LEARNING OBJECTIVESIntroduction of British MediaBritish Television British Newspaper • Media Channels • History of British Newspapers • The BBC • Industry Key Facts • BBC Offerings • The Different genera of • BBC Reach newspapers• Types Of TV Programme • Emergence of online news• Viewers Choice• Television Trivia British Radio • British Radio Fact File • Digital Radio • Rise of Digital Audio Broadcasting
INTRODUCTION OF BRITISH MEDIA• The first public broadcasting on TV was done by private companies in 1922.• In 1926, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) was set up, and the BBC radio was born.• In 1936, BBC TV, the world’s FIRST public TV service began broadcasting.
• This was followed by 20 years later by the first privately owned TV stations.• In 1951, there were 600,000 TV viewers in Britain- five years later that figure had reached 6 million.• By the 1980s, almost everybody in the country watched TV some time during the week, many watching it for at least part of every evening.
TELEVISION• The first Broad Cast by the BBC was from Alexander Palace in London in 1936 to a very small audience.• In 1959, it make its first broadcast coverage of the general election.• It now provides 8 public service television channels in the UK.
MEDIA CHANNELS• Public Service Television Programmes • BBC ONE • BBC TWO • BBC THREE • BBC FOUR • CBBC • Cbeebies • BBC NEWS 24 • BBC Parliament
BRITISH BROADCASTING CORPORATION • The BBC is a public service whose Trustees are appointed by the government. The trust has final responsibility for all aspects of broadcasting on the BBC. • Day-to-day management and decisions are taken by the Executive Board, chaired by the Director General. The government does not therefore have any direct control of public broadcasting.
BBC OFFERINGSDifferent Programmes• The BBC broadcasts local programming includes daily local news and a weekly documentary.• Outside of the UK, the BBC also broadcasts a growing number of commercial Television programmes. BBC World, BBC Food, and BBC Prime are available in many places around the world.• Much of the programme content is drawn from the BBC’s programme archive for which UKTV pays a license fee to the BBC
• There are three commercial television national networks, ITV (or Channel 3), Channel 4 and Channel 5. Although commercially-funded, each of these services has an obligation to provide some programming which is deemed to be ‘public service.’• Viewers have a choice of programmes from 8 o’ clock in the morning with Breakfast Television to late night shows.• ITV had 24 hour broadcasting.• All the channels except channel 4 are obliged by law to be impartial and neutral in dealing with social and political affairs.
BBC REACHWho is the BBC available to?• BBC world is an advertiser- funded 24 hour International news, information and analysis channel and is available to about 168 million homes around the world.Advertisements• A d v e r t i s e m e n t s m u s t b e distinct and separate from programmes and must not exceed 7 minutes per hour. They may not be shown during broadcasts to schools or broadcasts of religious schools.
HOW PROGRAMMES ARE MADE• At least 86% of all programmes in the peak viewing period on ITV and channel 4 must come from British or European Sources.• About 20% of BBC Programmes are from foreign Sources, these are mainly from America and are mostly films or series.
Types Of TV Programme• Informative Programmes: news, current affairs, religion, schools programmes, children’s informative.• Narrative Programmes: Plays, Dramas, TV films, feature films.• Entertainment Programmes: Entertainment, variety music, children’s entertainment, sport.
VIEWERS CHOICE• The BBC and ITV are obliged to try to maintain a rough balance of all these types of programmes in their schedules and the table below shows the percentage of time allocated for each in a typical week.
Audience Response• Watching TV is the most common leisure activity for 8/10 men and women.• In 2008, on average, people spent 26 hours per week watching TV. People in non-manual occupations watched about 7 hours less per week than those in manual occupations.• More than ¼ of adults in England in 1005/2006 watched TV for an average of two hours per day, with 23% watching for around 3 hours.Most popular programmes• The most popular Television programmes viewed were the news (national or local), watched by 65% if viewers, followed by films (61%), comedy (54%), and live sport coverage (51%).
TELEVISION TRIVIA• Whilst TV has replaced the radio to some extent, radio services have also grown. Digital radio and TV, access to the inter net and new ways of downloading, storing information and entertainment have transformed the way that we experience broadcasting.• Technology will continue to change rapidly, with new advanced products continually being produced, but the current structure of broadcasting is outlined below.
• Both public and private broadcasting companies earn some of their revenue through the sale of programmes (for example, drama videos).• In addition to the license fee, the BBC also earns some revenue from the sale of publications connected with BBC programmes, hire and the sale of educational films and exhibitions based on programmes.
HISTORY OF BRITISH NEWSPAPERS• History of newspapers can be traced many centuries from now. It started in early 15th century, and by 17th century newspapers witnessed the ‘beginning of the age of enlightenment’ (Clarke 2004 p39).• The industry was said to be in the developing phase as people wanted more political and social awareness.• From 18th century the newspaper industry in UK became more matured due to the growth of advertising, which led to an increase in sales.
• Gradually towards the end of 19th Century it faced slowing downturn which in last 5 years have created a massive impact on the whole industry.• The newspaper market is now striving to uphold its tittle and new innovations are incessantly tampering the growth of the market.• Interestingly, World Association of Newspapers (2008) ranked UK 17th in terms of the availability of paid-for titles and it also had highest circulation outside the domestic market.
midYmarket" papers" are" the$ Daily$ Mail$ and$ Daily$ Express." The" upYmarket" papers"include"The$Daily$Telegraph,$the$Financial$Times,$The$Guardian,$The$Independent$and$ INDUSTRY KEY FACTSThe$Times"(Keynote"2008)." " • Keynote (2010) National" Readership" Survey"UK’s the" readers" have" been" According" to" the" estimates that the 2011," total newspaper market is valued around £ 5.78 billion, but it is witnessingdivided"into"equal"social"grades"depending"on"their"occupation"and"income."This"is"a" a sharp decline over time.measure"to"define"the"various"classes"of"readers"as"stated"in"table"1.""• According to the National Readership Survey 2011, the " readers have been divided into equal social grades Table"1:"Social"grades"of"readers." depending on their occupation and income. % of population (NRS 2010) A Higher managerial, administrative and professional 4 B Intermediate managerial, administrative and professional 22 C1 Supervisory, clerical and junior managerial, administrative and 29 professional C2 Skilled manual workers 21 D Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers 15 E State pensioners, casual and lowest grade workers, unemployed with 8 state benefits only !
THE DIFFERENT GENERA OF NEWSPAPERS Broadsheet Tabloid• They are often referred as the • They are often referred as the quality newspapers. popular newspapers.• S u c h n e w s p a p e r s a r e • These newspapers have have established more then 100 vast readers. years back.* • They are very cheap and are• These newspapers are very easily available. expensive. • It is read mainly by the lower• Read mainly by the highly educated and elite class. income class, labors and workers.• Examples: The Guardian, The Times, The Daily Telegraph, • Examples: The Sun, The Daily The Independent. Mail, The Daily Mirror.
EMERGENCE OF ONLINE NEWS• The Newspaper Marketing Agency (2012) found that there are 20 million readers who read newspapers everyday and 30 million viewers registered to online newspaper sites.• The digital world has taken over traditional means of mass media and communication. Smart phones, laptops, and other gadgets such as an iPad, means that e-readers with Internet have detoured conventional forms of reading.• Therefore almost all leading newspaper titles have evolved with time and adapted the digital form of news and keep their web sites up-to-date.
BRITISH RADIO FACT FILE• There are around 600 licensed radio stations in the United Kingdom.• The most prominent stations are the national networks operated by the BBC.• The BBC also provide 40 local radio services, mainly broadcasting a mix of local news and music aimed at an older audience.
DIGITAL RADIO• T h e U K c u r r e n t l y h a s t h e w o r l d s biggest digital radio network, with 103 transmitters.• In the UK, 29.5% of all radio listening hours in 2012 were through digital platforms.• Digital radio in the United Kingdom is being promoted by radio stations and the broadcasting industry on the premise that it provides a wider choice of radio stations, is easier to use
SYNOPSIS• Media of the United Kingdom consist of several different types of communications media: television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and Web sites.• The United Kingdom has a diverse range of media providers, the most prominent being the state- owned public service broadcaster.• Its medium of communication has always been advanced and sophisticated which has been followed by many nations!