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Red tacton

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  • 1. INTRODUCTION:Dont have a LAN connection, use your body…………Forget LAN or Bluetooth heres a way to turn you into a walking talking file transfer machine.Human society is entering an era of ever-present computing, when networks are seamlesslyinterconnected and information is always accessible at our fingertips. The practical implementation ofubiquitous services requires three levels of connectivity:  Wide Area Networks (WAN), typically via the Internet, to remotely connect all types of severs and terminals;  Local Area Networks (LAN), typically via Ethernet or WiFi connectivity among all the information and communication appliances in offices and homes; and  Human Area Networks (HAN) for connectivity to personal information, media and communication appliances within the much smaller sphere of ordinary daily activities-- the last one meter.Human area network is basically an interconnection of information technology devices within therange of an individual. This technology creates an external electric field that passes an incrediblysmall current which is general of about one thousandth of an ampere. Red Tacton, a new HumanArea Networking technology uses the surface of the human body as a safe, high speed networktransmission path. Red Tacton takes a different technical approach.BACKGROUND:At the end of 2002 the Japanese telecommunications group NTT had announced that it would develop anew data transmission technology that uses the conductive properties of the human body to exchangeinformation between electronic devices. Hence Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT)developed technology that uses the human body as a high-speed network. And called it “REDTACTON” What’s more, it also forms a communications link between people and electronic devicesNTTs RedTacton is a break-through technology that, for the first time, enables reliable high-speedHAN. In the past, Bluetooth, infrared communications (IrDA), radio frequency ID systems (RFID), andother technologies have been proposed to solve the "last meter" connectivity problem. However, theyeach have various fundamental technical limitations that constrain their usage, such as the precipitousfall-off in transmission speed in multi-user environments producing network congestion. This is the firstviable Human Area Network (HAN) device, enabling fast data transfer between devices using thehuman body as a conduit. 1
  • 2. What is RED TACTON?RedTacton is a new Human Area Networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as asafe, high speed network transmission path. RedTacton takes a different technical approach. Instead ofrelying on electromagnetic waves or light waves to carry data, RedTacton uses weak electric fields onthe surface of the body as a transmission medium. A RedTacton transmitter couples with extremelyweak electric fields on the surface of the body. The weak electric fields pass through the body to aRedTacton receiver, where the weak electric fields affect the optical properties of an electro-opticcrystal. The extent to which the optical properties are changed is detected by laser light which is thenconverted to an electrical signal by a detector circuit. –Red Tacton uses the minute electric field emittedon the surface of the human body. Technically, it is completely distinct from wireless and infrared. Atransmission path is formed at the moment a part of the human body comes in contact with a Red Tactontransceiver. Physically separating ends the contact and thus ends communication. Using Red Tacton,communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in variouscombinations according to the users natural, physical movements. Communication is possible using anybody surfaces, such as the hands, fingers, arms, feet, face, legs or torso. Red Tacton works through shoesand clothing as well. 2
  • 3. PRINCIPLE WORKING:Red Tacton utilizes a point to point network, known as a piconet. The P2P network allows informationto be exchanged between two transceivers without the need for a server to store or process information.Red Tacton operates on the idea that optical properties of an electro optic crystal can vary according tothe changes of a person own electric field. After contact with another Red Tacton enabled device, thetransmitter one wears induces an electric field on the body. Next, the transceiver on the device detectschanges in the wearer’s electric field which was caused by the device. The devices then communicateand send data by inducing fluctuations in the electric field of the human body. Data is received using aphotonic electric field sensor that combines an electro-optic crystal and a laser light to detectfluctuations in the minute electric field. Ea: ELECTRIC FIELD induced towards the body Eb: ELECTRIC FIELD Induced from body Ec: ELECTRIC FIELD escaping from body to ground Es: ELECTRIC FIELD that reaches receiver i.e. ES=EA- (EB+EC)Imagine holding your digital camera in one hand and touching a printer with your other whichinitiates the transfer of images from your camera to your printer. In an instant you havedownloaded your pictures and are ready to print them out without the need for connecting cables andintermediary devices such as a computer. 3
  • 4. The transmitter sends data based on fluctuations in the weak electric field induced in the body. Theelectric field is received using super-sensitive electric field sensing technology. The naturally occurringelectric field induced on the surface of the human body dissipates into the earth. Therefore, this electricfield is exceptionally faint and unstable. The super-sensitive electric field sensing technology measuresthe weak electric fields induced by the super-efficient alternating electric field induction.The three major functional features of Red Tacton are highlighted below.  A communications path can be created with a simple touch, automatically initiating the flow of data between a body-centric electronic device and a computer that is embedded in the environment. For example, two people equipped with Red Tacton devices could exchange data just by shaking hands. A wide range of natural human actions -- grasping, sitting down, walking, or standing in a particular place -- can be used to trigger Red Tacton to start a networked process.  Using a Red Tacton electro-optic sensor, two-way communication is supported between any two points on the body at a throughput of up to 10 Mbps. Communication is not just confined to the surface of the body, but can travel through the users clothing to a Red Tacton device in a pocket or through shoes to communicate with a Red Tacton device embedded in the floor. The transmission speed does not deteriorate even in the presence of large crowds of people all communicating at the same time in meeting rooms, auditoriums etc. Because the body surface is the transmission path, increasing the number of connected users directly increases the available number of individual communication channels.  Red Tacton can utilize a wide range of materials as a transmission medium, as long as the material is conductive and dielectric, which includes water and other liquids, various metals, certain plastics, glass, etc. Using ordinary structures such as tables and walls that are familiar and readily available, one could easily construct a seamless communication environment at very low cost using Red Tacton 4
  • 5. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF RED TACTON TRANCIEVER:The transceivers use an optical sensor to interpret fluctuations in the electric field of the human bodythrough the use of a miniature laser and a crystal mounted in the transceiver. The weak electric fieldsthat exist around many kinds of objects - including metals, many plastics, glass, ceramics and liquids -make communication between transceivers possible. The system is able to work through socks, shoesand gloves, and on both dry and oily skin. A person equipped with a sensor can exchange data withanother person carrying a sensor by shaking hands, and between a person and a device by touching it,walking on it, or by sitting on it.Receiving data is more complicated because the strength of the electric field involved is so low. RedTacton gets around this using a technique called electric field photonics: A laser is passed though anelectro-optic crystal, which deflects light differently according to the strength of the field across it.These deflections are measured and converted back into electrical signals to retrieve the transmitted data.Using a new super-sensitive photonic electric field sensor, Red Tacton can achieve duplexcommunication over the human body at a maximum speed of 10 Mbps.The transceivers, which require a PCMCIA card to connect with an electronic device, use severalhundred mili watts of power and are insulated to avoid electric shocks. 5
  • 6. FEATURES:Red Tacton supports following 3 features:  TOUCH: Touching, gripping, sitting, walking, stepping and other human movements can be the triggers for unlocking or locking, starting or stopping equipment, or obtaining data. Using Red Tacton, communication starts when terminals carried by the user or embedded in devices are linked in various combinations through physical contact according to the humans natural movements.  BROADBAND AND INTERACTIVE: Duplex, interactive communication is possible at a maximum speed of 10Mbps*. Bandwidth doesn’t deteriorate even if many users access simultaneously. Because the transmission path is on the surface of the body, transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at the same time. Maximum communication speed may be slower than 10Mbps depending on the usage environment.  ANY MEDIA: In addition to the human body, various conductors and dielectrics can be used as transmission media. Conductors and dielectrics may also be used in combination. 6
  • 7. WHY RED TACTON?Several “human body communication” technologies using the human body as a transmission mediumhave been reported in the past. But Red Tacton employs a proprietary electric field/photonics methodwhich uses a sensor which measures faint electric fields by using a laser beam to detect fluctuations inthe optical properties of an electro-optic crystal that are caused by peripheral electric fields.Human body networking is more secure than broadcast systems, such as Bluetooth, which have arange of about 10m. With Bluetooth and IrDA, it is difficult to rein in the signal and restrict it tothe device you are trying to connect to. You usually want to communicate with one particular thing,but in a busy place there could be hundreds of Bluetooth devices within range. As human beings areineffective aerials, it is very hard to pick up stray electronic signals radiating from the body. This isgood for security because even if you encrypt data it is still possible that it could be decoded, but if youcan’t pick it up it can’t be.Moreover, when we compare red Tacton with wireless LAN we find red tacton to transfer data at amuch faster speed than the LAN because the transmission path is on the surface of the body,transmission speed does not deteriorate in congested areas where many people are communicating at thesame timeThe focus on ever-present service has brought about the shortening of distances in communication. RedTacton is positioned as the last 1m solution to ultimate close-range communication. Wirelesscommunication creates connections when signals arrive, allowing for easy connections becauseconnectors are unnecessary. Wired communication transmits data between two connection points, sointerception is difficult and security can be considered to be high. However, connectors and cables are anuisance. In other words, Red Tacton allows for easy connection without connectors, while at thesame time allowing transmission of data only between two contact points. It thus has the feature ofbeing difficult to intercept. 7
  • 8. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS:One-to-One ServicesWith the ability to send attribute data from personal information devices worn on the body to cmputersembedded in the environment, one-to-one services could be implemented that are tailored to theindividualIntuitive operation of personal information devicesThe current is generated by the electrons in the body because the body is subjected to minute electricalfields. However, such displacement currents are very common everyday occurrences to which we are allsubjected RED TACTON conforms to the “Radio Frequency-Exposure Protection Standard (RCR STD-38)” [6] issued by the Association of Radio Industries and Business (ARIB). The levels produced byRED TACTON are well below the safety limit specified by this standard.Communication is triggered by totally natural human actions and behavior, so there is no need to insertsmart cards, connect cables, tune frequencies, or any of the other inconveniences usually associated withtodays needs of the user.Device personalizationSetup, registration, and configuration information for an individual user can all uploaded to a device theinstant the device is touched, eliminating the need for the device to be registered or configured inadvance. Example: By shaking hands, personal profile data can be exchanged between mobile terminalson the users.New behavior patternsTables, walls, floors and chairs can all act as conductors and dielectrics, turning furniture and otherarchitectural elements into a new class of transmission medium. For example:electronic devicesSecurity applicationsRed Tacton could be installed on doors, cabinets and other locations calling for secure access, such thateach secure access could be initiated and authenticated with a simple touch. At the same time, all thetransaction details and relevant user attributes could be logged by the security system. 8
  • 9. ADVANTAGES OF USING RED TACTON TRANCIEVER:  Uses the body’s electrical field to transmit at a high speed.  System can provide authentication and record who touched the device, and when  Digital lifestyle can be instantly personalized with just a touch.  Cable connections are eliminated the body itself is used as transmission medium.  Transmission speed is high up to 10 mbps.  Safe to use to transfer private information  HUMAN SAFETY: NTT has investigated the effects of RED TACTON technology on human health, which is obviously an important issue and it has been proved safe to use as: o The transmitting and receiving ends of the red tacton devices are completely insulated, so body of the person using the device is completely insulated without effecting the body during transmitting the signal. o When communication occurs displacement current is generated by electrons that are present everywhere in human body. o Body is subjected to minute electric fields so such displacement currents are common everyday occurrences.The current used is one-billionth of an amp (one nanoamp), which is lower than the natural currents already in the body. 9
  • 10. OBSTACLES Why arent we using it? What are the obstacles?  Introduction of new technologies into existing devices often requires significant design changes that can be costly and time consuming.  Red Tacton also needs a lot of research and development.  Many popular technologies exist in the marketplace which provides similar functions to Red Tacton technology. The first is Bluetooth. Bluetooth is also a short range frequency allowing users to transmit data within approximately a 10M range. Bluetooth, however, is insecure. The signal can be tapped into and used by others. As mentioned previously, Zigbee, IrDA, and UWB are also potential competitors.  The most obvious barrier to entry is that the cost and time to develop Personal Area network technology is very expensive  This technology will not likely be very useful until a large number of people and devices have adopted it which means a significant time investment. 10
  • 11. CONCLUSION:Human society is entering an era of ubiquitous computing, where everything is networked. REDTACTON is an exciting new technology for human area networking.Currently, Red Tacton is gearing up to compete with Bluetooth, Zigbee, IrDA (Infrared DataAssociation), UWB (Ultra Wide Band), and other wireless communication forms. These competingtechnologies are different in that they use radio frequency or light to transmit data short distances. Theyalso tend to work at slower speeds that Red Tacton which, as mentioned before, uses the body’selectrical field to transmit at a high speed. Additionally, since Red Tacton requires touch and has a lowpotential for interference, it is much more secure than the competition.Many areas can benefit from this technology. Initially, Red Tacton could target security, the medicalfield, and the device communication field. Red Tacton can be used for intuitive operation of computer-based systems in daily life, temporary one-to-one private networks based on personal handshaking,device personalization, security, and a host of other applications based on new behavior patterns enabledby Red Tacton. By making Human Area Networks feasible, Red Tacton will enable ubiquitous servicesbased on human-centered interactions and therefore more intimate and easier for people to use. 11
  • 12. REFERENCES:http://www.redtacton.com/en/index.htmlhttp://www.ntt.co.jp/news/news05e/0502/050218.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RedTactonhttp://www.ntt.co.jp/RD/OFIS/active/2005pdfe/pdf/h_ct02_e.pdfhttp://www.taipeitimes.com/News/biz/archives/2005/03/20/2003247076http://www.physorg.com/news3153.htmlhttp://www.oppapers.com/essays/Redtacton/166398 12

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