Smart cards and sensors


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Smart cards and sensors

  2. 2. Contents: 1) Smart cards contact cards contact less cards 2) Types of cards(charts) 3) Cards construction 4) Application 5) Sensor 6) Types of sensor 7) Example of sensors
  3. 3. SMART CARDS Smart cards (or Integrated Circuits cards or ICC) are small pocket-sized cards with electronic processing circuits embedded in them. Some memory cards and some have embedded microprocessor circuits. Smart cards are divide into two:  Contact smart cards : They have gold coated pins on the chip that provide contact with the electrical circuits of the card reader when the card is inserted in it. Eg telephone cards in public telephones.  Contact-less smart cards: They communicate with card readers using the radio frequency induction technology. These cards have to be held close to the reader’s antenna.
  4. 4. The chip embedded in a smart card is a circuit including a computer, memory and transceiver. The chip lies in between the inner layers of the card. Smartcards do not have batteries. The energy is provided by the card reader. The computer in the card is activated by power (through radiation in a contact less card and through the IC pins on the card surface in a contact card) from a nearby reader called host. The card communicates with the host after appropriate interchanges for authentication. Application protocol data unit(APDU) is an accepted standard for card-host communication.
  6. 6. SMART CARD CONSTUCTION Mostly all chip cards are built from layers of differing materials, or substrates, that when brought together properly gives the card a specific life and functionality. The typical card today is made from PVC, Polyester or Polycarbonate. The card layers are printed first and then laminated in a large press. The next step in construction is the blanking or die cutting. This is followed by embedding a chip and then adding data to the card. In all, there may be up to 30 steps in constructing a card. The total components, including software and plastics, may be as many as 12 separate items; all this in a unified package that appears to the user as a simple device.
  7. 7. APPLICATION Applications of smart cards:  For financial transactions as a credit or ATM / debit card.  Can store personal id or medical reports.  An employee can use it to open security locks at work and log in.  A student uses it to get books issued from library.
  8. 8. Sensors are electronic devices that sense the physical environment; for eg: there are sensors for temperature, pressure, light etc. The sensor sends the signals to a computer or controller. A sensor maybe a CCD(charge coupled device) camera to identify various objects or a microphone to recognize voices. Sensors in a mobile device facilitate interaction of the device with the surroundings. SENSOR Smart sensors have computational, communication, and networking capabilities. It consists of the sensing device, processor, memory, analog to digital converter(ADC), signal processing element, wireless or infrared receiver and transmitter, and performs communicational and computational functions. Sensors are programmed using assembly language or C.
  9. 9. Typically interested in electronic sensor • convert desired parameter into electrically measurable signal • General Electronic Sensor • primary transducer: changes “real world” parameter into electrical signal • secondary transducer: converts electrical signal into analog or digital values real world • Typical Electronic Sensor primary transducer System Analo g secondary transducer sensor input signal (measurand) sensor sensor data analog/digital microcontroller signal processing communication network display Usable values
  10. 10. Examples of sensors:  Sensor for surrounding light can be used to control the brightness of the LCD screen.  Sensor for measuring the strength of the signal received, controls the amplification of received signals.  Sensor for background noise can be used to control amplification during a call. Examples of sensors used in robotic systems:  Acceleration and force sensors in the right and left feet  Infrared distance sensors at the head and hands  Microphones in ears etc. voice
  11. 11. Conclusion: There are two types of cards contact and contact less cards. Contact cards are gold coated pins and contactless cards communicates with radio frequency. They are constructed from PVC polyester or polycarbonate. Sensor are the electronic devices that sense the environment. Sensors are programmed using assembly language or C. Smart sensors have computational, communication, and networking capabilities
  12. 12. REFERENCE:  Raj Kamal, Mobile Computing, Oxford University Press, 2007 Amjad Umar, Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications,NGE Solutions,2004  Asoke Talukder,Roopa Yavagal, Mobile Computing,McGrawhill,2006  Reza Behravanfar, Phillip Lindsay, Reza B'Far, Mobile Computing Principles:
  13. 13. DO YOU HAVE ANY QUERY??????