Poverty is about not having enough money to meet basic needs including food, clothing and shelter. However, poverty is more, much more than just not having enough money. The world bank describes poverty as:“Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time.”
TWO WAYS OF POVERTY RELATIVE POVERTY ABSOLUTE POVERTY• Under Relative poverty the • Absolute poverty refers to the economic conditions of measure of poverty , keeping in different regions or countries is view the per capita intake of compared. The capita income calories and minimum level of and the national income are the consumption . two indicators of relative • Per capita income : poverty. According to the UNO those countries are treated poor National income whose per capita income is less Population than US $725 per annum.
MEASUREMENT OF POVERTY EXPENDIURE METHOD INCOME METHOD• Under this the minimum food • This method is used by the requirements for survival is government while distributing estimated. food through PDS at the local• The food value is converted level. into calories. • Under this a poverty line is• The caloric value of food is fixed by the government. then converted into the money • All the families whose total value i.e. in rupees. income is less than the poverty• The total equivalent amount is line fixed by the government considered as the poverty line. are considered as BPL.
WHAT IS POVERTY LINE?• Poverty line is the line which indicates the level of purchasing power required to satisfy the minimum needs of a person. It represents the capacity to satisfy the minimum level of human needs. The line divides the people into 2 groups : 1. Above poverty line 2.Below poverty line
VULNERABLE GROUP Poverty and occupation both are co-related. Most of the poor people include agricultural and casual laborers, the SCs , STs and the physically challenged.60 Poverty in India 2000 : Most vulnerable Group 51 5050 47 434030 2620100 Sheduled Urban Casual Rural Sheduled Average Tribes Labourers Agricultural Castes Indian Labourers Poverty Ratio
CAUSES OF POVERTY• BRITISH RULE• RURAL ECONOMY• HEAVY PRESSURE OF POPULATION• CHRONIC UNEMPLOYMENT AND UNDEREMPLOYMENT• LACK OF PROPER INDUSTRIALISATION• SOCIAL FACTORS• INDIA’S ECONOMIC POLICY• NEO-LIBERAL POLICIES AND THEIR EFFECTS
POVERTY IN INDIAN STATES STATES No. Of People BPL % of People BPL BIHAR 425.64 42.60MADHYA PRADESH 298.54 37.43 MAHARASHTRA 227.99 25.03 ORISSA 169.09 47.15 TAMIL NADU 130.48 21.12 UTTAR PRADESH 529.89 31.15 WEST BENGAL 213.49 27.02 GOA 0.70 4.40 GUJARAT 67.89 14.07 HARYANA 17.34 8.74HIMACHAL PRADESH 5.12 7.63JAMMU & KASHMIR 3.46 3.48 KERALA 41.04 12.72 PUNJAB 14.49 6.16