Smoking FactsTobacco was introduced to Europe from the New World at the end of the fifteenth century. Smoking spread rapidly and was longregarded as having medicinal value. It was not until the 20th century, however, that smoking became a mass habit and not until the1950’s that the dangers of smoking were firmly established.· About 12 million adults in Great Britain smoke cigarettes - 26% of men and 23% of women. In 1974, 51% of men and 41% ofwomen smoked cigarettes - nearly half the adult population of Britain. Now one-quarter smoke but the decline in recent years hasbeen heavily concentrated in older age groups: i.e., almost as many young people are taking up smoking but more establishedsmokers are quitting.· Adult smoking rates vary only slightly between different parts of the country, as defined by the Government Office Regions. Forexample, in the East of England 24% of people smoke, in the North West, 28%. In Scotland 25% of the population smokes; inWales the prevalence is 23%.· Smoking is highest among those aged 20-24: 36% of men and 29% women in this age group smoke. Among older age groupsprevalence gradually declines with the lowest smoking rate among people aged 60 and over: 14% smoke in this age group. Thisreflects the fact that many former smokers will have stopped in middle age and around one quarter of smokers die before reachingretirement age.· More than 80% of smokers take up the habit as teenagers.· In the United Kingdom about 450 children start smoking every day.· In England about one fifth of Britains 15 year-olds – 16% of boys and 25% of girls - are regular smokers - despite the fact that it isillegal to sell cigarettes to children aged under16.· Men and women in manual socio-economic groups are more likely to smoke than people in non-manual occupations. 20% of menand 17% of women in the professional and managerial groups smoke compared with 32% of men and 30% of women in routine andmanual groups.·
Smoking FactsPeople do give up - 20% of women and 28% of men are ex-smokers.Surveys show that about 70% of current smokers would like to give up altogether.· Tobacco is the only legally available consumer product which kills people when it is used entirely as intended.· Every year, around 114,000 smokers in the UK die as a result of their habit.· Deaths caused by smoking are five times higher than the 22,833 deaths arising from: road traffic accidents (3,439), other accidents(8,579), poisoning and overdose (881), alcoholic liver disease (5,121), murder and manslaughter (513), suicide (4,066), and HIVinfection (234) in the UK during 2002.· About half of all regular cigarette smokers will eventually be killed by their habit.· Smoking causes about thirty per cent of all cancer deaths (including around 84% of lung cancer deaths), 17% of all heart disease deathsand at least 80% of deaths from bronchitis and emphysema.· Polls show that people underestimate the health risks of smoking and the effects of passive smoking.· Tobacco smoke contains over 4,000 chemical compounds, which are present either as gases or as tiny particles. These include:Nicotine This is what is addictive. It stimulates the central nervous system, increasing the heartbeat rate and blood pressure. In largequantities nicotine is extremely poisonous.Tar Brown and treacly in appearance, tar consists of tiny particles and is formed when tobacco smoke condenses. Tar is deposited in thelungs and respiratory system and gradually absorbed. It is a mixture of many different chemicals, including: formaldehyde, arsenic,cyanide, benzo[a]pyrene, benzene, toluene, acrolein.Carbon monoxide This binds to haemoglobin in the bloodstream more easily than oxygen does, thus making the blood carry lessoxygen round the body.· The UK government earned £8,103 million in revenue from tobacco duty excluding VAT in the financial year 2004-05.· The Government currently spends around £25m on anti-smoking education campaigns. A further £50m is spent on measures to helppeople stop smoking.
Myths about Smoking – Are there any benefits to smoking?• It has been argued that smoking does have some benefits. The most common benefits that people believe are that smoking is good for stress relief, weight control and increased concentration. – Smoking helps me relieve stress• One of the most common reasons people give for continuing to smoke, or for going back to smoking after stopping is to relieve stress. The reality is that smokers tend to report higher levels of stress than non-smokers. After stopping smoking the level of stress in former smokers drops significantly. When you stop smoking it may feel like you are more stressed as a result of not smoking. For the first few weeks you are likely to experience mood swings and be irritable. The nicotine in cigarettes is highly addictive and these are symptoms of withdrawal. These symptoms normally last up to 4 weeks. – Smoking helps me stay thin• On average, smokers do weigh less than non-smokers. When you stop smoking the typical weight gain is around 2-3 kg. The nicotine from smoking acts as an appetite suppressant and smoking also increases the rate at which your body burns calories. Smokers will often replace cigarettes with snacking when stopping smoking. People often believe that smoking will help them to control their weight and be healthier. However the risks of continuing to smoke far outweigh those from minor weight gain.
– Does smoking help protect me against Alzheimers?• It has been suggested that smoking can help reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. However this has been largely dismissed by experts, and the evidence is now suggesting that smoking increases your risk of dementia. – Can using Nicotine Patches hurt my baby if I am pregnant?• There is currently not enough evidence to suggest that using patches can be of significant harm to your baby. However, before you use any NRT you should consult your doctor, and that you do not use the patches overnight. You might be better off using one of the shorter term nicotine replacement products such as gum or lozenges. Remember that the most harm to your baby is caused by smoking during pregnancy. Using NRT does not contain the 4000 chemicals that you can pass onto to your baby from smoking. Talk to your GP before you start using any stop smoking medicines. – Can I benefit my health by changing the way I smoke? – Is it better for me to switch to light, mild or low tar cigarettes?• We all know which cigarette packs are supposed to be light or mild, even if it no longer says on the packet. For years smokers have seen these products as a ‘healthier’ alternative to smoking ‘full strength’ cigarettes. Research shows, that smokers of light or mild brands are likely to inhale as much tar and nicotine as smokers of regular cigarettes. This means they can take in as many cancer-causing poisons as smokers of regular cigarettes. In simple terms, low tar cigarettes are just as harmful as regular cigarettes. – Is cutting down a good idea?• Many people believe that cutting down is a good way to reduce the health risk from smoking. This might include smoking fewer cigarettes, switching to lower strength brands or switching to alternatives to cigarettes such as roll ups or cigars. There is evidence to show that when people smoke fewer cigarettes they tend to smoke them harder to compensate for smoking fewer meaning that there is no real health benefit. There is no evidence that merely cutting down as a strategy to stop makes a quit attempt more likely to succeed. The only way to really reduce the risks from smoking is to stop completely.
– Just one won’t hurt…• It is very easy to get tempted into having just one cigarette once you have stop. DON’T DO IT. This is one of the easiest ways to get back into smoking. If you really are dying for ‘just one’ you should consider avoiding the places and situations where you find temptation. It may also help to use Nicotine Replacement Therapy to manage the cravings until you feel in control of the temptations. – What if I get addicted to Nicotine Replacement Therapy?• It is extremely unlikely that you will become addicted to using NRT instead of cigarettes. The dose of nicotine is smaller and more controlled. Unlike cigarettes which deliver nicotine in a immediate and high dose, delivery from NRT is much slower and more controlled. The level of immediate satisfaction is not the same. This helps to control the addiction to cigarettes whilst allowing you to wean yourself off nicotine. Nicotine in NRT is safe to use unlike nicotine in cigarettes as it does not contain the 4000 harmful chemicals found in cigarette smoke. Even if you end up using NRT for a long time, there is very little risk. – My Gran is 90 yrs old and smoked all her life…• There is always the story about the 123 year old whose secret to long life is 20 cigs a day and a tot of brandy before bed. Chances are that their long life has absolutely nothing to do with smoking. The fact is that half of all smokers will die as a result of smoking. Of the other half, some might live to extreme old age, but you are far more likely to live long if you don’t smoke. Even if you are lucky enough to escape fatal illness, smoking still increases signs of ageing, chances of impotence and blindness and a whole range of nasty ailments that could make your golden years very unpleasant.
– It can’t hurt me now, I’m only young• The younger you stop smoking, the more chance you have to benefit later. After stopping smoking it can take 15 years to totally reduce your risk of heart attack to that of a non-smoker so the sooner you stop the more chance of reclaiming benefits over time. – Roll ups, Cigars and Pipes are OK?• Some people think that changing to a roll-up cigarette can help them to stop smoking, or to reduce the harmful effects of smoking. Evidence suggests that smoking roll ups is actually more dangerous. Roll ups burn at a higher temperature than manufactured cigarettes. They also go out more, requiring re-lighting. These factors mean that you are getting higher doses of harmful smoke each time you inhale. Major studies of pipe and cigar smokers have shown that cigar smokers have double the risk of lung cancer than non-smokers. Pipe smokers increase the risk of lung cancer to eight times that of non-smokers. However you smoke your risk of fatal disease is significantly higher than as a non-smoker.
Health Benefits of Quitting• The health benefits of stopping smoking start almost immediately:• After...• 20 minutes: Blood pressure and pulse return to normal• 8 hours: Nicotine and carbon monoxide levels in the blood are halved, oxygen levels in the blood return to normal• 24 hours: Carbon monoxide is eliminated from the body and the lungs start to clear out the build up of tar• 48 hours: There is no nicotine left in the body. Taste and smell are greatly improved• 72 hours: Breathing becomes easier, bronchial tubes begin to relax, energy levels increase• 2 - 12 weeks: Circulation improves, making walking and running a lot easier• 3 - 9 months: Coughs, wheezing and breathing problems improve as the lungs have room for up to 10% more oxygen• 1 year: Risk of heart attack is halved• 10 years: Risk of lung cancer is halved• 10 years: Risk of heart attack is at the same level as non-smokers• Medium to long-term: Risk of developing lung cancer, other cancers, heart attack, stroke and chronic lung disease is reduced - the sooner you stop, the sooner your risk starts going down
Health Benefits continued...• Medium to long-term: Stopping smoking at any age increases your life expectancy, provided that you stop before the onset of serious disease. Even if you have developed a disease, you can benefit from stopping as your body will be under less strain and be able to fight it more easily• Medium to long-term: A smoker who has suffered from a heart attack can halve the risk of a second heart attack by stopping smoking• Medium to long-term: Ten years after stopping smoking an ex-smokers risk of lung cancer is reduced by 30 - 50% compared with that of a continuing smoker• Medium to long-term: Smokers who stop before the age of 35 have a life expectancy not significantly different from that of a non-smoker• Medium to long-term: Smokers who stop between 65 and 74 years of age have a better life expectancy beyond 75 than those who continue to smoke• For life:• Reduce stress• Any physical activity is easier• Dont tire as quickly• Improve sense of taste and smell• Improved skin
Financial Benefits of Quitting• Stopping smoking isnt about losing something its about gaining a lot! The benefits will soon start adding up:• At nearly £5 for 20 cigarettes, stopping a pack-a-day habit is like a £30-a-week pay rise! You can also save money in other ways. Life, fire and car insurance can all be cheaper. The money soon adds up when you stop. Think about what you could buy when you quit:• 1 day: £4.80 = a movie rental or a few magazines• 1 week: £33.60 = a cheap flight to Europe or a few CDs• 1 month: £146 = a shopping spree or the monthly food bill• 3 months: £438 = two weeks in the sun or a new computer• 6 months: £876 = a family holiday or some new furniture• 1 year: £1,752 = a second-hand car or the start of a deposit for a house
Other Benefits of Quitting – Improve your looks ...• Within days of stopping smoking youll no longer smell of stale smoke and cigarette butts. Clean your clothes, house and car to make your whole life sweet smelling! Your skin will be brighter and your eyes less red and sore. – Get fitter ...• Your energy levels will soon soar when you stop smoking, making it easier to run for the bus or play sports with your friends. – Taste ...• Food will become a pleasure again as your taste buds kick back in! – Have more time ...• It takes about 10 minutes to smoke a cigarette so a 10-a-day smoker can save nearly 2 hours a day when they give up. Thats enough time to watch a new blockbuster at the cinema!
Benefits continued…. – Improve self confidence• Many smokers are shocked to find how quickly they get hooked on smoking and stopping gives a real boost to confidence and self-esteem. – Job prospects• 85% of British workplaces currently have some kind of restriction on smoking, so youll be able to get on with your work more quickly if you dont have to keep nipping out for a cigarette break. It can also improve your chances of getting a new job as employers can employ only non-smokers if they wish.• From summer 2007 all enclosed workplaces will be smoke free, so now is a great chance to plan ahead and go smoke free.
Tips for Quitting• You can help your chances of stopping smoking successfully with a little forward planning. It can be even more successful if you use some help. However you choose to stop these top tips can help you to make that step towards a smoke free life!• Set a date to stop and stick to it. Pick a day that will be relatively stress-free. No Smoking Day on Wednesday 14th March 2007 is an ideal day to stop as over a million other smokers all round the UK will be having a go at the same time.• Write down all the reasons you want to stop. This can include saving money, being healthier, for the sake of your family. Keep this list somewhere handy to use as a reminder if you are tempted to have a cigarette.• Keep a diary for a day or two. Note down all the times and places you smoke, with a note on how much you needed each cigarette. This will help you plan for tricky moments.• Get help. Let friends and family know youre giving up smoking and tell them what they can do to help. Your GP, nurse or pharmacist will be delighted to give you advice on how to stop and to let you know about specialist services and helplines.• Do it with others. Find others who would like to give up and agree to support each other. Keep in daily contact and make a pact not to let each other down.• Ease the withdrawal symptoms and plan some help. Nicotine is addictive and you may experience withdrawal symptoms like irritability, lack of concentration and sleeping problems.
• Prepare to stop smoking. Get rid of lighters, ashtrays and matches and make sure you dont have any cigarettes around. Remove any stale smoke smells by spring-cleaning your house and clothes.• Take it one day at a time. Concentrate on getting through each day without a cigarette. Know what you are going to say if someone offers you a cigarette - enjoy saying, "No thanks - I dont smoke".• Break the links that create the habit. Most smokers will have times and places when they always have a cigarette, like after a meal or with a drink in the pub. Try to avoid these situations at first if you think you will be tempted to smoke, or do something different - you could go for a short walk after a meal.• Learn to relax! Try this simple breathing exercise: If possible, sit down with feet flat on the floor, hands resting on knees. Breathe slowly in and out through the nose a couple of times, concentrating on the sensation of air moving in and out of the body. Start to breathe more deeply, still through the nose, consciously letting the air fill the abdomen, then the lower and upper chest in sequence. Breathe out the same way, expelling the air from the abdomen, lower and upper chest in turn. Repeat this breath 3 or 4 times, and then return to normal breathing.• Follow the 10 top tips above and then: Reward yourself! Save the money that you would have spent on cigarettes for a treat such as a new outfit, going out for a meal or taking a holiday.• And remember - once stopped, stay stopped. Remember that just one cigarette can lead to another. Keep reminding yourself of the health and other benefits of giving up smoking. Make sure you take the full course of any nicotine replacement treatment you are using.
Places to find help• www.ash.org.uk Action on Smoking & Health (ASH) - for fact sheets, help, press releases, policy responses and much more• www.bhf.org.uk/smoking This British Heart Foundation site offers information about the help available to stop smoking• www.canstopsmoking.com Information from NHS Health Scotland with interactive resources to help you stop• www.firekills.gov.uk Visit this site for general information on fire safety including a section on the fire hazards caused by smoking. You can also order a copy of the fire prevention handbook online or by calling 08456 087 087.• www.givingupsmoking.co.uk This NHS site has lots of information for smokers who want to stop smoking• www.lowtarexposed.co.uk This site from Cancer Research UK exposes the truth behind light and mild cigarettes• www.quit.org.uk Find information about helplines in a range of languages and other information to help you stop• www.quit.org.uk/quitter_2006.htm To enter the Quitter of the Year awards log into this site and download an order form. You have until 30th April• www.smokefree.co.uk Visit this site for information about smokefree accommodation, restaurants and pubs
Your Task• Using information from this powerpoint and your own research on the internet- produce an Anti- smoking poster.• These posters will be displayed around the college on Non- Smoking day.• Posters should be colourful, informative and powerful in the message they convey.• There are prizes for the best posters.