Stroke In HIV Infection

Dr Prashant Makhija
HIV & AIDS
 Family- Human retroviruses (Retroviridae) & subfamily-lentiviruses

 Human immunodeficiency viruses- HIV-1 a...
Problem Statement
 Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2009
Worldwide
 estimated 33.3 million individual...
CDC classification system for HIV-infection
 Categorizes persons on the basis of clinical conditions associated with HIV
...
Category B: Symptomatic conditions in an HIV-infected
 Bacillary angiomatosis
 Candidiasis, oropharyngeal (thrush) Candi...
Category C: Conditions listed in the AIDS surveillance case
definition
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Candidia...
Neurologic Diseases in Patients with HIV Infection
 Opportunistic infections
 Toxoplasmosis
 Cryptococcosis
 Progressi...
 Result of HIV-1 infection
 Aseptic meningitis
 HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, including HIV
encephalopathy/A...
 Peripheral neuropathy
 Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré
syndrome)
 Chronic inflammatory...
STROKE
 Epidemiology
 Epidemiological data differs depending on the population (i.e. industrialized
countries vs. Sub-Sa...
First Author

Population

Method/Study
Period

Rate

Engstrom (1989)

1,600 patients with
AIDS

case series
1982–1987

12 ...
ISCHEMIC STROKE
 Clinical, radiological, and pathological series, there is an increased risk of IS in
AIDS patients
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 United States (1996-2004) - 82 HIV-infected patients with stroke
 94% had Ischemic Strokes
 Most patients severely imm...
Potential Causes of Ischemic Stroke in AIDS/HIVInfected Patients
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Cardioembolic
Nonbacterial thrombotic endo...
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Prothrombotic states
Protein S deficiency
Antiphospholipid antibodies
Disseminated intravascular coa...
HIV-related Vasculopathy

 Suggested as the mechanism of stroke in HIV/AIDS patients who are
free of other vascular risk ...
 Abnormalities of cerebral perfusion have been documented in
asymptomatic HIV patients using 113Xe single-photon emission...
HAART Regimen and
HIV-Infected/AIDS Patients

 Pre HAART era- incidence of atherosclerosis was low in HIVinfected pts

 ...
 Treatment with PIs has been associated with severe premature
atherosclerotic vascular disease
 Metabolic changes—dyslip...
HEMORRHAGIC STROKE
 ICH is a later complication of HIV infection, generally with CD4 Tlymphocytes cells < 200 mm3

 Stud...
Potential Causes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in
AIDS/HIV-Infected Patients
 Opportunistic infection
 Mycobacterium tuber...
CVT In HIV Patients
 HIV infected patients are predisposed to venous thrombosis
(Central & Peripheral Vasculature)

 CVT...
 Etiology
 Clotting factor abnormalities- deficiencies of protein C, protein S,
heparin cofactor II, and antithrombin
 ...
CONCLUSIONS
 Infection with HIV may contribute to an increased risk of stroke
 Strokes tend to occur in young patients w...
THANK YOU
Stroke in hiv
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Stroke in hiv

  1. 1. Stroke In HIV Infection Dr Prashant Makhija
  2. 2. HIV & AIDS  Family- Human retroviruses (Retroviridae) & subfamily-lentiviruses  Human immunodeficiency viruses- HIV-1 and HIV-2  HIV-1- most common cause of HIV disease throughout the world  HIV-2 - originally confined to West Africa, now identified throughout the world  HIV-1- subgroups M, N, O, P  HIV-2 - subgroups A through G  The AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by the HIV-1 M group viruses Harrison’ s Principles Of Internal Medicine. 18th edition. Ch.189
  3. 3. Problem Statement  Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) 2009 Worldwide  estimated 33.3 million individuals were living with HIV infection  ~ 50% are female, and 2.5 million (7.5%) are children <15 years  AIDS deaths- totaled 1.8 million (including 2.6 lakh children <15 years) India  estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS 2.39 million  ~ 39% are female and 3.5% are children  1.72 lakh people were reported to have died from AIDS-related causes`
  4. 4. CDC classification system for HIV-infection  Categorizes persons on the basis of clinical conditions associated with HIV infection and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts CD4+ T Cell Categories A Asymptomatic, Acute (Primary) HIV or PGL B Symptomatic, Not A or C Conditions C AIDSIndicator Conditions >500/µL A1 B1 C1 200–499/µL A2 B2 C2 <200/µL A3 B3 C3  Once individuals have had a clinical condition in category B, their disease classification cannot be reverted back to category A, even if the condition resolves; the same holds true for category C in relation to category B Harrison’ s Principles Of Internal Medicine. 18th edition. Ch.189
  5. 5. Category B: Symptomatic conditions in an HIV-infected  Bacillary angiomatosis  Candidiasis, oropharyngeal (thrush) Candidiasis, vulvovaginal; persistent, frequent, or poorly responsive to therapy  Cervical dysplasia (moderate or severe)/cervical carcinoma in situ  Constitutional symptoms, such as fever (38.5 C) or diarrhea lasting >1 month  Hairy leukoplakia,  Oral Herpes zoster (shingles), involving at least two distinct episodes or more than one dermatome  Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura  Listeriosis  Pelvic inflammatory disease, particularly if complicated by tuboovarian abscess  Peripheral neuropathy
  6. 6. Category C: Conditions listed in the AIDS surveillance case definition                      Candidiasis of bronchi, trachea, or lungs ,Candidiasis esophageal Cervical cancer, invasive Coccidioidomycosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Cryptococcosis, extrapulmonary Cryptosporidiosis, chronic intestinal (>1 month's duration) Cytomegalovirus disease (other than liver, spleen, or nodes) Cytomegalovirus retinitis (with loss of vision) HIV-related Encephalopathy Herpes simplex: chronic ulcer(s) (>1 month's duration); or bronchitis, pneumonia, or esophagitis Histoplasmosis, disseminated or extrapulmonary Isosporiasis, chronic intestinal (>1 month's duration) Kaposi's sarcoma Lymphoma, Burkitt's (or equivalent term) Primary Brain Lymphoma Mycobacterium avium complex or M. kansasii, disseminated or extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis, any site (pulmonary or extrapulmonary) Mycobacterium, other species or unidentified species, disseminated or extrapulmonary Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Pneumonia, recurrent Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Salmonella septicemia, recurrent Toxoplasmosis of brain Wasting syndrome due to HIV
  7. 7. Neurologic Diseases in Patients with HIV Infection  Opportunistic infections  Toxoplasmosis  Cryptococcosis  Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy  Cytomegalovirus  Syphilis  Mycobacterium tuberculosis  HTLV-I infection  Amebiasis  Neoplasms  Primary CNS lymphoma  Kaposi's sarcoma
  8. 8.  Result of HIV-1 infection  Aseptic meningitis  HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, including HIV encephalopathy/AIDS dementia complex  Myelopathy  Vacuolar myelopathy  Pure sensory ataxia  Paresthesia/dysesthesia
  9. 9.  Peripheral neuropathy  Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (Guillain-Barré syndrome)  Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP)  Mononeuritis multiplex  Distal symmetric polyneuropathy  Myopathy
  10. 10. STROKE  Epidemiology  Epidemiological data differs depending on the population (i.e. industrialized countries vs. Sub-Saharan Africa) and the date of the study period [i.e.before vs. after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) implementation]  The reported rate of stroke occurrence varies between 0.5 and 5% in different clinical series  Necropsy studies of HIV-infected subjects have shown a higher prevalence  Pathological findings- asymptomatic  Most clinical series consistently show that strokes continue to occur at young age (< 50 years) in HIV-infected patients  HIV infection and particularly AIDS appear to be associated with an increased risk of stroke Souvik Sen et.al. Recent Developments regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2012;33:209–218
  11. 11. First Author Population Method/Study Period Rate Engstrom (1989) 1,600 patients with AIDS case series 1982–1987 12 (0.75%) Connor (2000) 183 necropsies of HIV cases necropsy series 10 (5.5%) Evers (2003) 772 patients with HIV cohort study 1993–2001 15 IS/TIA (1.9%) Corral (2009) 2,012 patients with HIV treated with HAART case series 1996–2008 27 IS/TIA in 25 patients (1.2%)
  12. 12. ISCHEMIC STROKE  Clinical, radiological, and pathological series, there is an increased risk of IS in AIDS patients         South Africa (2000–2006) 67 HIV- infected with Stroke 96% pts. Ischemic strokes 91% were younger than 46 years opportunistic infections- 37%, most common infection was tuberculosis (15%) HIV-associated vasculopathy-20% Cardioembolism- (14%) patients At the time of their stroke, 46% of these patients had CD4 counts < 200 cells/mm3 Traditional vascular risk factors were uncommon in these HIV-infected patients with stroke Tipping B et.al. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2007;78:1320–1324
  13. 13.  United States (1996-2004) - 82 HIV-infected patients with stroke  94% had Ischemic Strokes  Most patients severely immunosuppressed at the time of the stroke (85% had counts < 200cells/mm3)  Mechanism - large artery atherosclerosis in 12%, cardiac embolism in 18%,small artery occlusion in 18%, other determined cause in 23% and cryptogenic in 29% Ortiz G et. al. Mechanisms of ischemic stroke in HIV-infected patients. Neurology 2007; 68: 1257–1261
  14. 14. Potential Causes of Ischemic Stroke in AIDS/HIVInfected Patients        Cardioembolic Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis Infective endocarditis HIV myocarditis Myxoid valvular degeneration Mural thrombus Dilated cardiomyopathy             Cerebral opportunistic vasculitis/vasculopathy Cytomegalovirus Mycobacterium tuberculosis Varicella-Zoster virus Syphilis Cryptococcosis Mucormycosis Aspergillosis Candida albicans Toxoplasmosis Coccidioidomycosis Trypanosomiasis
  15. 15.            Prothrombotic states Protein S deficiency Antiphospholipid antibodies Disseminated intravascular coagulation HIV-related vasculitis/vasculopathy Impaired vasoreactivity Impaired vascular bed-specific homeostasis Accelerated atherosclerosis with protease inhibitors Dyslipidemia, insulin resistance Endothelial dysfunction Cryptogenic
  16. 16. HIV-related Vasculopathy  Suggested as the mechanism of stroke in HIV/AIDS patients who are free of other vascular risk factors  Direct infection of the vessel walls by HIV  Characterized by small-vessels wall thickening, pigment deposition with vessel wall mineralization, and occasional perivascular inflammatory cells infiltrates  Vascular changes are similar to those found in elderly patients with vascular risk factors and cerebral atherosclerosis Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  17. 17.  Abnormalities of cerebral perfusion have been documented in asymptomatic HIV patients using 113Xe single-photon emission computed tomography  Suggesting alterations of cerebral resistance at the arteriolar level  Clinical relevance of HIV-related vasculopathy is still debatable Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  18. 18. HAART Regimen and HIV-Infected/AIDS Patients  Pre HAART era- incidence of atherosclerosis was low in HIVinfected pts  With the introduction of HAART regimen- ↑ incidence of atherosclerosis  Mechanisms  ↑ life expectancy- age related atherosclerosis  Proatherosclerotic effects of the HIV infection itself  Metabolic changes resulting from HAART regimen Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  19. 19.  Treatment with PIs has been associated with severe premature atherosclerotic vascular disease  Metabolic changes—dyslipidemia, insulin resistance  Lipid abnormalities may be present in 24 to 64%of patients treated with PIs  Studies have preferentially implicated Ritonavir  Fibric acid derivatives and statins can lower HAART-associated increases in dyslipidemia- Pravastatin showing least interactions with PIs Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  20. 20. HEMORRHAGIC STROKE  ICH is a later complication of HIV infection, generally with CD4 Tlymphocytes cells < 200 mm3  Studies report conflicting data regarding the incidence of ICH in HIV-infected pts.  Cole and coworkers in the first population case-based study found an incidence of 0.11% per year for ICH with an adjusted RR of 12.7% (95% CI, 4 to 40) Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  21. 21. Potential Causes of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in AIDS/HIV-Infected Patients  Opportunistic infection  Mycobacterium tuberculosis  Toxoplasmosis  Opportunistic neoplasm  Lymphoma  Metastatic Kaposi sarcoma  Coagulation/Bleeding disorders  Disseminated intravascular coagulation  Thrombocytopenia  Vascular  Mycotic aneurysm (IVDA) Amélia Nogueira Pinto . Semin Cerebrovasc Dis Stroke 5:40-46
  22. 22. CVT In HIV Patients  HIV infected patients are predisposed to venous thrombosis (Central & Peripheral Vasculature)  CVT has been reported as presenting feature in HIV-infected patients  Clinical presentation and radiological features are similar to dural venous thrombosis of any cause M Saravanan et al. Brain: non-infective and non-neoplastic manifestations of HIV. The British Journal of Radiology, 82 (2009), 956–965 Muhammad Wasif Saif et.al. HIV and Thrombosis: A Review. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. January 2001, 15(1): 15-24
  23. 23.  Etiology  Clotting factor abnormalities- deficiencies of protein C, protein S, heparin cofactor II, and antithrombin  Antibodies- presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and the lupus anticoagulant  Presence of concurrent infectious or neoplastic diseases  Treatment  Includes anticoagulation and treatment of the underlying disorder M Saravanan et al. Brain: non-infective and non-neoplastic manifestations of HIV. The British Journal of Radiology, 82 (2009), 956–965 Muhammad Wasif Saif et.al. HIV and Thrombosis: A Review. AIDS Patient Care and STDs. January 2001, 15(1): 15-24
  24. 24. CONCLUSIONS  Infection with HIV may contribute to an increased risk of stroke  Strokes tend to occur in young patients with uncontrolled HIV infection and more severe immunosuppression(CD4 <200/ mm3)  The most common underlying causes of ischemic stroke- Cardioembolic , infectious vasculitis, hypercoaguability and HIV vasculopathy  Hemorrhagic stroke - coagulation disturbances, thrombocytopenia, intracerebral tumors or CNS infection  The widespread adoption of highly active antiretroviral regimens has resulted in a decrease in the frequency of many of the neurological complications of HIV  However its effect may be counterbalanced by the proatherosclerotic effects of Protease Inhibitors
  25. 25. THANK YOU

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