Software comes in the form of compiled code (binaries), and the human-readable source code from which these binaries are compiled. Open-source software is software whereby the software is distributed in the form of binaries as well as source code.
The distributor cannot restrict any party from redistributing the software, nor can any party be restricted from making modifications or making derivative works based on the source code.
Open Source Software (OSS) is an example of a second order Internet effect.
The second order is based on collaboration and information sharing (e.g., Facebook)
Programmers throughout the world can be engaged in software development.
The human readable part of a software is the source code. The term "Open Source" describes a software where the source is open for everybody to see (Eric S. Raymond 1998)
Open Source Vs. Closed Source Software CSS OSS Developed by Companies and developers work for economic purposes. Developed By Volunteers work for peer recognition. People know that recognition as a good developer have great advantage Centralized, single site development Decentralized, distributed, multi-site development Users may suggest requirements but they may or may not be implemented User suggests additional features that often get implemented. Release is not too often. There may be only yearly releases. Software is released on a daily or weekly basis
CSS OSS Market believes commercial CSS is highly secure because it is developed by a group of professionals confined to one geographical area under a strict time schedule. But quite often this is not the case, hiding information does not make it secure, it only hides its weaknesses OSSD is not market driven; it is quality driven. Community reaction to bug reports is much faster compared to CSSD which makes it easier to fix bugs and make the component highly secure Security cannot be enhanced by modifying the source code The ability to modify the source code could be a great advantage if you want to deploy a highly secure system
Benefits of Open Source • Cost savings • Utilizing available components as such • Improving and then using components and subsystems • Quality & Flexibility • Visibility • Access to code • Speed & Time • Kick-start with available components • Accelerate with familiar technologies
• Software in-licensing • Done in advance • Available developers • Roadmapping & future • Visible • Can be influenced through discussed • Can be changed by showing up with good code
Development Cycle Internet as communication pool and distribution media market analysis Software development team solves problem new version is released Participators find errors and solve the problem Improved code is published in the Internet development team develops software sell copies of software product product is launched beta version release for beta tester beta tester reports errors to development team development team reproduces the error development team solves problem after OK from pm product cycle model Problem is identified development team reports to the product management Free Software development cycle
Multi-user Networked Operating Systems
Linux :The most popular OSS operating system on the planet
http://www.linux.org Internet/intranet Services and Applications
Apache web server - Accounts for over 60% of the web servers on the Internet http://www.apache.org
What open-source software is available ?
GCC - The compiler for C, C++, Fortran, Java, that comes standard with all the major OSS operating systems http://gcc.gnu.org/
P HP - A very popular scripting language for interactive web development and applications http://www.php.net
Python - A popular object-oriented scripting language for web and desktop development http://www.python.org
MySQL - A very popular open-source RDBMS http://www.mysql.com
PostgreSQL - A popular open-source RDBMS with many advanced features http://www.postgresql.org
OpenOffice.org - An integrated office suite featuring word-processing, spreadsheet, drawing and presentation software largely compatible with Microsoft Office http://www.openoffice.org
Ximian Evolution - A GUI desktop application for personal email, calendar and diary having similar look
The two most common types of OSS licensing are:
BSD Style: this category of license allows one to take an open-source software and redistribute it with or without modifications as proprietary software. (e.g. Apache, BIND )
Open Source Software licensing and copyright
GNU GPL General Public License : It is a license that requires that the product derived from the original open-source software must also be distributed under the same licensing regime as the original. Thus it cannot be turned into a closed-source product. (e.g. Linux)
OSS is developed and/or maintained by volunteer programmers so is a single party fully accountable for it ?
Yes, For Common open source project we find a non-profit foundations or normal businesses supporting the software
For example, Apache is supported through the Apache Software Foundation and Red Hat Linux is supported and maintained by Red Hat Corporation
Can We Count On OSS?
The most frequently cited reasons against using OSS in corporations is the lack of support.
But, There exists professional companies providing service and support for open-source (e.g.Red Hat for Linux, Zend for PHP, and recently Sun Microsystems for MySQL)
Can We Get Support On OSS?
A common charge against open source is that it is inherently insecure because as the source code is readily available. But, it also enables anyone who wishes, solve the weaknesses in the design and coding to discovering the vulnerabilities before the attackers and making the software more secure. Is OSS secure? ?...
Open Source and Free Software are not new to GIS technology but growing faster than ever before
The Internet as communication platform considerably accelerates the adoption of OS/FS GIS technology by users and developers alike
Internet technology itself empowers a much broader user community to access spatial data with GIS software
Standardization can conciliate between sometimes antagonistic proprietary and open development models
OSS IN NEWS: SEP 11, 2009 IBM claims patents promote open-source love
OSS IN NEWS: SEP 12, 2009 White House Director of New Media speaks about Open Source
Microsoft-creates-Codeplex-foundation-to-facilitate-open-source-contributions OSS IN NEWS: SEP 13, 2009
SEP 14, 2009 IBM Throws Out Microsoft Office OSS IN NEWS:
WHAT ELSE NEXT? WHERE WILL MICROSOFT AND OTHER BIG VENDORS STAND AFTER A FEW YEARS……………………..