System Concept A System can be described simply as a set of elements joined together for a common objective. Methodical or coordinated assemblage of parts, facts, concepts. System is an established or organized procedure.Institute of Banking and Management Studies (IBMS) - MIS – 2011 - Prakash Dhakal
Alternative System Building Approach PROTOTYPING APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES END-USERS DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING And also System Life-Cycle is an Alternative System Building Approach. It is a traditional methodology that uses a phased approach to build a system, dividing systems development into formal stages, & corresponding to the stages of systems devt.Each stage consists of basic activities that must be performed before the next stage can begin.
Alternative System Building Approach PROTOTYPINGProcess of building an experimental system quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that end users can better define information requirements.It is more explicitly iterative than the conventional life cycle and it actively promotes system design changes. APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES END-USER DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING
Alternative System Building Approach PROTOTYPING APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGESIt is a set of prewritten, pre-coded application software programs that are commercially available for sale or lease.The key criteria in evaluating application software packages are: functions; flexibility, user-friendliness, hardware, software resources, database requirements, documentation, vendor quality, and cost etc. END-USER DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING
Alternative System Building Approach PROTOTYPING APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES END-USER DEVELOPMENT In End-User Development, the system is more likely to fill user requirements. However, rapid prototyping can gloss over essential programming and documentation steps.Also, software tools called fourth-generation languages enable end users to createreports or develop software applications with minimal or no technical assistance. OUTSOURCING
Alternative System Building Approach PROTOTYPING APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES END-USER DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING Outsourcing means using an external vendor to operate a firms information systems. The system may be custom built or may use a software package.In Outsourcing, the work is done by the vendor rather than by the organizations internal information systems staff.
Prototyping Prototyping is the process of building an experimentalsystem quickly and inexpensively for demonstration and evaluation so that end users can better define information requirements.The prototype is a preliminary model that is refined until it meets end-user requirements.
4-Step Model on Prototyping Process1. IDENTIFY USER’S REQUIREMENTS2. DEVELOP PROTOTYPE3. USE PROTOTYPE4. REVISE & ENHANCE PROTOTYPEBest For Design of End-UserInterface: How end-user interactswith system
Application Software PackagesAn application software package is a strategy in developingan information system.It is a set of prewritten, pre-coded application softwareprograms that are commercially available for sale or lease.Features of Application Software Packages are: 1. Customization 2. Request for Proposal (RFO)
Features on Software Packages Customization allows a package to be modified tomeet unique requirements Customization without destroying the Request for Proposal integrity of the package software.
Features on Software Packages RFP is a detailed list of questions submitted to vendors of packaged Customization software.Design activities focus on Request for Proposalmatching requirements to package features
End Users DevelopmentIt enable end users to create reports or develop software applicationswith no technical assistance. In end-user development, software toolsare called fourth-generation languages. There are seven categories of fourth-generation languages: Application Generators PC Software Tools Application Software Packages Query Languages High Programming Languages Graphic Languages
End Users Development Improve requirement determination as user Strengths specify their own business need. WeaknessesIncrease User Involvement Managing EUD and SatisfactionReduce Application Backlog
End Users Development Relatively Inefficient -Slow Transaction Processing - Strengths May Carry High Cost - Large File Can Degrade - Weaknesses Performance - Managing EUD May Limit Logic and - Updating Requirement -
End Users Development INFORMATION CENTER: Strengths Special Facility Within Weaknesses OrganizationProvides Training, Support Managing EUD for End-User-Computing
OutsourcingUsing an external vendor to build or operate a firms informationsystems is known as outsourcing.The system may be custom built or may use a software package.Firms outsources because their internal information system staffcannot keep pace with technological changeThe provider of outsourcing services benefits from Economics ofScale
Outsourcing If firm won’t distinguish itselfby developing application (i.e. Use of Outsourcing Payroll) If existing system is Contracting limited, ineffective, inferior . Problems of Outsourcing To improve the contributionof IT to Business Performance
OutsourcingCOMPUTER CENTER OPERATIONS Use of Outsourcing TELECOMMUNICATIONS NETWORKS Contracting APPLICATION DEVELOPMENT Problems of Outsourcing TO EXTERNAL VENDORS
Outsourcing INFORMATION CENTER: Use of Outsourcing Special Facility Within Contracting OrganizationProvides Training, Support Problems of Outsourcing for End-User-Computing