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Project on E-banking

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  • 1. THE STUDY ON CUSTOMER AWARENESS TOWARDS INTERNETBANKING SERVICES PROVIDED BY DENA BANK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO T.NAGAR BRANCH BY S.PRARTHANA (Reg. No: 1017472) Of DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES In partial fulfillment of the requirements For the award of the degree Of MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION September, 2011
  • 2. DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING Dr.V.P.R. Nagar, Manimangalam, Tambaram, Chennai-601 301 DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES BONAFIDE CERTIFICATECertified that this project report titled "THE STUDY ON CUSTOMERAWARENESS TOWARDS INTERNET BANKING SERVICES PROVIDEDBY DENA BANK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO T.NAGAR BRANCH " isthe bonafide work of MISS. S.PRARTHANA (Register No. 1017472) who carriedout the research under my supervision. Certified further, that to the best of myknowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report ordissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlieroccasion on this or any other candidate.INTERNAL GUIDE HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENTDate: ……………………
  • 3. DECLARATIONI, S.PRARTHANA of M.B.A final year, DEPARTMENT OFMANAGEMENT STUDIES, DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OFENGINEERING, Manimangalam, Chennai - 601 301, hereby declarethat this project work titled, "THE STUDY ON CUSTOMERAWARENESS TOWARDS INTERNET BANKING SERVICESPROVIDED BY DENA BANK WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TOT.NAGAR BRANCH" , is submitted for the partial fulfillment in M.B. A.,of DHANALAKSHMI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, CHENNAI. This is purely original work of mine with declaration and effort.DATE: (S.PRARTHANA)
  • 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It is my great pleasure to regard my deep sense of gratitude to the HonorableChairman Dr. V.P. Ramamurthi, Ph.D., the Secretary Dr. R. Jayachandrasingh,Ph.D., and the Principal Mr. V. Subramanian, M.E., Dhanalakshmi College ofEngineering, Chennai, for the patronage and all the facilities offered to complete myproject successfully. I take this opportunity to convey my sincere thanks to the Head of theDepartment Dr. G. Veeramani, M.com, M.Phil, MBA., Ph.D., for his guidance inthe successful completion of the project. I am very much pleased to take this privilege to extend my hearty thanks to myInternal Guide Miss. A. Jebakerupa Roslin M.B.A., M.A., B.Ed., (M.Phil)., for hersupport, innovative & energetic encouragement and valuable and invariablesuggestions in carrying out this project successfully. I would like to express my deep sense of gratitude and heartfelt thanks toMr.R.Jothi Kalingaraayan, Asst. General Manager of Dena bank in T.Nagarbranch and all other employees for providing me opportunity to do project in theircompany and for their valuable guidance. Last but not least, I wish to convey my sincere thanks to all the Staff membersof the Department of Management Studies and my friends for their help andsupport. I also tank my beloved parents for their best effort and comfort rendered to mein completing the study successfully. Above all by no means I thank my GodAlmighty for showering his divine blessing in terms of knowledge and comfort insuccessful completion of the project.
  • 5. ABSTRACT Banking system occupies an important place in a nations economy. A bankinginstitution is indispensable in modern society. It plays a pivotal role in the economicdevelopment of a country and forms the core of the money market in an advancedcountry. Without a sound and effective banking system in India it cannot have ahealthy economy. The banking system of India should be able to meet new challengesposed by the technology and any other external and internal factors. Dena bank offers a wide range of banking products and financial services tocorporate and retail customer through a variety of delivery channels and through itsspecialized subsidiaries and affiliates in the areas of investment banking. The study isabout the customer awareness towards internet banking service provided by Dena bankwith special reference towards T.Nagar branch. 150 samples are collected from thecustomers. Different analysis has been done by using the statistical tools. The study ishoped to be essential and good to reveal certain facts. Data collection method was adopted, in which questionnaire is administeredby adopting directing interview method to carry out project work. The informationcollected was processed, coded and tabulated. The tabulated information was analyzedthrough percentage method, chi-square, and correlation analysis. From this inferenceswere drawn. Based on the inference suggestions and recommendations were given.
  • 6. CHAPTER TITLE PAGE No. No. INTRODUCTION 1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 3 NEED FOR THE STUDY 4 I SCOPE OF THE STUDY 4 INDUSTRY PROFILE 5 COMPANY PROFILE 8 II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 21 III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 34 IV DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 38 V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 62 ANNEXURE BIBLIOGRAPHY
  • 7. LIST OF TABLESTABLE No. TITLE OF THE TABLE PAGE No. 4.1 Distribution of respondents according to their Gender 4.2 Distribution of respondents according to their Age 4.3 Distribution of respondents according to their Occupation 4.4 Distribution of respondents according to their Income Level 4.5 Distribution of respondents according to their Account held with the bank 4.6 Distribution of respondents according to their Awareness about Dena bank 4.7 Distribution of respondents according to their Convenient Mode of banking 4.8 Distribution of respondents according to their Awareness about the Internet banking services 4.9 Distribution of respondents according to their Usage of Internet banking services 4.10 Distribution of respondents according to their Period of Usage of Internet banking services 4.11 Distribution of respondents according to the transactions they made through Internet banking services 4.12 Distribution of respondents reason for not using Internet banking services 4.13 Distribution of respondents according to their purpose of using Internet banking services 4.14 Distribution of respondents according to their satisfaction level in the Internet banking services 4.15 Distribution of respondents reason for their satisfaction towards Internet banking services
  • 8. 4.16 Distribution of respondents reason for their dis- satisfaction towards Internet banking services4.17 Distribution of respondents with reference to the facilities offered by the bank for Internet banking4.18 services Distribution of respondents according to duration of their Usage of Internet banking services4.19 Distribution of respondents according to Frequent Usage in Internet banking services4.20 Distribution of respondents according to their opinion in Internet banking services
  • 9. LIST OF CHARTSCHART No. TITLE OF THE CHARTS PAGE No. 4.1 Distribution of respondents according to their Gender 4.2 Distribution of respondents according to their Age 4.3 Distribution of respondents according to their Occupation 4.4 Distribution of respondents according to their Income Level 4.5 Distribution of respondents according to their Account held with the bank 4.6 Distribution of respondents according to their Awareness about Dena bank 4.7 Distribution of respondents according to their Convenient Mode of banking 4.8 Distribution of respondents according to their Awareness about the Internet banking services 4.9 Distribution of respondents according to their Usage of Internet banking services 4.10 Distribution of respondents according to their Period of Usage of Internet banking services 4.11 Distribution of respondents according to the transactions they made through Internet banking services 4.12 Distribution of respondents reason for not using Internet banking services 4.13 Distribution of respondents according to their purpose of using Internet banking services 4.14 Distribution of respondents according to their satisfaction level in the Internet banking services 4.15 Distribution of respondents reason for their satisfaction towards Internet banking services
  • 10. 4.16 Distribution of respondents reason for their dis- satisfaction towards Internet banking services4.17 Distribution of respondents with reference to the facilities offered by the bank for Internet banking4.18 services Distribution of respondents according to duration of their Usage of Internet banking services4.19 Distribution of respondents according to Frequent Usage in Internet banking services4.20 Distribution of respondents according to their opinion in Internet banking services
  • 11. CHAPTER I 1
  • 12. INTRODUCTION Customer awareness is about making the customer aware of his/her rights. It isa marketing term which means that customers are aware of products or services, itscharacteristics and the other marketing Ps (place to buy, price, and promotion). Highprices, duplicate articles, underweight and under - measurements, rough behavior,undue conditions, artificial scarcity are some of the ways by which customers areexploited by manufacturers and traders. Limited information, limited supplies and lowliteracy are factors causing exploitation of customers. Customer awareness is a very important element as we attempt to moveforward a close out sales. This can be an issue both online and offline with really thesame science behind each of them. There are so many stages of awareness in customer. Which are as follows?1. The most aware - customer knows of your product, knows what it does, and knows he wants it.2. Customer knows of your product, but doesnt yet want it.3. New Product - customer knows or recognizes that they want what the product does... but doesnt know that there is a product, yours, that will fulfill their want.4. New products that solve NEEDS - customer has a need they want fulfilled but isnt aware of the connection between their need and your product. The completely unaware market. However, an organized and systematic movement to safeguard the interest ofcustomers is a recent phenomenon. The customers have .o be aware not only of thecommercial aspects of sale and purchase of goods but also of the health and securityaspects. Food safety has become an important element of customer awareness thesedays. In case of food products, its quality depends not cm on its nutritional value, butalso on its safety for human consumption. Consumption of contaminated oradulterated food is a major cause of human illness and suffering. This called for strong legal measures to ensure that the manufacturers andsellers observe uniformity and transparency in prices, stocks and quality of their 2
  • 13. goods. Enactment of Customer Protection Act, 1986 was one of the most importantsteps taken to protect the interests of customers. The provision of the Act came intoforce, with effect from July 1, 1987. The act recognizes customers right to seekredresses and right to customer education. The salient features of the Act are asfollows:- Applies to all goods and services unless specifically exempted by the Union Government; Covers all the sectors whether private, public or cooperative; Enshrines the customers rights related to safety. information, choice, representation and redress and customer education. The act gives customers an additional remedy besides those which may be available to them under the provisions of other existing laws and they are free to choose the remedy. Empower customers seeking discontinuance of certain unfair and restrictive trade practices, defects or deficiencies in services and stopping in services or withdrawal of hazardous goods from the market. 3
  • 14. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYPRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To study customer awareness about the Internet Banking services provided byDena bank with special reference to T.Nagar branch.SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:  To analyze customer satisfaction level in the internet banking services  To know the reason for preferring internet banking service in Dena bank  To know the customers perception about the internet banking services. 4
  • 15. NEED FOR THE STUDY: Dena bank offered Internet banking since 24th May 2008. But the fact is thatthere are only limited customers who use this facility, compared to other services. Henceto enable the awareness of this service in the minds of the customers the researcher isinterested to study "Customer awareness towards the internet banking services providedby Dena bank with special reference to T.Nagar branch" in terms of  Factors determining customer awareness towards the internet banking services.  To identify the customers perception about the internet banking service.  To trace out the expectation of customer towards the internet banking services.SCOPE OF THE STUDY: The study entitled "Customer awareness towards internet banking servicesprovided by Dena bank with special reference to T.Nagar branch" aims to find out theawareness level and the effectiveness of Internet banking service provided by Dentbank to the customers. The analysis will help to know the awareness level of customersregarding the internet banking services. Along with the satisfaction level of tie customersin the internet banking services and the customers perception regarding the internetbanking service at Dena bank. 5
  • 16. Industry Profile: Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18th century. The GeneralBank of India came into existence in 1786. This was followed by Bank of Hindustan.Both these banks are now defunct. The oldest bank in existence in India is the StateBank of India being established as "The Bank of Bengal" in Calculate in June 1806. Acouple of decades later, foreign banks like Credit Lyonnais started their Calcuttaoperations in the 1850s. At that point of time, Calcutta was the most active tradingport, mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and due to which banking activitytook roots there and prospered. The first fully Indian owned bank was the AllahabadBank, which was established in 1865. By the 1900s, the market expanded with theestablishment of banks such as Punjab National Bank, in 1895 in Lahore and Bank ofIndia, in 1906, in Mumbai - both of which were founded under private ownership.The Reserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating theIndian banking sector from 1935. After Indias independence in 1947, the ReserveBank was nationalized and given broader powers. The banking in India wascontrolled aid combated by the presidency banks, namely, the Bank of Bombay, theBank of Bengal, and the Bank of Madras -which later on merged to form the ImperialBank of India, and Imperial Bank of India, upon Indias independence, was rename theState Bank of India. The presidency banks were like the central banks and dischargedmost old the font tins of central banks. They were established under charters from theBritish Eats India Company. The exchange banks, mostly owned by the Europeans,concentrated on financing of foreign trade. Indian joint stock banks were generallyunder capil lazed a i d lacked the experience and maturity to compete with thepresidency banks, and the exchange banks. There was potential for many new banksas the economy was growing Under these circumstances, many Indians came forwardto set up banks, and many banks were set up at that time, and a number of them set uparound that time continued o survive and prosper even now like Bank of India andCorporation Bank, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda, and Canada Bank.b. Growth and Present Status of t h e Industry:- By the 1960s, the Indian banking industry has become an in important tool tofacilitate the development of the Indian economy. At the same time, it has emerged as alarge employer, and a debate has ensued about the possibility to nationalize the 6
  • 17. banking industry. Indira Gandhi, the-then Prime Minister o: India expressed theintention of the GOI in the annual conference of the All India Congress Meeting in apaper entitled "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalization” The paper was received with positive enthusiasm. Thereafter, her move wasswift and sudden, and the GOI issued an ordinance and nationalized the 14 largestcommercial banks with effect from the midnight of July 19, 1969. JayaprakashNarayan, a national leader of India, described the step as a "masterstroke of politicalsagacity." Within two weeks of the issue of the ordinance, the Parliament passed theBanking Companies (Acquition and Transfer of Undertaking) Bill, and it received thepresidential approval on 9th August, 1969. A second dose of nationalization of 6 morecommercial banks followed in 1980. The stated reason for the nationalization was togive the government more control of credit delivery. With the second dose ofnationalization, the GOI controlled around 91% of the banking business of India.After this, until the 1990s, the nationalize banks grew at a pace of around 4% closer tothe average growth rate of the Indian economy.c. Future of the Industry:- A healthy banking system is essential for any economy striving to achievegood Growth and yet remain stable in an increasingly global business environment.The Indian banking system, with one of the largest banking networks in the world,has witnessed a series of reforms over the past few years like the deregulation ofinterest rates, dilution of the government stake in public sector banks (PSBs), and theincreased participation of private sector banks. The growth of the retail financialservices sector has been a key development on the market front. Indian banks (bothpublic and private) have not only been keen to tap the domestic market but also tocompete in the global market place. New foreign banks have been equally keen togain a foothold in the Indian market. The momentum in credit growth has beenmaintained during 2005-06 due to two factors: The corporate sector has stepped up itsdemand for credit to fund its expansion plans; there has also been a growth in retailbanking. However, even as the opportunities increase, there are some issues andchallenges that Indian banks will have to contend with f they are to emerge successful 7
  • 18. in the medium to long term. This report discusses these issues and challenges - bothintrinsic and external, such asConsolidation Consolidation, which has been on the counter over the last year or so, is likelyto gather momentum in the coming years. Post April 2009, when the restrictions onoperations of foreign banks will go, the banking landscape is expected to changedramatically. Foreign banks, which currently account for 5% of total deposits and 8%of total advances, are devising new business models to capture the Indian market.Their full-fledged entry is expected to transform the business of banking in manyways, which would be reflected in terms of greater breadth of products. Depth indelivery channels and efficiency in operations. Thus Indian banks have less than threeyears to consolidate their position. Despite the stiff resistance from certain segments,consolidation holds the key to future growth. This view is underpinned by thefollowing:  Owing to greater scale and size, consolidation can help save costs and Improve operational efficiency.  Banks will also have to explore different avenues for raising capital to meet Norms under Basel-II  Owing to the diversified operations and credit profiles of merging banks, consolidation is likely to serve as a risk-mitigation exercises as much as a growth Engine. Though there is no confirmation yet, speculative signals arising from themarket point to the prospect of consolidation involving banks such as Union Bank ofIndia, Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Dena Bank, Sta1; Bank of Patiala, and Punjaband Sind Bank. Further, the case for merger between stronger banks has also gainedground — a clear deviation from the past when only weak banks were thrust onstronger banks. There is a case being made for mergers between banks with a distinctgeographical presence coming together to leverage their respective strengths. 8
  • 19. COMPANY PROFILEOrigin of the Organization: Dena Bank was founded on 26th May, 1938 by the family of Devkaran Nanjeeunder the name Devkaran Nanjee Banking Company Ltd. It became a Public Ltd. Company in December 1939 and later the name waschanged to Dena Bank Ltd. In July 1969 Dena Bank Ltd. along with 13 other major banks wasnationalized and is now a Public Sector Bank constituted under the BankingCompanies (Acquisition & Transfer of Undertakings) Act, 1970. Under the provisionsof the Banking Regulations Act 1949, in addition to the business of banking, the Bankcan undertake other business as specified in Section 6 of the Banking RegulationsAct, 1949.Milestones -  One among six Public Sector Banks selected by the World Bank for sanctioning a loan of Rs.72.3 crores for augmentation of Tie-II Capital under Financial Sector Developmental project in the year 1995.  One among the few Banks to receive the World Bank loan for technological up gradation and training.  Launched a Bond Issue of Rs.92.13 Crores in November 1996.  Maiden Public Issue of Rs.180 Crores in November 1996.  Introduced Tele banking facility of selected metropolitan centers.Dena Bank has been the first Bank to introduce:  Minor Savings Scheme.  Credit card in rural India Known as "DENA KRISHI SAKH PATRA” (DKSP)  Drive-in ATM counters of Juhu, Mumbai.  Smart card at selected branches in Mumbai.  Customer rating system for rating the Bank Services. 9
  • 20. Growth and Development of the Organization:- The evolve and position the bank as a world class, progressive, cost-effectiveand customer friendly institution providing comprehensive financial and relatedservices: integrating frontiers of technology and serving various segment of societyespecially the weaker section of the society: especially the weaker section of thesociety: committed to excellence in serving the public and also excelling in thecorporate values. Corporate excellence ensnare from good corporate governanceexercised by adopting standard of transparency, accountability, professionalism,social responsiveness, and ethical business practices with this in view, the has beenmaking efforts for adopting the best practices. The bank commitment managementand to ensure best performance by staff at al the levels to maximize the operationalefficiency. Adopting the corporate governance as a work ethos, the bank is committedto enhancing the stakeholder’s value.Present Status of Organization:- Dena bank might just be another case of bank in trouble. Going by the recentobservations of the accounting department of the bank itself, the banks capitaladequacy ratio (CAR) and profitability in serious doubts. An analysis of the financial position of the bank for the year 2002-03, by theaccounts department of Dena bank, copy of which is in the possession of IndianExpress, showed that the banks CAR stood at 9.33% would go down as low as 6.02%as per the latest RBI guidelines. In simple terms, a low CAR implies that the bankwould be trouble there is a run on it since it has overexposed itself. Further, miscellaneous income, which also accounted for the increase inprofits, went up by Rs.32.92 crores of the miscellaneous income was due to transferof old credits over five years lying with the bank in suspense receipts / unclaimedcredits. Another element of doubts in the results is the fact that the bank had reversedan amount of Rs.18.40 crores to the balance sheet as disputed tax liability. This was 10
  • 21. based on the expert opinions received by bank on tax consultants and also on a highcourt together accounted for Rs.83.40 crores of profit.2.4 Functional Departments of the Organization:Dena Bank deals with the following functional departments:1. Personal In the Dena Bank Personal Banking section, the organization offer its serviceswith a personal touch by reaching out to all in various manners, one of them isthrough offering a basket of our Deposit Schemes which delivers a strong return onall you personal savings and our Loan Schemes which provides the required financialassistance in your times of need.2. CorporateCorporate Finance Dena Bank provided financial assistance to the business entities engaged invarious activities of manufacturing, trading and service. The financial assistance is provided for setting up new projects, acquiringassets and also for meeting day to day working capital requirement of theconstituents. These assistances are termed as Long Term Finance & Short TermFinance respectively.Term Finance Term Loan / Finance covers funds required for acquiring means of productionsuch as land, building and plant and machinery etc. These could be for setting up newprojects or expanding the present activities. Term finance is gernally give for a longerperiod and is repayable in installments over the period with or without Moratorium.The period and the installments are determined based on the repayment capacity ofthe project / borrower. 11
  • 22. Working Capital Finance Working Capital Finance (WCF) is extended for carrying our normal trading /manufacturing activities. The working capital finance is provided for a relativelyshorter period generally for a period of 1 year and renewed on yearly basisconsidering the performance of the borrower. The WCF is considered only after project nearing completion and after full tieup of term loan requirement. The Working Capital limits of the borrower are assessed by adopting variousmethods such as Projected Turnover Method (Nayak Committee Recommendation),Permissible Bank Finance Method, Cash Budget Method etc. depending upon theaggregate working capital limit required / enjoyed from the banking system, nature ofactivity, production cycle etc. Working Capital finance is in the form of pre-sale andpost-sale limit. In Pre Sale Finance the advance is granted for acquiring Inventory forproduction / processing or trading purpose while the Post -Sale Finance is extendedagainst the receivable. Dena Bank encourages Post-Sale finance in the form ofpurchase / discounting of bills etc.Pre Sales Finance:  Cash Credit Hypothecation / Pledge against Stocks  Packing Credit Hypothecation / Pledge against Stocks  Clean packing Credit Limit  Trust Receipts  Working Capital Loan (Demand / Term)Post Sales Finance:  Bills discounting / purchase - Inland / Foreign  Cash Credit Hypothecation against Book Debts  Advances against Export Incentives  Purchase of Cheques / Demand Draft 12
  • 23. Non Fund Based Credit Assistance The Business units also require Credit Assistance for procurement of Goods,where the funds are not involved. Such facilities are available against the assuredcommitments / guarantee from the Lending Institutions.Dena Bank is extending such Non Fund Based assistance to me eligible units in theform of:  Issuance of Guarantee of various types like Performance, Financial, Bid Bond, Tender Deposit / Earnest Money etc. and  Issuance of Letter of Credit  Deferred Payment GuaranteeExport Credit Bank extends credit to Exporters at Competitive rates, at both Pre-shipmentand Post-shipment stages. Recently, Bank has introduced Gold Card Scheme which provides cheaperexport credits to the eligible borrowers. Selected Clients engaged in exports are alsosuitably rewarded in the form of Export Credit Denominated h Foreign Currency viz.PCFC (Pre Shipment) / REBA (Post Shipment Credit).Specific Schemes The Bank has devised specific schemes for the following Sectors:  Educational Institutions,  Builders & Developers,  Hospitals,  Hotels & Restaurants &  Entertainment Industry.3. NRI Desk With over 1100 branches spread across the country, Dena Bank is your idealbanking partner if you are a Non-Resident Indian. 13
  • 24. All transactions by NRIs in Indian Banks are governed by FBI Rules andRegulations.4. Priority & SME These are the sectors where has taken special care to ensure instant sanctionsand approvals for all applicants. Priority Sector Schemes:  Dena Rural Internet Kiosk Scheme  Dena Shakti Scheme  Dena Laghu Udyami Card Scheme  Dena Rural Artisan Credit Card Scheme  Dena Swarozgar Credit Card Scheme.5. Dena Bill pay:- Auto Pay Just gives us your bill details; specify your bank account and we willpay your Sill for you every month from that account. You can specify an upper limitand bills above this limit will be paid only on you specific instructions.Phone Pay Get a SMS alert when bill is due and issue payment instructions inaccordance.Internet If you have access to the internet, you can view and pay your bills online atwww.denabank.com. You will receive new bill notifications, due date reminders andpayment confirmations via email.6. Dena ATM Services Dena Bank always stands in forefront in understanding it customers need.Dena Bank Debit cum ATM Card offers you an easy and convenient way to do all yourtransactions and that too within a fraction of seconds. Presently we have more than380 ATMs all across India. Dena Debit cum ATM Card is your Bank Account inyour pocket. Get your Dena Bank Debit cum ATM Card today and avail round theclock uninterrupted service. Below is the simple procedure to use this facility: 14
  • 25.  Contact your Branch.  If you dont have Saving or Current Account, first open your account.  Get the Debit/ATM Card Application form from the Branch, fill it up and submit it to your Branch.  Within 10 days, you will receive your Debit cum ATM Card along with PIN (Personal Identification Number) and Debit cum Al M Card Booklet.  Activate your card immediately by withdrawing (ash from Dena Bank ATM. After that you can use your ca d on POS Terminal ( Merchant Establishments)7. Other Services:- Dena Bank, your trusted family bank, now is proud to offer a range ofsophisticated banking services by way of  Any-branch banking,  Multi City cheque,  Dena ATMs,  Dena Cards,  Online remittance,  Internet Banking,  Mobile banking,  Tele banking,  Online utility Bill Payment,  Value added Service through ATM,  Kiosks, loans and many more. With over 1100 branches across the country, we are always ready to serve ourcustomers, and to offer them the best of the technology-enabled banking products andservices. 15
  • 26. 2.5 Organization Structure and Organization Chart OrganizationStructure:- HEAD OFFICE REGIONAL OFFICE BRANCHESExecutive cadres of the organization. They are Executive Director, General Manager (GM), Deputy GeneralManagers (DGM), assistant General Managers (AGM), Chief Managers (CM),Managers and other officers are in the hierarchy at the head office level functioning invarious Departments. The regional Managers heads the Regional Officers who areassisted by other down in the hierarchy. The Branch is headed by A.GMCM SeniorManagers/Managers depending upon the size of the Branch activities and rendering ofsatisfactory customer service. The bank has a very good system of delegating power tothe different functionaries in the hierarchy to facilitate speedy decision- makingprocess even up to the branch Level. As mentioned above, the organization chart for a regional office is differentfrom organization charts of a Head Office as well as Branches. The organization chartfor the regional office where the training has taken place consists of variousdesignations and responsibilities. The various designations and the personsresponsible for that designations responsibilities are described as under through thecharts. 16
  • 27. A.C.Katial (DGM) S.J.Majumdar (AGM) Devi Singh Channokar (Chief Manager) G.D. Sinha (Senior Manager) Hakeem Alam (Manager) Deepika Kansal (Officer)Product and Service Profile of the Organization Competitors:-State Bank of India:- The Bank is actively involved since 1973 in non-profit activity calledCommunity Services Banking. All our branches and administrative offices throughoutthe country sponsor and participate in large number of welfare activities and socialcauses. Our business is more than banking because we touch the lives of peopleanywhere in many ways. Our commitment to nation-building is complete &comprehensive. 17
  • 28. Punjab National Bank:- Established in 1895 at Lahore, undivided India, Punjab National Bank (PNB)has the distinction of being the first Indian b ink to have been started solely withIndian capital. The bank was nationalized in July 1969 along with 13 other banks.From its modest beginning, the bank has grown in size and stature to become a front-line banking institution in India at present.  A professionally managed bank with a successful track record of over 110 years.  Largest branch network in India - 4525 Offices including 432 Extension Counters spread throughout the country.  Strategic business area covers the large lndo-Gangetic belt and the metropolitan centres.  Ranked as 248th biggest bank in the world toy Bankers Almanac, London.  Strong correspondent banking relationships with more than 217 international banks of the world.  More than 50 renowned international banks maintain their Rupee Accounts with PNB.  Well equipped dealing rooms; 20 different foreign currency accounts are  Maintained at major centres all over the globe.Bank of India:- Bank of India was founded on 7th September, 1906 by a group of eminentbusinessmen from Mumbai. The Bank was under private ownership and control tillJuly 1969 when it was nationalized along with 13 other banks. Beginning with one office in Mumbai, with a paid-up capital of Rs.50 lakhand 50 employees, the Bank has made a rapid growth over the years and blossomedinto a mighty institution with a strong national presence and sizable internationaloperations. In business volume, the Bank occupies a premier position among thenationalized banks. 18
  • 29. The Bank has 3021 branches in India spread over all states/ union territoriesincluding 136 specialized branches. These branches are controlled through 48 ZonalOffices. There are 28 branches/ offices (including three representative offices) abroad.The Bank came out with its maiden public issue in 1997 and follow on QualifiedInstitutions Placement in February 2008. Total number of shareholders as on31/03/2009 is 2, 35589. While firmly adhering to a policy of prudence and caution, the Bank has beenin the forefront of introducing various innovative services and systems. Business hasbeen conducted with the successful blend of traditional values and ethics and the mostmodern infrastructure. The Bank has been the first among the nationalized banks toestablish a fully computerized branch and ATM facility at the Mahalaxmi Branch atMumbai way back in 1989. The Bank is also a Founder Member of SWIFT in India.It pioneered the introduction of the Health Code System ir 1982, for evaluating/ ratingits credit portfolio.Bank of Baroda:- Bank of Baroda believes in the strength and integrity of relationships builtwith its customers like you. With over 101 years of experience in the banking industryand a wide network of over 3000 branches all over the county, it has always beenactive in extending financial support and adapting to customers charging needs. Its Deposit Products, Retail Loans, Credit Cards and Debit Cards help thecustomers with their growing financial needs. With facilities like Lockers it ensurethat customers valuables are safe with it. Its countrywide branches offer thecustomers convenience and ease in operating them account wherever they are. Its 24-hour ATMs enable them to withdraw cash, check their account balance and request fora new cheque book even after banking hours.Faster technology for better service:- Baroda Internet Banking / Baroda Mobile Banking, its latest Internet andMobile banking initiatives enable them to operate their account just as they would inany of its branches. The customers can through the Internet check their balance, 19
  • 30. request for cheque books and print account details. Choose from its various productsand services, that the bank sincerely feel will put a smile on customers face; aninvestment it would like to bank on forever.Different Bank Parameters:- Name of the Last Market Cap Net Interest Net Profit Total Assts Bank Price (Rs. Cr) Income SBI 2,266.45 143,892.43 63,788.43 9,121.24 964,432.08 PNB 917.45 28,927.43 19,326.16 3,090.88 246,918.62 Bank Of India 387.50 20,350.54 16,347,36 3,007.35 225,501,75 Bank of Baroda 499.50 18,195.11 15,091.58 2,227.20 227,406.73Market Profile Of The Organization:- Dena Bank is an India-based company which is engaged in treasury,corporate/wholesale banking, retail banking, and other banking operations. Thedeposit schemes offered by the Company include Premium Savings Account Scheme,Premium Current Account Scheme, Dena Savifix Deposit Scheme, Dena FreedomDeposit Scheme, Dena Samruddhi Deposit Scheme, Dena Fixed. Deposit Scheme,Dena Senior Citizen Scheme, Dena Recurring Deposit Scheme, Dena Loan LinkedRecurring Deposit Scheme, Dena Minor Savings Scheme, and Dena Alpa BachatKhata. It offers services, such as any branch banking, multi city cheque. automatedteller machines (ATMs), Dena Cards, online remittance, Interr.et banking, mobilebanking, tele-banking, online utility bill payment, and value-added Service. Duringthe fiscal year ended March 31, 2009, the total number of branches comprised of1184. Dena Bank. The Companys principal activity is to provide commercialbanking and other related services. The Company also provides in merchant banking,asset management and other related services. The companys banking products andservices are provided through 1184 branches offices, 387 ATMs all over India. TheCompany operates only in India. 20
  • 31. The Companys principal activity is to provide commercial banking and otherrelated services. The Company also provides in merchant banking, asset managementand other related services. The companys banking product:; and services are providedthrough 1184 branches offices, 387 ATMs all over India. The Company operates onlyin India.Dena Bank - Key Data:- Ticker 523121 Country INDIAN Exchanges BOM Major Industry : Financial Sub Industry : Commercial Banks 2009 Sales 38,783,302,000 Employees : 9,883 (year Ending Jan 2010) Currency: Indian Rupees Market Cap : 25,340,829,720 Fiscal Yr Ends: March Share Outstanding: 286,823,200 Share Type : Ordinary Closely Held 146,820,000 Shares : 21
  • 32. CHAPTER II 22
  • 33. REVIEW OF LITERATUREINTRODUCTION The process of development along with the expanding globalization andliberalization process has increased the number of customer related issues. Customerprotection has earned an important place in the political, economic and social agendasof many nations. In India, the Government has taken many steps including legislative, toprotect customers. Education is a lifelong process of constantly acquiring relevant information,knowledge and skills. Customer education is an important part of this process and is abasic customer right that must be introduced at the school level. Customers by definitioninclude all citizens who are, by and large the biggest group, who are affected byalmost ail government, public or private decisions. The most important step incustomer education is awareness of customer rights. However, customer education isincomplete without the responsibilities and duties of customers, and this influencesindividual behavior to a great extent. Customer awareness is the knowledge that a customer should have about his/herlegal rights and duties. It is must for a customer to follow these rights. It is implementedfor the protection of the customer, so that the customer is not exploited bythe seller of the products. Customer awareness, which refers to a buyers knowledge of a particular productor company, allows the buyer to get the most from what he buys. Customers know moreabout their choices when they have product information and benefit from knowing theirrights, hearing about alerts and warnings and finding out about safety issues. Anyone who consumes goods is a customer. Customers get exploited in themarket. They respond to advertisements and buy goods. Generally advertisements donot give all the information that a customer needs to know or wants to know about aproduct. 23
  • 34. Customer awareness is a marketing concept that measures customers knowledge of abrands existence. At the aggregate (brand) level, it refers to the proportion ofcustomers who know of the brand. Customer awareness remains fundamental tocustomer life us the interaction initiation point to the brands. The approach takes intoaccount sources of brand equity - customer awareness, customer/brand loyalty, andimage (perceptions/associations) in the minds of customer.Measurement driven conceptualization Customer awareness means the extent to which a brand associated with aparticular product is documented by potential and existing customers either positivelyor negatively. Creation customer awareness is the primary goal of advertising at thebeginning of any products life cycle in target markets, and has influence on buyingbehaviour of a buyer. All of these calculations are, at best, approximations. A morecomplete understanding of the brand can occur if multiple measures are used. Brand equity is the positive effect of the brand on the difference between theprices that the customer accepts to pay when the brand known compared to the value ofthe benefit received. There are two schools of thought regarding the existence of negative brandequity. One perspective states brand equity cannot be negative, hypothesizing onlypositive brand equity is created by marketing activities such as advertising, PR, andpromotion. A second perspective is that negative equity can exist, due to catastrophicevents to the brand, such as a wide product recall or continued negative pressattention. Colloquially, the term "negative brand equity" may be used to describe aproduct or service where a brand has a negligible effect on a product level whencompared to a no-name or private label product. The brand-related negative intangibleassets are called "brand liability", compared with "brand equity".Brand recognition - Either the brand name or both the brand name and categoryname are presented to respondents. 24
  • 35. Brand recall - the product category name is given to respondents who are asked torecall as many brands as possible that are members of the category.Top of mind awareness - as above, but only the first brand recalled is recorded(also known as spontaneous brand recall).Research on metrics There has been discussion in industry and practice about the meaning and valueof various customer awareness metrics. Recently, an empirical study appeared to put thisdebate to rest by suggesting that all awareness metrics were systematically related,simply reflecting their difficulty, in the same way that certain questions are moredifficult in academic exams.Brand recall Brand Recall is the extent to which a brand name is recalled as a member of abrand, product or service class, as distinct from brand recognition. Common market research usage is that pure b -and recall requires "unaided recall".For example a respondent may be asked to recall the names of any cars he may know, orany whisky brands he may know. Some researchers divide recall into both "unaided" and "aided" recall. "Aidedrecall" measures the extent to which a brand name is remembered when the actual brandname is prompted. An example of such a question is "Do you know of the "Honda"brand?" In terms of brand exposure, companies want to look for high levels of unaidedrecall in relation to their competitors. The first recalled brand name (often called "top ofmind") has a distinct competitive advantage in brand space, as it has the first chance ofevaluation for purchase. 25
  • 36. Brand Recognition Brand Recognition is the extent to which a brand is recognized for stated brandattributes, parts, offerings, or communications. In some cases brand recognition is defined as aided recall - and as a subset ofbrand recall. In this case, brand recognition is the extent to which a brand name isrecognized when prompted with the actual name. A broader view of brand recognition is the extent to which a. brand isrecognized within a product class for certain attributes. Logo and tagline testing can beseen as a form of brand recognition testing. For example, if a product name can beassociated with a certain tagline, logo or attribute a certain level of brand recognition ispresent.Stability of responses While customer awareness scores tend to be quite stable at aggregate (level)level, individual customers show considerable propensity to change their responses torecall based customer awareness measures. For top of mind recall measures, customersgive the same answer in two interviews typically only 50% the time. Similar low levelsof consistency in response have been recorded for other cues to elicit brand nameresponsesDEFINITION: Making existing and potential customers knowledgeable aboutproducts/services, customer awareness programs create more informed buyingdecisions Customers cannot purchase products and service if they do not know theyexist. A lack of customer awareness in any industry can harm sales. If specificproducts and services are better known, those products and services will remain on the 26
  • 37. front line in sales. Therefore, it is important to implement customer awareness programsthat will introduce and make the target audience aware of the products and services acompany offers. Customer awareness is the process of notifying the public or target customersabout new products, recalls on products, disease outbreaks, public service informationand many other types of news. Many companies use certain advertising mediums likenewspapers or radio ads to promote customer awareness. Informing the public aboutvital information or new products plus positive word-of-mouth experiences can have; asynergistic effect on disseminating information amidst the public. Following are somesteps you can take to create customer awareness about your product or public serviceinformation.Need for Customer Awareness:1) It has been observed that the people for whom various schemes have been taken up by Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), in fact, do not get benefit as expected. This is mainly because they are not fully aware of these schemes and their benefits. Also, only knowledgeable and alert customers aware of their rights and responsibilities can protect themselves effectively. The need of the hour is, therefore, to educate the common customers particularly those in rural areas who are more susceptible to exploitation. Once they are educated and made aware of the schemes that have been drawn up for their benefit and also the redressal forum that is available, the benefit of various schemes, in true sense, will reach the common customers of the country. It is, therefore, our bounden duty to play our part jointly and effectively in disseminating various schemes to the common customers of the country. In this regard, the role of the voluntary customer organizations, customer activists, non-governmental organizations, educational institutions and media cannot be ignored. 27
  • 38. 2) Making existing and potential customers knowledgeable about products/services, customer awareness programs create more informed buying decisions. Customers cannot purchase products and services if they do not know they exist. A lack of customer awareness in any industry can harm sales. If specific products and services are. better known, those products and services will remain on the front line in sales. Therefore, it is important to implement customer awareness programs that will introduce and make the target audience aware of the products and services a company offers. Customer awareness programs can be initiated through the utilization of flyers, brochures, television, radio, guides, fact sheets, information posted to a Web site, school programs, and other sources depending upon the topic and the message delivered.3) We need it so we will not be misled by producers, it explains if what we buy is worth to our money and not harmful to us and to environment. Many people are ignorant of their rights to get protected against the exploitation by so many others. So when there is a forum for such redress of grievances there seems to be no such exploitation by many; and becomes a rare one. So in Older to get a clear picture of the level of exploitation of customers, the awareness is required.Importance of Customer Awareness Customer awareness is a term used to describe the awareness of a potential orcurrent buyer about a particular product or company. Customer awareness can be assimple as a shopper remembering a television commercial or as specific as a customerdelving into the manufacturing origins of a specific product.Function Customer awareness plays a key role in customer decision making. By increasinga potential or current customers knowledge about a product, service or business, ahealthy economic environment is established in which customers are informed andprotected and businesses are accountable. 28
  • 39. Considerations Customer education is an ongoing process that considers a variety of factors,including price, reputation, personal knowledge, history, social issues and otherfactors.Benefits There are several significant benefits to customer awareness for both individualsand society as a whole. The benefits of customer awareness for individuals include enhanced criticalthinking, improved life skills and increased self-confidence. Customer awareness benefits society by promoting customer satisfaction,increasing economic stability and creating realistic customer expectations.Types There are several different types of customer awareness Media awarenessinvolves a customers knowledge of the advertising surrounding a given product orcompany. Media awareness also encompasses independent product reviews online orin print publications. Cost awareness involves comparing the prices of a similar productamong different competitors.Creating customer awareness: Decide whom you want to target about your product or public serviceannouncement. Determine which advertising medium or methods you can use toreach your target audience. Have those various media companies send you a media kiton their circulation, readership or reach as well as the price of all types of promotions.Develop a website to include in your advertising. 29
  • 40. Design a logo that distinctly identifies your product or public service company. Create a memorable character like Mr. Clean or Smokey the Bear to, respectively, promotes your product or public service announcement. Develop a small booklet that contains vital information about your product or information that you want distributed. Have it printed at a local print shop. Hire people to hand these booklets out at retail outlets or high traffic areas, inviting customer to try the product or read more about a particular issue. Schedule a seminar at schools, office complexes or manufacturing plants if you have information that is vital to students or workers. Discuss the particular topic and explain the steps people can take to resolve any particular issues. Advertise your product or public service announcement on radio stations that appeal to your target audience. Run the advertisement frequently in the early stages of your product introduction or public service message to build customer awareness among customers. Promote your product or public service message on television when your target audience is most likely to view it. Place full-page ads in the newspaper in the business section or in a section related to your product or public service message.Brand equity: Brand equity is the marketing effects and outcomes that accrue to a product withits brand name compared with those that would accrue if the same product did not havethe brand name. Fact of the well-known brand name is that, the company can sometimescharge premium prices from the customer. And, at the root of these marketing effects iscustomers knowledge. In other words, customers knowledge about a brand makesmanufacturers and advertisers respond differently or adopt appropriately adept measuresfor the marketing of the brat d. The study of brand equity is increasingly popular assome marketing researchers have concluded that brands are one of the most valuableassets a company has. Brand equity is one of the factors which can increase thefinancial value of a brand to the brand owner, although not the only one. Elements thatcan be included in the valuation of brand equity include (but not limited to): changingmarket share, profit margins, customer recognition of logos and other visual elements, 30
  • 41. brand language associations made by customers, customers perceptions of quality andother relevant brand values. There have been three different perspectives for considering brand equity; Thecustomer- based perspectives, the financial perspectives and combined perspectives.While this study focus on the customer based perspectives.Customer- Based Brand Equity. The advantage of conceptualizing brand equity from the Customer- basedperspective is that it enables managers to consider specifically how their marketingprograms improves the value of their brands in the minds of customers. Within themarketing literature, operationalization of customer based-brand equity usually fallsinto two groups. Customer perception (customer awareness, brand associations, perceivedquality) and customer behavior (brand loyalty, willingness to pay a high price). Customer- Based Brand Equity is defined as "a set of Brand asses aidliabilities linked to a brand, its name and symbol that add to or subtract from thevalue provided by a product or service to a firms customers.Factors influencing Customer awareness: Customer Awareness refers to the strength of a brands presence in thecustomers mind. Awareness is measured according to the different ways in which customersremember a brand, ranging from recognition to recall to top of the mind. Some of the major factors affecting customer awareness are Brand Name: One of the most important factors affecting Customerawareness is the brand name. Brand name plays an important part in creatingawareness for a brand. Also whether the name is really very meaningful or completelybaseless they both affect customer awareness. 31
  • 42. Advertising: Advertising also helps to create Customer awareness in a bigway. Take any brand name Fevicol, Vicks, Pepsi all have used ads for creatingawareness among their customers. Celebrity: Another important factor affecting Customer awareness is thecelebrities endorsing the Brand. Whenever you see a celebrity you love endorsing abrand you tend to propagate the Brand. Parent Company: To a large extent the parent company helps inpromoting a brand. The parent company in many cases is so popular that its brandautomatically become popular and people become aware about the product. Sales Promotions and Offers: It also helps in making the customersaware of the brand. Some of the sales promotion activities that companies carry outhelp their in a big way to make their target aware of the brand. First Mover Advantage: Usually the company that enters a productcategory first has good awareness about its brand. Usually people tend to rememberthe first player to enter the market. Public Relations: The coverage that the fourth estate and magazinesprovide a brand also helps in building awareness about a brand. Direct Selling: Some of the companies use direct selling as a platform tocreate customer awareness. Peer Group Opinion: Peer group opinion also plays an important part inthe whole brandy awareness exercise. Usually people tend to discuss a lo: about thebrand and tend to share their experiences or some recent ads they have seen which inturn increases customer awareness of their peers. 32
  • 43. Recall of Ads: In some cases the customer awareness is also high due tospecific ad recall, which is very high. It indicates stronger brand position in the mind. Still a; a higher level is the topof the mind recall; it is the brand, which comes first to the mind. The top of mindawareness indicates a relative superiority a brand enjoys above others. Sometimes abrand becomes so dominant that it becomes the only recalled brand in the productcategory. Very few brands are able to achieve dominance.Brand Association: The associations customers make with brand support brand equity. Theseassociations may include product attributes, a celebrity spokesperson or a symbol. Brand associations are driven by brand identity-what the: organization wants thebrand to stand for in the customers mind. A key to brand building then is to developand implement brand identity. One key to successful brand building is to develop a brand identity - to knowwhat the brand stands for and to effectively express that identity. Invariably all brands come to acquire a meaning in the mini of the customer.Customers associate different dimensions of the product including its use and usesituations to the brands. Brand association, therefore, is anything linked to the memoryof a brand.Brand identity: Brand identity is a unique set of brand associations that the braid strategistaspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand stands forand imply a promise to customers from the organization members. Brand identity should establish a relationship between the brand and thecustomer by generating a value proposition involving functional, emotional or self-expressive benefits. 33
  • 44. Factors in Customer Adoption of Internet Banking In this section, we first describe the theoretical framework and second, providefindings relating to some important gender differences discovered. The theoreticalframework was developed from the themes identified in the analysis results, as follows.We first observed that some themes were deemed more important than others byparticipants when making their banking service delivery channel choices and selectedthese as factors in the model. Second, we noted that several of these factors appearedinterrelated. Third, a temporal sequence for some factors was suggested by the wayparticipants linked these factors in the data. A summary of the framework follows, withmore important factors as indicated by the analysis noted in the relevant descriptions. At the top of figure 1, the framework shows that a bank must first attractbanking customer attention to the internet banking service before the customer, willconsider internet banking. However, unless the customer has a high level of internetaccessibility at home or at work, she is unlikely to consider using internet banking. Thecustomer also assesses whether it is convenient to conduct her banking that way(convenience), how usable die application appears (usability), and her perceivedcompetence at internet use and banking application use (self-efficacy). The fourfactors of accessibility, self-efficacy, convenience and usability are interrelated. Thecustomer also considers whether the perceived relative advantages of internet bankingcompared with other banking forms outweigh perceived risks and costs. In addition,the availability of sufficient support and in depth knowledge from the bank and itsemployees contribute significantly to the adoption decision.Rights and Duties of Customers: As codified under the Indian Laws the Customers have the following Rights:  Right to Safety—to protect against hazardous goods  Right to be Informed—about price, quality, purity  Right to choose—access to a variety of goods and services at competitive prices.  Right to be Heard—customers interest and welfare must be taken care of  Right to seek Redressal—protection against unfair trade practices and settling genuine grievances.  Right to Customer Education.—Knowledge about goods and issues related to customers. 34
  • 45. Duties:  Get a bill for every important purchase and also the Warranty card  Check the ISI mark or Agmark on the goods  Form customer awareness groups  Make a complaint on genuine grievances.  Customers must know to exercise their rights. 35
  • 46. CHAPTER III 36
  • 47. Research Methodology Research Methodology is a way systematically to solve the research problem. Itmay be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. It isnecessary for the researcher to know not only the methods or techniques b A also themethodology.Research design: Research design is the plan, structure, and strategy of investigation conceived so asto obtained answers to research questions. Research design is purely a framework or aplan for study that guides in the collection of data. Descriptive research design isadopted for analyzing the data.Research Method: The research design is a Descriptive Research. Descriptive statistics was tabular,graphical & numerical summaries of data. Its main purpose is to facilitate thepresentation and INFERENCEof data. Descriptive Research design involves descriptionof the variables making up the demographic and geographic profile of the sampleSource of data: Primary Data: Primary data has collected directly from customers through structuredquestionnaires (Individual sample units) Secondary Data: Secondary data has collected from the various magazines, journals, website ofDENA BANK and various websites.Sampling Method: The population includes male and female customers residing in the area ofT.Nagar with the criteria: Customers with Dena bank. In this project conveniencesampling method is followed. 37
  • 48. Definition: Convenience. In convenience sampling, a sample is obtained by selecting convenientpopulation elements from the population.Sample Size: Our Sample size was 150, who fulfill the basis criteria- Customers with Denabank.Sampling unit: A sample unit is a single individual, who is having Dena bank accounts.Data collection method: Self-administered Personal survey method was used to collect the necessarydata. For this purpose appropriate questionnaires were designed.Data collection instrument: Appropriately designed questionnaire to facilitate self-administered surveys withsimple standard questions were used to collect data.Structure of Questionnaire: The questions formulated were structured and non-disguised. The questions wereasked in order to get all the necessary information and to see that the respondents couldanswer them with case. This pattern adopted facilitated in analyzing the data.Types of questions asked:1. Multiple choice questions Many choices of responses are given and the respondent chooses one response.The advantage of this type is easy tabulation and quick response by the respondent. 38
  • 49. 2. Dichotomous questions This type of questions is of Yes or No format. There are only two choices ofanswers and the respondent has to choose either Yes or No.3. Open questions These are also known as free-answer type questions. 39
  • 50. The statistical tool used for analysis of the data is Chi-square test. Based on the answer received on the question in the questionnaire, thefollowing analysis and findings have been derived.Chi-square test: Chi-square is a non-parametric test which can be used to determine categoricaldata shows dependency or that two classification are independent. It can also makecomparisons between the theoretical population and actual data, when categories areused. It is mostly used most frequently by marketing researches to test hypothesis. This test is employed for testing hypothesis when distributed population is notknown and when nominal data is to be analyzed. Chi-square aims at determiningwhether the difference exists among graphs of data or whether the differences are dueto sampling. Chi-square analysis is used to find out dependency between two differentattributes. 2 =∑ (Oi-Ei)2 / EiWhere,  Oi = Observed frequency  Ei = Expected frequencyThe Ei can be calculated as,Ei = (Row total * Column total)/ Grand total 2 2 The calculated value of is compared with table value of for givendegrees of freedom at specified level of significance. It is accepted when thecalculated value is lesser than tabulated value and rejected when the calculated valueis greater than the table value. 40
  • 51. CHAPTER IV 41
  • 52. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION TABLE No 4.1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR GENDER Customer Mode Gender No. of respondents Percentage Male 80 54 Female 70 46 Total 150 100 Source: Primary Data CHART NO 4.1 Sales Male FemaleINFERENCE: From the above table, 54 per cent of the respondents are Male, 46 Per cent ofthe respondents female. 42
  • 53. TABLE No 4.2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR AGE Age group of customer Age class No.of.Respondents Percentage Below 20 20 13 20-30 35 24 30-40 30 20 40-50 38 25 Above 50 27 18 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.2 No.of. Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Below 20 20-30 30-40 40-50 Above 50INFERENCE: From the above table, 25 Per cent of the respondents are of 40-50 years old, 24Per cent of the respondents are of 20-30 years old, 20 Per cent of the respondents areof 30-40 years old, 18 Per cent of the respondents are above 50 years old and theremaining 1325 Per cent of the respondents are below the age of 20. 43
  • 54. TABLE No 4.3 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR OCCUPATION Mode of Occupation Occupation No. of. Respondents Percentage Business 27 23 Govt. Employees 25 17 Retired 35 15 Private Sectors 40 27 Others 23 18 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.3 No. of. respondents Business Govt. Employees Retired Private Sectors OthersINFERENCE: The above table shows that, 27 Percent of the respondents are Private sector,23 Percent of the respondents are business person, 18 Percent of the respondents areothers, 17 Percent of the respondents are Govt. employees and the remaining isretired. 44
  • 55. TABLE No 4.4 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR INCOME LEVEL Category of Income Level Income Level No. of. Respondents Percentage Below 1 Lakh 44 29 1 Lakh - 3 Lakh 48 32 Above 3 Lakh 58 39 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.4 No. of . respondents Below 1 Lakh 1 Lakh - 3 Lakh Above 3 LakhINFERENCE From the above table, 39 percent of the respondents annual income are aboveRs.3 Lakh, 32 percent of the respondents annual incomes are between Rs.1 Lakh -3Lakh. Remaining 29 percent of the respondents below Rs.1 Lakh. 45
  • 56. TABLE No 4.5 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR ACCOUNT HELD WITH THE BANK: Having account in Dena Bank Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Below 1 Year 25 16.67 1-3 Years 33 22 3-5 Year 41 27.33 Above 5 Years 51 34 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No. 4.5 80 70 60 50 40 Percentage 30 No. of. Respondents 20 10 0 Belwo 1 Year 1-3 Years 3-5 Years Above 5 yearsINFERENCE From the above table, 39 percent of the respondents are having above 5 yearswith the bank, 27.33 percent of the respondents are between 3-5 years, and 22 percentof the respondents are 1-3 years. Remaining 16.67 percent of the respondents arehaving account below 1 year with the bank. 46
  • 57. TABLE No 4.6DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR AWARENESS ABOUT DENA BANK : Awareness about Dena Bank Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Yes 150 100 No 0 0 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.6 No. of . respondents 250 200 150 No. of. Respondents 100 50 0 Yes NoINFERENCE: From the above table, 100 percent of the respondents are aware of Dena Bank. 47
  • 58. TABLE No 4.7 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR CONVENIENT MODE OF BANKING: Classifications based on customers convenient mode of banking : Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Branch 25 16.67 Internet banking 30 20 Phone banking 15 10 Mobile banking 25 16.67 ATM Services 55 36.66 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No.4.7 100 90 80 70 60 50 Percentage 40 No. of . Respondents 30 20 10 0 Branch Internet Phone Mobile ATM banking banking banking bankin ServicesINFERENCE: From the above table, 36.66 Percent of respondents are aware about ATMservice, 20 Percent of respondents are aware about Internet banking services, 16.67Percent of respondents are aware about branch banking and mobile banking service,remaining 10 Percent of respondents are aware about phone banking service. 48
  • 59. TABLE No 4.8DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR AWARENESS ABOUT THE INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Awareness about internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Yes 125 83.33 No 25 16.67 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.8 No. of. respondents 250 200 150 Percentage 100 No. of. Respondents 50 0 Yes NoINFERENCE: From the above table, 83.33 percent of the respondents are aware of theinternet banking service offered by the bank the remaining 16.67 percent ofrespondents are unaware of it. 49
  • 60. TABLE No 4.9 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR USAGE OF INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Awareness about internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Yes 68 45 No 82 55 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.9 No. of. Respondents Yes NoINFERENCE From the above table, 45 percent of the respondents are using internet bankingservice offered by the bank and the remaining 55 percent of respondents are not usingit. 50
  • 61. TABLE No 4.10 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACORDING TO THEIR PERIOD OF USAGE OF INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Period of usage of internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Never used 82 55 Less than 1 year 23 15.33 1-2 years 15 10 Above 2 years 30 20 Total 150 100Source : Primary Data CHART No 4.10 No. of. Respondents 140 120 100 80 Percentage 60 No. of Respondetns 40 20 0 Never Less than 1-2 years Above 2 used 1 year yearsINFERENCE From the above table, 55 percent of the respondents never used this service, 20percent of the respondents have used this service above 2 years, and 15.33 percent ofthe respondents have used this service below 1 year. Remaining 10 percent of therespondents are using this service between 1-2 years. 51
  • 62. TABLE No 4.11DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ACCORDING TO THE TRANSACTIONS THEY MADE THROUGH INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Period of usage of internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Balance Enquiry 12 17.65 Mini Statement 11 16.18 Statements of Account 12 17.65 Cheque based enquiry 9 13.24 Funds Transfer 12 17.65 Tax Payments 12 17.65 Total 68 100Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.11 No. of respondents Balance Enquiry Mini Statement Statements of Account Cheque based enquiry Funds Transfer Tax PaymentsINFERENCE From the above table, 17.65 percent of the respondents tried Balance Enquiry,Account Statement, Funds Transfer and Tax Payments facility offered by the bank.16.18 percent of the respondents have checked their Mini Statement and the remaining13.24 percent of the respondents have made Cheque based enquiry using internetbanking service. 52
  • 63. TABLE No 4.12 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS REASON FOR NOT USING INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Reason for not using internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Confusing 9 11 Lack of information 13 15.85 Fear of security 50 61 Others 10 12.2 Total 82 100 Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.12 No. of. Respondents Confusing Lack of information Fear of security OthersINFERENCE: From the above table, 61 percent of the respondents did not use this service dueto the fear of security, 15.85 percent of the respondents did not use this service due tothe lack of information about this service, 12.2 percent of the respondents did not usethis service due to some other reasons and for the remaining 11 percent of therespondents did not use this service due to confusion in the internet banking service. 53
  • 64. TABLE No 4.13DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTSACCORDING TO THEIR PURPOSE OF USINGINTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Purpose for using internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Business activity 25 36.8 Electronic Payments 20 29.4 Demat Services 13 19.1 Others 10 14.71 Total 68 100 Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.13 No. of. Respondents Business acitivity Electronic Payments20 Demat Services OthersINFERENCE From the above table, 36.8 percent of the respondents used this for businessactivity, 29.4 percent of the respondents used this for making electronic payments, 19.1percent of the respondents used this for Demat Services and 14.71 percent of therespondents used this for other purposes. 54
  • 65. TABLE No 4.14 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTSACCORDING TO THEIR SATISFACTION LEVEL IN THE INTERNET BANKING SERVICE Satisfaction in the internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Highly satisfied 25 37 Satisfied 23 33.8 Neutral 15 22.1 Dis- Satisfied 5 7.4 Highly dis - satisfied 0 0 Total 68 100 Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.14 No. of. Respondents 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 No. of. Respondents 0INFERENCE: From the above table, 37 percent of the respondents are highly- satisfied with thisservice, 33.8 percent of the respondents are satisfied with this service, 22.1 percent of therespondents are neutrally satisfied with this service, and 7.4 percent of the respondentsare highly-satisfied with this service. None of the respondents are highly dis-satisfiedwith this service. 55
  • 66. TABLE No 4.15 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTSACCORDING TO THEIR SATISFACTION TOWARDS INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Satisfaction in the internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Cheap and best 15 22.05 Saves time consumption 18 26.5 Fast transactions 25 36.8 No need to visit bank often 10 14.1 Total 68 100 Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.15 No. of. Respondents Cheap and best Saves time consumption Fast transactions No need to visit bank oftenINFERENCE: From the above table, 36.8 percent of the respondents are satisfied because offaster transactions, 26.5 percent of the respondents are satisfied because is Saves timeconsumption 22.05 percent of the respondents are satisfied because it is Cheap and best,14.1 percent of the respondents are satisfied because no need to visit bank often. 56
  • 67. TABLE No 4.16 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS REASON FOR THEIR DISSATISFACTION TOWARDS INTERNET BANKING SERVICES: Reason for dis-satisfaction towards internet banking service Status No. of. Respondents PercentageSecurity reasons 85 56.67 Unable to do cash transactions 45 30Others 20 13.33Total 150 100Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.16 No. of. Respondents 160 140 120 100 80 No. of. Respondents 60 40 20 0 Security reasons Unable to do cash Others transactionsINFERENCE: From the above table, 56.67 percent of the respondents are dis-satisfied forsecurity reasons, 30percent of the respondents are dis-satisfied as its unable to do cashtransactions, and 20 percent of the respondents are dis-satisfied for other reasons. 57
  • 68. TABLE No 4.17 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS WITH REFERENCE TO THE FACILITIES OFFERED BY THE BANK FOR INTERNET BANKING: Facilities offered for internet banking Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Excellent 20 29.4 Very Good 18 26.5 Good 15 22.06 Average 10 14.71 Poor 5 7.4 Total 68 100Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.17 No. of. Respondents 60 50 40 30 No. of. Respondents 20 10 0 Excellent Very Good Good Average PoorINFERENCE: From the above table, 29.4 percent of the respondents have rated excellent,26.5percent of the respondents have rated Very good, 22.06 percent of the respondentshave rated Good, 14.71 percent-of the respondents have rated Average and theremaining 7.4 percent of the respondents have rated poor for the facilities offered by thebank for internet banking services. 58
  • 69. TABLE No 4.18DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS AC CORDING TODURATION OF THEIR USAGE IN INTERNET BANKING SERVICE:Classification based on the duration of their usage in the internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Very Frequently 23 33.8 Frequently 17 25 Occasionally 15 22.1 . Rarely 13 19.1 Very Rarely Nil 0 Total 68 100Source: Primary Data No. of. Respondents Very Frequently Frequently Occasionally Rarely Very RarelyINFERENCE: From the above table, 33.8 percent of the respondents use this service veryfrequently, 25 percent of the respondents use this service frequently,22.1 percent of therespondents use this service occasionally, 19.1 percent of the respondents use thisservice rarely and none of the respondents use this service very rarely. 59
  • 70. TABLE No 4.19DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS AC CORDING TOFREQUENT USAGE IN INTERNET BANKING SERVICE:Classification based on customer usage frequently to internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Regularly 29 42.6 Once in a while 12 17.6 When I am out-station 13 19.1 Indifferent 14 20.6 Total 68 100Source: Primary Data 80 70 60 50 40 Series 1 30 20 10 0 Regularly Once in a while When I am out- Indifferent stationINFERENCE: From the above table, 42.6 percent of the respondents use this service regularly,20.6 percent of the respondents use this service indifferent, 19.1 percent of therespondents use this service when they are out station and 17.6 percent of therespondents use this service once in a while. 60
  • 71. TABLE No 4.20 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS AC CORDING TO THEIR OPINION IN INTERNET BANKING SERVICE:Classification of customer opinion about the internet banking services Status No. of. Respondents Percentage Excellent 85 56.7 Good 30 20 Average 18 12 Poor 17 11.3 Total 150 100Source: Primary Data CHART No 4.20 Excellent Good Average PoorINFERENCE: From the above table, 56.7 percent of the respondent sopinion is Excellent,20percent of the respondents opinion is good, 12 percent of respondents opinionisAverage and the remaining 11.3 percent of the respondents opinion is Poor about theinternet banking services provided by Dena bank. 61
  • 72. STATISTICAL TOOLS4.2.1 Chi-Square AnalysisAim: To test the relationship between customers usage of internet banking servicetowards their occupation Occupation Govt. Private Business Retired Others Total USAGE Employee Sector Yes 27 8 5 32 5 77 No 0 17 30 8 18 73 Total 27 25 35 40 23 150Null Hypothesis (Ho) : There is no significant difference between the Occupation and the internetbanking usage.Alternative Hypothesis (Hi) : There is significant difference between the Occupation and the internet bankingusage.Level of significance: 5%Degree Of Freedom:= (c-1) (r-1)= (5-1) (2-1)= 4. 62
  • 73. Working Notes: Oi Ei (Oi - Ei) (Oi - Ei)2 (Oi - Ei)2 Ei 27 13.9 13.1 171.6 12.3 0 13.1 -13.1 171.6 13.1 8 12.8 -4.8 23.04 1.8 17 12.2 4.8 23.04 1.9 5 18 -13 169 9.4 30 17 13 169 9.9 32 20.5 11.5 132.3 6.5 8 19.5 -11.5 132.3 6.8 5 11.8 -6.8 46.24 3.9 18 11.2 6.8 46.24 4.1 Total 69.7Table value: The table value of chi square for degrees of freedom at 5% level is 9.49Inference: The calculated value > tabulated value. Therefore Null hypothesis is rejected.Result: There is significant difference between the Occupation and the internetbanking usage. 63
  • 74. 4.2.2. Chi-Square AnalysisAim: To test the relationship between the facilities provided offered for internetbanking service towards customer gender. Facilities Very Excellent Good Average Poor Total Gender Good Male 11 8 7 4 0 30 Female 9 10 8 6 6 38 Total 20 18 15 10 5 60Null Hypothesis (Ho) : There is no significant difference between the facilities provided offered forinternet banking service and the customer gender.Alternative Hypothesis (H1) : There is significant difference between the facilities provided offered forinternet banking service and the customer gender.Level of significance: 5%Degree Of Freedom:= (c-1) (r-1)= (5-1) (2-1)=4 64
  • 75. Working Notes: Oi Ei (Oi - Ei) (Oi - Ei)2 (Oi - Ei)2 Ei 11 8.8 2.2 4.8 0.6 9 11.2 -2.2 4.8 0.6 8 7.9 0.1 0.01 0.001 10 10.1 -0.1 0.01 0.001 7 6.6 0.4 0.16 0.02 8 8.4 -0.4 0.16 0.02 4 4.4 -0.4 0.16 0.02 6 5.6 0.4 0.16 0.02 0 2.2 -2.2 4.8 0.6 5 2.8 2.2 4.8 0.6 Total 2.482Table value: The table value of chi square for degrees of freedom at 5% level is 9.49Inference: The calculated value < tabulated value. Therefore Null hypothesis is accepted.Result: There is no significant difference between the facilities provided offered forinternet banking service and the customer gender. 65
  • 76. CHAPTER V 66
  • 77. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONFindings  54 percent of the respondents are Male.  25 percent of respondents are of the age group 40-50.  27 percent of respondents are private sector.  ^ 39 percent of respondents are above Rs. 3 Lakh.  34 percent of respondents are having account above 5 years in the bank.  All the respondents are aware of Dena bank.  36.66 percent of respondents are aware of only ATM Service.  Only 83.33 percent of respondents are aware of the internet banking service offered by the bank.  Only 45 percent of respondents are using the internet banking service offered by the bank.  55 percent of respondents have never used this service provided by the bank.  17.65 percent of respondents have made use of all the facilities offered for internet banking service by the bank.  61 percent of respondents didnt use the internet banking service because of fear of security.  36.8 percent of respondents used internet banking service for business activity.  37 percent of respondents are highly satisfied with this service.  36.8 percent of respondents are satisfied due to faster transactions.  56.67 percent of respondents are dissatisfied due to security reasons.  29.4 percent of respondents have graded excellent for the facilities offered for internet banking  33.8 percent of respondents use this service very frequently.  42.6 percent of respondents use this service regularly.  56.7 percent of respondents opinion is excellent about the internet banking services provided by Dena bank. 67
  • 78. Suggestions:  Customers are not satisfied with the RTGS / NEFT facility.  Though the Internet Banking is an effective tool but many of the customers are not using it due to the awareness of the particular direct banking channel. Now the responsibility lies with the bank to make them aware about various Internet banking channels through publicity and advertisement.  Bank should educate the customer about the usage of internet banking channel and also about their advantages. This would prompt the customers to shift from traditional brick and mortar channel.  It has been observed that even the customers who know about internet banking channel are not using this facility due to misconception and lack of information. These customers should be targeted by the bank and must be convinced to use the same.  The result of the study shows that customers are using only few facility of various internet banking channel. Though e- banking provides a full gamut of various services. Customer should be made aware of these services and must be encouraged to use the same.  The bank may improve existing facilities in rural areas through advertising, spread awareness about computer and net banking.  The best way to motivate the customer to use the e- banking is the most efficient customer care service. 68
  • 79. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: The study was done in T.Nagar bank and sample size of 150 the credibility of the project is not assured. Personal bias and prejudices of the respondents could have affected the result of the study. Convenient sampling has been used and hence the samples selected are not true representation of the universe. Only certain statistical test could be applied to validate the results of the study. 69
  • 80. CONCLUSION:  The success of the company directly or indirectly depends on their customers, as they are the backbone of the company. With the development of technology the customers expectations are raising relentlessly, competitive will survive who can respond to the customer needs faster and better than anyone.  The project commence with fixing the objective then sample were collected accordingly around 150 samples have been collected from the population in a structure method and analysis have been done to get the results.  The objectives framed at the beginning of the project have been achieved.  The customers are aware of Dena bank and various types of the services provided by the bank.  The result of this study shows that perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, customer awareness and perceived risk are the important determinants of internet banking adoption.  Study concludes that majority of customers are accepting internet banking because of many favorable factors. Analysis concluded that usefulness, ease of use of the system awareness about internet banking and risks related to it are the main perusing factors to accept internet banking system.  These factors have a strong and positive effect on customers to accept internet banking system.  This "customer awareness survey" is conducted to rival the awareness level of the customers towards internet banking service in different parameters as per the respondents having positive attitude towards Dena bank. 70
  • 81. ANNEXURE 71
  • 82. THE STUDY OF CUSTOMER AWARENESS TOWARDS INTERNETBANKING SERVICES PROVIDED BY DENA BANK WITH SPECIALREFERENCE TO T.NAGAR BRANCH:QUESTIONNAIREName of Respondent:Age: a) Below 20 b) 20-30 c) 30-40 d) 40-50 e) Above 50Gender: a) Male b) FemaleOccupation: a) Business b) Government Employed c) Retired d) Private sector e) Others (Please specify)1. Which income group do you belong to (annual)? A) Less than Rs. 1 Lakh B) Rs. 1 Lakh to 3 Lakh C) More than Rs. 3 Lakh2. How long you have account in Dena bank? a) Below 1 year b) 1-3 years c) 3-5 years d) Above 5 years3. What type of account you have in Dena bank? a) Savings b) Current c) Cash credit d) Term deposits e) Others4. According to you which is more convenient way for banking? a) Branch banking b) Internet banking c) Phone banking d) Mobile banking e) ATM5. "Banking through the internet is safe and secure". Present your view: a) Strongly Agree b) Agree c) Cant say d) Dis-Agree e) Strongly dis-agree 72
  • 83. 6. Are you aware of internet banking services? a) Yes b) No7. Have you used this facility? a) Yes b) No8. If "Yes", which transaction you have made? a) Balance Enquiry b) Mini statement c) Statement of accounts d) Cheque based enquiry e) Funds transfer f) Tax payments9. If "No", then what is the reason for not using internet banking facility? a) Confusing b) Lack of information c) Fear of security d) others10. How long you are using this internet banking facility? a) Not used b) Less than 1 year c) 1-2 years d) above 2 years11. For what purpose you are using internet banking facility? a) Business activity b) Electronic Payments c) Demat services d) others12. How well you are satisfied with the internet banking channel? a) Highly satisfied b) Satisfied c) Neutral d) Dis-satisfied e) Highly dis-satisfied13. Mention your reason for satisfaction towards the internet banking service? a) Cheap & best b) Saves time consumption c) Fast transactions d) No need to visit bank often14. Mention your reason for dis-satisfaction in the internet banking service? a) Security reasons b) unable to do cash transactions c) Others (Please specify) ____________15. What do you think of the facilities offered by the bank for internet banking? a) Excellent b) Very Good c) Good d) Average e) Poor 73
  • 84. 16. How many times you have used this facility till now? a) Very Frequently b) Frequently c) Occasionally d) Rarely e) Very Rarely17. How frequently you use internet banking facility? a) Regularly b) Once in a while c) When I am out-station d) Indifferent18. What is your overall opinion about internet banking? a) Excellent b) Good c) Average e) Poor19. Based on your satisfaction level will you recommend this service to your friends/relatives? a) Yes b) No20. Give your suggestion for internet banking: __________________________________ __________________________________ ____________________________________ 74
  • 85. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Philip Kotler Kevin kellerLane prentice - Hall of India P Ltd Edition 2007  C.R Kothari Research Methodology New Age International Publication Limited Second revised Edition 2006  P.N Arora & S.Arora Static for Management Sultan Chand Publication 3rd Revised Edition 2006Websites:  www.denabank.com  www.google.com 75