MIS:  Management  Information System
<ul><li>MIS is acronym of three word : </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>System...
<ul><li>Information :  Information is processed data which is used to trigger certain actions or gain better understanding...
<ul><li>Concepts of Data and Information : </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in his or her day-to-day work gathers and processes ...
<ul><li>The data on milk purchased each day may be processed in other ways too to obtain different information. For exampl...
<ul><li>Information is processed data which is used to trigger certain actions or gain better understanding of what the da...
 
<ul><li>Difference between data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Data  </li></ul><ul><li>Data is raw material which is un...
<ul><li>Data is in raw-form and is the input. </li></ul><ul><li>Data cannot be understood or made use of by the users. </l...
<ul><li>Data by itself alone is not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations and recordings are done to obtain data. </...
<ul><li>Types of Information :  </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of information which are following: </li></ul>...
<ul><li>Strategic Information :  </li></ul><ul><li>This information is needed for long range planning. </li></ul><ul><li>S...
<ul><li>2. Tactical information :  </li></ul><ul><li>This type of information is needed to take short range decisions to r...
<ul><li>3. Operational Information : </li></ul><ul><li>This type of information is needed for day-to-day operations of a b...
<ul><li>4. Statutory information:  </li></ul><ul><li>Information and reports which are required by law to be sent to gover...
<ul><li>Table shows information needs in managing a retail store. </li></ul>Type Examples  Manager Strategic Unstructured ...
Type Examples  Manager Operational <ul><li>List of items to be reordered </li></ul><ul><li>List of defaulting customers </...
<ul><li>Why do we need a computer-based information system? </li></ul><ul><li>There are so many reasons for that we need a...
<ul><li>As the volume of data has increased and the variety of information and their timeliness is now of great importance...
<ul><li>The general socio-economic environment demands more up to date and accurate information. </li></ul><ul><li>Human s...
<ul><li>Qualities of Information : </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of information refers to its fitness for use, or its reliabil...
<ul><li>Accurate:  </li></ul><ul><li>The information must be accurate. Accuracy means more than just one plus one equals t...
<ul><li>2.  Complete : </li></ul><ul><li>The information which is provided to a manager must be complete and should meet a...
<ul><li>4.  Timely : </li></ul><ul><li>Timely means that information must reach the recipients within the prescribed time-...
<ul><li>For example, if a daily newspaper is delivered a day later, it becomes useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date : </l...
<ul><li>The MIS should serve reports to managers which are useful and the information helps them make decisions. </li></ul...
<ul><li>8.  Significance Understandable : </li></ul><ul><li>The information should be presented when he needs it and where...
<ul><li>Management Structure:   </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the business is small it may be possible for one person to do...
 
<ul><li>The middle level managers will have many assistants who are responsible for specific day-to-day operations. They a...
 
<ul><li>In this pyramid the Chief Executive, being overall in charge of policy, will require strategic information. </li><...
<ul><li>Management and information requirement: </li></ul><ul><li>There are different management functions: </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Human Resource Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The major goal of HR management is to make best use of the available ...
<ul><li>Strategic information: </li></ul><ul><li>Long range HR requirements at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Policies...
<ul><li>Tactical information: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic make-up of personnel a...
<ul><li>Operational information </li></ul><ul><li>Routine assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Skills inventory </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>Production Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of production management is to optimally deploy human resources,...
<ul><li>Information on the introduction of new production technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying best product mix. </l...
<ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring up to date production information by examining assemblies, detecting like...
<ul><li>Materials Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of materials management is to have readily available materia...
<ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Developing vendor performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the impact on mate...
<ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Goods received, rejected and issues </li></ul><ul><li>List of excess (overload) and ...
<ul><li>Finance Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of this function is to ensure financial capability of the orga...
<ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Variance between budget and expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Large outstanding payment/receip...
<ul><li>Marketing Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of this function is to maximize sales and ensure customer satisfa...
<ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising techniques and analysis of their impact </li></ul><ul><li>Customer preferen...
<ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Sales analysis by regions, customer class, sales persons </li></ul><ul><li>Sales tar...
<ul><li>Research, Design and Development Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of this function is to continuously improv...
<ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Setting intermediate goals for projects and assess progress </li></ul><ul><li>Checking ...
<ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Progress against goals </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeted expenses versus actuals </li></ul>...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Book 1 chapter-1

549 views
474 views

Published on

Management Information System
Chapter-1

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
549
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
22
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Book 1 chapter-1

  1. 1. MIS: Management Information System
  2. 2. <ul><li>MIS is acronym of three word : </li></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>System </li></ul><ul><li>Management : The process of planning, organizing, Leading and Controlling people within a group in order to achieve goals. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>The art of getting things done through and with the people in formally organized groups. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Information : Information is processed data which is used to trigger certain actions or gain better understanding of what the data implies. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that is processed and is presented in a form which assists decision making. </li></ul><ul><li>System: A set of elements joined together to achieve a common objective is called system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Concepts of Data and Information : </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone in his or her day-to-day work gathers and processes data. </li></ul><ul><li>For e.g., when a house wife buys milk every morning, she writes in a notebook the number of liters she bought. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the month she adds the data in the notebook and multiplies it by the price per litre. </li></ul><ul><li>The result is the information she uses to pay the milkman. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The data on milk purchased each day may be processed in other ways too to obtain different information. For example, if the total milk bought in a month is divided by the number of members in the family, it gives information on average milk consumption per head. </li></ul><ul><li>If the total monthly expense on milk is divided by the monthly income of the family, it gives information on proportion (amount) of income spent on milk. </li></ul><ul><li>Data and Information are not the same. Data is the raw material with which we start. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Information is processed data which is used to trigger certain actions or gain better understanding of what the data implies. </li></ul><ul><li>So data is the raw material with which we begin. Information is the finished product. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is useless unless it is processed to obtain information. Where as information is valuable. </li></ul><ul><li>Figure shows that information from process 1 becomes data for process 2. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Difference between data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul><ul><li>Data is raw material which is unprocessed </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be in the form of numbers, characters, symbols, or even pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is generally disorganized and disjointed in the form. </li></ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul><ul><li>Information is data that has been processed. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of these data which conveys some meaningful idea is information. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is properly arranged, classified and organized. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Data is in raw-form and is the input. </li></ul><ul><li>Data cannot be understood or made use of by the users. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not depend upon information. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is in the finished form and is the output. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is understood and used by the users for taking their decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>It is based upon and derived from data. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Data by itself alone is not significant. </li></ul><ul><li>Observations and recordings are done to obtain data. </li></ul><ul><li>Data is the lowest level of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not bring meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. XA1010 it is data </li></ul><ul><li>Information is significant by itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis is done to obtain information. </li></ul><ul><li>Information is the second level. </li></ul><ul><li>It can be useful and it brings meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg. XA1010 and it is your license no. then it is information </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Types of Information : </li></ul><ul><li>There are different types of information which are following: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Information </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical Information </li></ul><ul><li>Operational Information </li></ul><ul><li>Statutory information </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Strategic Information : </li></ul><ul><li>This information is needed for long range planning. </li></ul><ul><li>Such information cannot be obtained by clerical processing of data. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of information is less structured. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of important information in strategic planning is small and is difficult to obtain. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.1. The store owner may like to decide whether to expand his business by stocking new varieties of items in his store. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Whether to open new branch. </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>2. Tactical information : </li></ul><ul><li>This type of information is needed to take short range decisions to run the business efficiently. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical information requires specifically designed processing of data. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of it is obtainable easily from day-to-day collection of routine data. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of tactical data is more than strategic data. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., The information on fast & slow moving items may be used to take the tactical decision to stock more of the former and give discount on the latter. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>3. Operational Information : </li></ul><ul><li>This type of information is needed for day-to-day operations of a business organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Operational information is usually easy to obtain by straightforward clerical processing of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of such information is much more than tactical information. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g.1. The list of items out of stock on a particular day would be used to trigger the action of ordering them. </li></ul><ul><li>2. List of customers unpaid bills beyond due date would be used to send reminders. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>4. Statutory information: </li></ul><ul><li>Information and reports which are required by law to be sent to government authorities are normally clearly specified and require straightforward processing of data. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Table shows information needs in managing a retail store. </li></ul>Type Examples Manager Strategic Unstructured <ul><li>Should new branches be opened? </li></ul><ul><li>Should the business be diversified? </li></ul>Chief Executive Tactical <ul><li>How to rate vendors? </li></ul><ul><li>Should credit limits of customers be changed? </li></ul><ul><li>How much of each item should be stocked? </li></ul><ul><li>How much should be re-ordered and from whom? </li></ul><ul><li>Should new discount policies be introduced? </li></ul>Middle Level Managers
  16. 17. Type Examples Manager Operational <ul><li>List of items to be reordered </li></ul><ul><li>List of defaulting customers </li></ul><ul><li>Excess or deficient supply by vendors. List of late supplies by vendors. List of outstanding bills to be paid. </li></ul><ul><li>Daily ledger accounts. </li></ul>Line Managers
  17. 18. <ul><li>Why do we need a computer-based information system? </li></ul><ul><li>There are so many reasons for that we need a computer based information system. These are: </li></ul><ul><li>The size of organizations is becoming larger. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-based processing enables the same data to be processed in many ways, based on needs, thereby allowing managers to look at the performance of an organization from different angles. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>As the volume of data has increased and the variety of information and their timeliness is now of great importance, computer based information processing has now become essential for efficiently managing organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are now distributed with many branches. </li></ul><ul><li>Markets are becoming competitive. To maintain balance of payments in a country, organizations have to be internationally competitive. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>The general socio-economic environment demands more up to date and accurate information. </li></ul><ul><li>Human society is changing faster than ever before. Governmental regulations have become complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have to interact with many other interested parties such as consumer groups, environmental protection groups, financial institutions, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>All the above developments demand decision making based on up to date, well analyzed. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Qualities of Information : </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of information refers to its fitness for use, or its reliability. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the attributes of information, which influence the quality of information are: </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate </li></ul><ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy </li></ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant </li></ul><ul><li>Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Significance Understandable </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Accurate: </li></ul><ul><li>The information must be accurate. Accuracy means more than just one plus one equals two. It means that information is free from mistakes and errors. </li></ul><ul><li>It conveys an accurate picture to the recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy also means that the information is free from bias. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrong information given to management would result in wrong decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>If MIS supplies accurate information, the confidence of the managers will be strengthened and as a result, system implementation will be a success. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>2. Complete : </li></ul><ul><li>The information which is provided to a manager must be complete and should meet all his needs. It should include all data and not exclude some. </li></ul><ul><li>Incomplete information may result in wrong decisions and thus may prove costly to the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Trustworthy : </li></ul><ul><li>It should also be trustworthy. The processing should not hide some vital information. </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>4. Timely : </li></ul><ul><li>Timely means that information must reach the recipients within the prescribed time-frame. </li></ul><ul><li>For effective decision-making, information must reach the decision-maker at the right time. , i.e. recipients must get information when they need it. Delayed information may sometimes be of no value. </li></ul><ul><li>Timely information can ensure correct executive action at an early stage. </li></ul><ul><li>The expected losses could be eliminated/ minimized and gains maximized by proper management of operations. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>For example, if a daily newspaper is delivered a day later, it becomes useless. </li></ul><ul><li>Up-to-date : </li></ul><ul><li>It should include all data available at the time of processing. </li></ul><ul><li>A newspaper delivered in time early in the morning but reporting a week old news is timely but not up to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant : </li></ul><ul><li>Information is said to be relevant if it answers specifically for the recipient what, why where, when , who and why? </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>The MIS should serve reports to managers which are useful and the information helps them make decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Brief / Adequacy : </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential to give brief summarized information to ensure quick action. </li></ul><ul><li>Adequacy means information must be sufficient in quantity. i.e., MIS must provide reports containing information which is required in the deciding processes of decision-making. </li></ul><ul><li>Inadequacy of information leads to a crisis, information overload results in chaos. </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>8. Significance Understandable : </li></ul><ul><li>The information should be presented when he needs it and where he needs it in such a way that he may immediately perceive its significance. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, Presentation of information in a graphical form such as bar charts, pie charts, etc, ensures quick recognition of the significance of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also essential to present the information in an attractive format which a user can immediately understand. </li></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Management Structure: </li></ul><ul><li>As long as the business is small it may be possible for one person to do all the functions. </li></ul><ul><li>As the business grows it becomes essential to delegate responsibility to specialists in each area. </li></ul><ul><li>In fig there is a typical functions of managers of each category. The manager of each function is known as a middle level manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle level managers report to the Chief Executive who is overall in charge of the organization. </li></ul>
  28. 30. <ul><li>The middle level managers will have many assistants who are responsible for specific day-to-day operations. They are known as line managers. </li></ul><ul><li>The management structure is a pyramid as shown in figure. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>In this pyramid the Chief Executive, being overall in charge of policy, will require strategic information. </li></ul><ul><li>The middle level managers require tactical information to perform their function and the line managers being responsible for day-to-day operations would require operational information. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>Management and information requirement: </li></ul><ul><li>There are different management functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Human Resource Management </li></ul><ul><li>Production Management </li></ul><ul><li>Materials Management </li></ul><ul><li>Finance Management </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Management </li></ul><ul><li>Research, Design and Development Management </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Human Resource Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The major goal of HR management is to make best use of the available human resources in the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To attain this goal, the information necessary at various levels of management is as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic information </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical information </li></ul><ul><li>Operational information </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Strategic information: </li></ul><ul><li>Long range HR requirements at different levels </li></ul><ul><li>Policies on wages and incentives such as stock options </li></ul><ul><li>Policies on HR development and training </li></ul><ul><li>Policies on personnel welfare (interests) and facilities. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Tactical information: </li></ul><ul><li>Performance appraisal </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic make-up of personnel and its impact on retirement. </li></ul><ul><li>Production incentives and relation to productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Morale of Personnel </li></ul><ul><li>Absentee reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Leave and overtime policies </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel deployment policies. </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Operational information </li></ul><ul><li>Routine assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Skills inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Loans/advances and recoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Leave record. </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Production Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of production management is to optimally deploy human resources, machines and materials to maximize production of goods by the organization. </li></ul><ul><li>To attain this goal the following types of information would be needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly and monthly production quotas and alternate schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Policies on machine replacement, growth and transformation </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>Information on the introduction of new production technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying best product mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying and controlling areas of high cost such as work in progress inventories </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying critical bottlenecks (block) in production </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying alternate production schedules based on tools, machines, material, and personnel availability </li></ul><ul><li>Performance measures of machines to decide on replacement. </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring up to date production information by examining assemblies, detecting likely shortages and giving early warning </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling better production dynamically </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance schedules of machines </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring tools, machines, and human resource availability. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>Materials Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of materials management is to have readily available materials needed by the organization and to keep optimal levels of stock of items. </li></ul><ul><li>To achieve this goal the following types of information would be needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Developing vendors for critical items </li></ul><ul><li>Determining optimal levels of inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Determining quantity of material to be ordered from different vendors </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing varieties of inventory. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Developing vendor performance measures </li></ul><ul><li>Determining the impact on material cost, availability and procurement with design changes and new product introduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Determining optimal reorder levels </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling high value inventory. </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Goods received, rejected and issues </li></ul><ul><li>List of excess (overload) and deficient (poor) items received </li></ul><ul><li>List of items rejected </li></ul><ul><li>Critical items received </li></ul><ul><li>Backlog of supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Stores in transit and in inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Value of inventory in hand. </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>Finance Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The main goal of this function is to ensure financial capability of the organization, enforce financial discipline and plan and monitor the budget. </li></ul><ul><li>The various levels of information required to meet these goals are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Methods of financing </li></ul><ul><li>Pricing policies </li></ul><ul><li>Tax planning </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Variance between budget and expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Large outstanding payment/receipts </li></ul><ul><li>Credit and payment status </li></ul><ul><li>Cost increases and pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of taxation on pricing </li></ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic financial reports </li></ul><ul><li>Budget status to all functional managers </li></ul><ul><li>Tax returns </li></ul><ul><li>Share registration and transfers </li></ul><ul><li>Profit and loss account </li></ul><ul><li>Payments and receipts </li></ul><ul><li>Payroll, provident fund accounts </li></ul><ul><li>Calculation of direct costs-overheads-standard cost. </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Marketing Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of this function is to maximize sales and ensure customer satisfaction. To attain this goal the various types of information needed are: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Search for new markets and marketing strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of competitors strategy (plan, policy) </li></ul><ul><li>Technology and demographic forecasts and product changes. </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising techniques and analysis of their impact </li></ul><ul><li>Customer preference surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Correlation of prices and sales </li></ul><ul><li>Sales force deployment and targets </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring alternate marketing channels. Timing of special sales campaigns. </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Sales analysis by regions, customer class, sales persons </li></ul><ul><li>Sales target versus achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Market share and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal variations </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of model changes </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of sales outlets </li></ul><ul><li>Costs of sales campaigns and benefit. </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Research, Design and Development Management: </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of this function is to continuously improve existing products and develop new products and processes. </li></ul><ul><li>To attain this goal following types of information are needed: </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic </li></ul><ul><li>Which products are to be developed? </li></ul><ul><li>What type of improvements are required? </li></ul><ul><li>What long range research is most promising? </li></ul><ul><li>What technical collaboration would be appropriate? </li></ul><ul><li>What areas would require new human resource inputs? </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>Tactical </li></ul><ul><li>Setting intermediate goals for projects and assess progress </li></ul><ul><li>Checking availability of equipment and appropriate selection </li></ul><ul><li>Determining quantity of resources to be allocated to various parts of a project </li></ul><ul><li>Use of personnel to projects based on talent and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Information on similar and related research projects undertaken by other groups. </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><li>Progress against goals </li></ul><ul><li>Budgeted expenses versus actuals </li></ul><ul><li>Status of outstanding orders for equipment and components. </li></ul>

×