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A decision-support system is an integrated set of computer tool that allows a decision- maker to interact directly with computers to create information and it useful in making semi-structured and unstructured decisions.
The software components for decision-support systems are a language system which enables the user to interact with the decision-support system, a problem-processing system.
Decision Support System (DSS) is a computer-based information system that
supports business and organizational decision-making activities.
A properly designed DSS is an interactive software-based system planned to
help decision makers and to identify and solve problems and make decisions.
Decision support system helps in making a decision.
It is mostly used by managers, staff and also product / service suppliers. It is used to query a database or data warehouse – (a database designed to store data in such a way that to allow for its querying and analysis by users) to seek specific answers for specific purposes.
Examples: computer-based databases that have a query system to check including the corporation of data to add value to existing database.
Information Analysis System :
That provide access to a sequence of decision-oriented databases.
Information from several files, tables are combined.
The information from one file, table can be combined with information from other files to answer a specific query.
Knowledge-driven DSS or 'knowledgebase' category covering a broad range of systems, covering users within the organization.
for example, consumers of a business. It is essentially used to provide management advise or to choose products / services.
Model-based DSS :
Model-based support systems incorporate the ability to manipulate data to generate statistical and financial reports, as well as simulation models, to aid decision-makers. Model-based decision support systems can be extremely useful in forecasting the effects of changes in business processes, as they can use past data.
Accounting Models :
Use Accounting data
Provide accounting models capacity
Can not handle uncertainty
That calculate the consequences (effect) of possible actions.
Ability to view data / information and sensing the problem through the
Ability to understand and evaluate the business performance.
Ability to understand the problem and its result, and ability to judge the
impact on business.
Ability to evaluate the impact of any change in the business performance and
enabling to focus on the areas where impact is negative.
Ability to view the complex scenario or problem and to analyze it and develop alternatives to solve the problem.
Ability to make a better decisions due to quick analysis.
Ability to control the risk exposure in decisions.
All these abilities together make a decision maker, a capable person to handle any complex business scenario or problem. Manager through DSS, builds capability to execute the decision-making process ‘Intelligent – Design – Choice – Implement ’ built by Herbert Simon.
In Tacit knowledge is what people carry in their minds, it is very difficult to find out. We are not ourselves aware of the knowledge for many times. we hold the knowledge and also how valuable, it can turn out to be if shared with others. The transfer of tacit knowledge mainly happens through personal contact and trust but this is considered to be very valuable. Many times this is not shared, primarily because we are unable to communicate all, we know.
Tacit knowledge is knowledge based on experience and observation.
Tacit knowledge is the knowing of things without knowing how you know.
For example, most people can speak grammatically without being able to explain the rules of grammar. This is Tacit knowledge.
In Explicit knowledge is what is documented or codifies and can be transferred easily to others. The processes, procedures, journals, manuals, drawings or any such artifacts come under Explicit knowledge. knowledge that can be quantified (measured). It can be written down and clearly communicated to another human being. It's tangible (like material) . There is no need to gain experience. It's something that has been converted to a rule. (standard)
Explicit knowledge is the type of knowledge conveyed through articles, books, seminars, and video presentations. There is no need to have direct experience with something to have explicit knowledge about it. This is one of the criticisms of college students who are just graduating. They have a lot of "book knowledge" (explicit knowledge) but lack real world experience (tacit knowledge).
explicit knowledge is the knowing of things that you can explain.
For example, stating to someone that Tooting is in London is a piece of explicit knowledge that can be written down and understood.
Knowledge that is easy to communicate is called explicit knowledge.
Data : Data are specific, objective facts or observations. (i.e. it can be illustrated as a fact, which has not been structured and data are collection of facts, measurements, and statistics.
Information : Information is a relevant, structured and meaningful data. (i.e. data endowed (capability) with relevance and purpose and it is organized or processed data that are timely, accurate)
Knowledge : Knowledge is something that comes from information processed by using data. (i.e. Knowledge is applied by knowledge workers who are involved in a particular job or task. People use their knowledge in making decisions as well as many other actions and Knowledge is information that is contextual, relevant, and actionable)
Another important term in context of knowledge management is IC, intellectual
‘ Knowledge and IC‘ is a set made of information, ability, experience which gives
the organization very competitive and expertise.
Knowledge In simpler terms, Knowledge Management seeks to make the best use of the knowledge that is available to an organization, creating new knowledge in the process. Input Human Response / understanding Signal Indication of something Data Some measure of this indication (i.e. measurement of data or things can be evaluated) Information Measure in context of some other thing adding focus and clarity (to bring clarity in data) Expertise Information developed on the basis of principles for problem solving. Knowledge Developing capabilities for effective behaviour. IC Set of knowledge uniquely took by the person.
KMS architecture deals with knowledge identification, generation and delivery for application in business.
KMS Architecture KMS Manipulation of knowledge Surveying and locating Definition of Knowledge Knowledge Holding Knowledge Generation Identification of Knowledge Creation of KDB Build knowledge Structure Application Methods Access Control Knowledge Delivery Storage and security
Identification of Knowledge :
Knowledge needs to be identified and defined for processing. The next step is to survey for locating the source for knowledge in the organization. On locating the valid source, it is necessary to put into a structure for understanding and application.
Decision-making or problem solving is a unique situation with uncertainty and complexity. In such cases, flexible systems (open systems) are required to solve the problems. Most of the situations, termed as the unstructured situations, adopt two methods of problem solving,
Knowledge based expert system (KBES) method
Generalized method :
The generalized problem solving approach considers the generally related (appropriate) constraints, examines all possible alternatives and selects one by trial and error method with reference to a goal.
All the alternatives are considered and the resolution of the problem is by trial and error, with no guarantee, whether it is the best or the optimum.
The generalized approach is dominated by a procedure or method.
Knowledge based expert system method :
The knowledge based problem solving approach considers the specific (particular, standard) constraints within an organization.
KBES examines the limited problem alternatives within a knowledge domain and selects the one with knowledge based reasoning with reference to a goal.
In the KBES, only limited alternatives are considered and resolution is made by a logical reasoning with guarantee for the optimum.
The knowledge based approach is dominated by the reasoning process based on the knowledge.
The KBES considers knowledge as a base, the question arises whose knowledge is to be considered as a basis. It is generally agreed that an expert has knowledge and therefore, he/she becomes the source of knowledge.
Knowledge is with experienced people and experience, is broad and distributed. Hence, a system is required which will hold the knowledge of experienced people and provide an application path to solve the problem.
To build a knowledge-based system, certain prerequisites are required.
The first prerequisite is that a person with the ability to solve the problem.
The second prerequisite is that such an expert should be able to clear with the knowledge specific problem.
It is a tool to understand the knowledge. Having created a knowledge database, it is necessary to create the inference mechanism. The mechanism is based on the principle of reasoning.
There are two types of strategy.
Backward chaining is a goal-based strategy and Forward chaining is a data-based strategy.
For example, if there is a breakdown in the plant, then looking backward for the symptoms (indication, warning sign) and causes, based on the knowledge database. It is called as backward chaining. However, if the data which is being collected in the process of plant operations are understand with the knowledge base, it can be predicated whether the plan will stop or work at low efficiency. The data is used to understand the performance of the plant. It is called forward chaining.
The choice between backward or forward chaining depends on the kind of situation. To resolve the problem after the event, one has to go from goal (breakdown, stoppage) to data (i.e. backward chaining). But if the question is of preventing (stop, avoid) a breakdown, then data is directing near to goal (breakdown, stoppage) (i.e. forward chaining)
It is a tool applied to the inference mechanism to select and understand. The user control mechanism uses the knowledge base in guiding the inference process.
In the KBES, three components are independent of each other. This helps in modifying the system without affecting all the components.
In the database application, where the data is independent of its application.
In KBES, knowledge is independent from application.
The KBES database, stores the data.
For Example: the knowledge base Health Care would have a knowledge such as “ obesity leads to high blood pressure ” , “ there are 60 percent chances that smokers may suffer from cancer ” . The KBES stores and uses the knowledge, accept judgments, questions intelligently, provides explanation with reasons.
In the KBES, the knowledge database uses certain methods of knowledge representation. This methods are
Knowledge is represented on the principle of predicate functions and the symbolic data structures which have a meaning built into it are known as semantic.
A semantic network is a network of nodes and arcs connecting the nodes.
The nodes represents an entity and the arc represents association with a true and false meaning built into it. The association and meaning uses the principle of inheritance.
For Example : All animals with four legs have a tail and a dog has four legs, hence the dog has a tail. The system inherits from the fact that the dog has four legs, hence the dog is an animal and therefore a dog has a tail or not.
The second method of representing the knowledge is putting into the frame. The concept of frame is to put the related knowledge in one area called as frame. The frame can be related to other frames.
A frame consists of the slots representing a part of the knowledge. Each slot has a value which is expressed in the form of data, information, process and rules.
The third method of representing the knowledge is ruled based. A rule is a conditional statement of an action that is supposed to take place, under certain conditions.
Some rules can be constructed in the form of ‘ If Then ’ statements.
SLOT : Symptoms Value (Temperature more than 80 degrees) (Water Boiling) (Speed Hold up) FRAME Engine Over Heating SLOT :Inspection Value (Check Water Value) (Check Oil in Engine) (Check Carburetor) SLOT : Treatment Value (Stop Engine and Drain Water) (Start Engine) (Increase Oil Level) (Adjust Carburetor)