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# cycle time, normal time and standard allowance

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### cycle time, normal time and standard allowance

1. 1. Cycle TimeNormal Time Allowance SERVICE OPERATION MANAGEMENT
2. 2. Time Studies The classical approach to time studies was developed by Frederick W. Taylor in 1911, and is the accepted procedure for production analysis. A time study, also termed a stopwatch time study, is an analysis of a worker`s performance against a time standard. Time studies are normally performed on short repetitive production types of tasks.
3. 3. How is a time study performed?There are several basic steps which must be followed in any time study:1. Define the job to be analyzed.2. Break the job into discrete tasks.3. Measure the actual time required for each task.4. Develop a statistically significant sample size of the task work cycles to be measured.
4. 4. Cycle Time Operator Cycle Time • total time required for a worker to complete one cycle of an operation Machine Cycle Time • total time for a machine to finish one complete cycle • includes loading and unloading
5. 5. Normal Time Normal time = (average element time) x (Performance rating / 100) The normal time for a particular employee is rated against the average job element time
6. 6. Allowance This may take into consideration personal factors as well as unavoidable constraints encountered in the work situation. Allowances include all unavoidable delays, but rule out avoidable delays. An allowance factor represents time lost due to personal factors, shift adjustments, improper equipment, fatigue, and related issues.
7. 7. Standard Time When calculating the standard time, three different types of time are actually utilized.  Actual time is the time a particular employee actually takes to perform a particular job operation.  Normal time is the time needed to complete an operation by an employee working at 100% efficiency having no delays.  Standard time is the time needed to complete an operation by an employee working at 100% efficiency with unavoidable delays:
8. 8.  Standard time = normal time + allowance time Standard time = normal time / (1 - allowance fraction) Allowances are generally applied to total cycle time as some percentage of it, but sometimes these are given separately for machine time as some % and for manual effort time some other %.
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