism, Leninism, Maoism, and Deng Xiaoping's Theories." Cataloging Challenges in Africa While libraries existed in Egypt and North Africa since ancient times, in Sub-Saharan Africa they are a wholly colonial legacy, introduced in the nineteenth century. Traditional African ways of preserving and disseminating knowledge, such as oral traditions, differ greatly from the Western concept of a library. Today Africa uses Western tools such as DDC, LCC, UDC, and ACCR2, which are inappropriate and inadequate for its resources. Much of Africa’s most important cultural information resources are undocumented indigenous knowledge systems. Creating and implementing new bibliographic tools would be very expensive, especially for areas in which libraries lack modern technology and the population they serve lacks formal education. Image source: http://www.japan-i.jp/whatsjapan/outline/d8jk7l0000000ln8.html Japanese Cataloging Rules Many Japanese libraries and university libraries use different cataloging rules for their Japanese and Western materials. It was not until 1942 that they began to use standardized cataloging rules. Today, Japanese materials are still cataloged according to the Nippon Cataloging Rules (NCR). There have been many cataloging revisions since 1942 to improve the previous versions with new formats, codes and subject headings. The latest and last revision was published in 2001 (NCR1987R01). Image source: http://ed101.bu.edu/StudentDoc/current/ED101fa09/lbryfo/quizhome.html Chinese Library Classification Though the Dewey Decimal Classification system was the first Western system to reach China, the more influential proved to be the Library of Congress Classification system, at least in terms of structure and notation. The Chinese Library Classification (CLC) was first published in 1975, and is now in its fifth edition as of 2010. CLC is used by almost all public, school, and academic libraries throughout China, and has done much to standardize national information retrieval vocabulary. The most recent edition brought the number of categories up to more than 43,000. A sample class of the CLC: Cataloging of Japanese Materials: There are five different characteristics used in Japanese scripts:
Kanji (Chinese characters and Chinese numerals) (ideograms): used for nouns, verb stems, etc.
Hira-kana (phonograms): particles, verb endings, etc.
Kata-kana (phonograms): foreign words, onomatopoeia, imitative words, etc.
Roman alphabet (Roman numeral): proper name, measure, abbreviation, etc.
Arabic numerals: numbers in general
Image source: http://www.gnuschkefamily.webs.com/AfricaOutline.gif Efforts for Change Different organizations and projects have been established in order to address these issues. The Library of Congress's Project for Cooperative Cataloging works to change and amend the ways cataloging is done for African resources. Ghana's Centre for Indigenous Knowledge Systems, with connections to the United States, seeks to document, preserve, and provide access to African information resources that were once invisible to librarians as well as empower disenfranchised populations. B. Philosophy and Religion - B0 Philosophical schools - B1 Philosophy (World-wide) - B2 Philosophy in China -- B22 Pre-Qin Dynasty Philosophy( ~before 220 BC) --- B222 The Confucian School ---- B222.2 Confucius (KǒngQiū, 551-479 BC) Image source: Takawashi, Tadayoshi. (2002). Cataloging in Japan: Relationship Between Japanese and Western Cataloging Rules. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 35(1/2), p. 217. References Harai, Naoko. (2006) World Library and Information Congress: 72nd IFLA General Conference and Council 20-24 August 2006. Retrieved from http://www.ifla.org/IV/ifla72/index.html. Takawashi, Tadayoshi. (2002). Cataloging in Japan: Relationship Between Japanese and Western Cataloging Rules. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly 35(1/2), p. 217. References Arthur, K. (2001). Centre for indigenous knowledge systems (CEFIKS). Retrieved from http://www.cfiks.org Mutala, S.M. & Tsvakai, M. (2002). Historical perspectives of cataloguing and classification in Africa. Cataloging & Classification Quarterly, 35(1/2), 61-7 References Zhang, W. (2003, January 01). Classification for Chinese Libraries (CCL): Histories, Accomplishments, Problems and Its Comparisons. Jiao Yu Zi Liao Yu TuShu Guan Xue (Journal of Educational Media & Library Sciences), 41, 1-22. Retrieved from http://joemls.dils.tku.edu.tw/fulltext/41/41-1/1-22.pdf.
Folksonomies organize information and support information retrieval through individual and collaborative classification Folksonomy Theory BAZAARS (OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE) organic organization Predecessors: Dewey, LCSH your own taxonomy tagging Open Source Definition 1. Free Redistribution Created in web 2.0 climate multiple perspectives 2. Source Code 3. Derived Works Should libraries and other information settings use folksonomies? 4. Integrity of The Author's Source Code 5. No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups 6. No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor 7. Distribution of License CATHEDRALS (PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE) 8. License Must Not Be Specific to a Product 9. License Must Not Restrict Other Software 10. License Must Be Technology-Neutral Organization By Collaboration Folksonomy Practice Open Source Theory Open Source Applications HathiTrust For book preservation Mozilla Firefox For Web Browsing Archive-It For Web Preservation DSPACE For the management, distribution and sharing of digital assets Folksonomy = Content Creator + Object + Tags + Users Koha The next generation Library Management System LIS653-03, Spring 2011 Kristi Davis, Megan Georgia, Emily Hashimoto, Sean Leahy Open Source Practice Broad Folksonomy
Many users tagging object
More tags, more depth of meaning
One or few users tagging object
Less tags, less depth of meaning
Folksonomy Applications Social DeliciousFlickr Twitter Techonorati Library LibraryThing PennTags Goodreads Archives and Museum Steve.Museum Categorize + Retrieve + Discover