Motivation at work
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Motivation at work






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Motivation at work Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Motivation at Work
  • 2. Definition of MotivationMotivation – The driving force within individuals by which they attempt to achieve some goal in order to fulfill some needs or expectation. The degree to which an individual wants to choose in certain behavior.
  • 3. Motivation as a process.. It is a process by which a person’s efforts are energized,directed and sustained towards attaining the goal.  Energy- A measure of intensity or drive.  Direction- Towards organizational goal.  Persistence- Exerting effort to achieve goal Motivation works best when individual needs are compatible with organizational goal.
  • 4. Basic model of motivation Needs or Result in Drive force To Achieveexpectations (Behavior or Action) Desired Goals Feedback fulfillments Which Provides
  • 5. Motivation is… Complex Psychological Physical Unique to each and every person Context sensitive Not fully understood
  • 6. Qualities of Motivation Energizes behavior Directs behavior Enable persistence towards a goal Exists in varying details
  • 7. Six C’s of Motivation.. Challenges ChoicesControl collaboration Consequences Constructing meaning
  • 8. Groups of Motivational Theories Internal  Suggest that variables within the individual give rise to motivation and behavior  Example: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory Process  Emphasize the nature of the interaction between the individual and the environment  Example: Expectancy theory External  Focus on environmental elements to explain behavior  Example: Two-factor theory
  • 9. Early Theories of Motivation Content Theories: Emphasis on what motivates individuals.  Maslow’s need Hierarchy  Macgregors Theories X & Y  Herzberg’s two factors theory
  • 10.  Process Theories of Motivation Emphasis on actual process of motivation.  Three needs Theory ( McClelland)  Goal-setting Theory  Reinforcement Theory  Designing Motivating theory  Equity Theory  Expectancy Theory
  • 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory Needs were categories as five levels of lower- higher-order needs.  Individual must satisfy lower-level needs before they can satisfy higher order needs.  Satisfied needs will no longer motivate.  Motivating a person depends on knowing at what level that a person is on the hierarchy.
  • 12. POTENCY of NEEDSThe needs are INNATE, but they are not ofequal potency (strength). They are arranged ina hierarchy of potency.AN INDIVIDUAL IS MOTIVATED BY HER/HISMOST POTENT UNSATISFIED NEED
  • 13. HIERARCHY and SEQUENCEWhat Is a Hierarchy?You must successfully complete (resolve,equilibrate one stage before you go to thenext.)How Is Hierarchy Related To Sequence?All hierarchical theories are sequential, butnot all sequential theories are hierarchical.
  • 14. Hierarchy of Needs Lover order ( External ) : Physiological and safety needs Higher order ( Internal ) : Social, Esteem, and Self-actualization Self-Actualization Needs Esteem Needs Social Needs Safety Needs Physiological needs
  • 15. McGregor’s Theory X and Y Theory X  Assume that workers have little ambition,dislike work, avoid responsibility,and require close supervision. Theory Y  Assumes that workers can exercise self- direction,desire, responsibility, and like to work. Assumption  Motivation is maximized by participative decision making, interesting jobs, and good group relation.
  • 16. Motivational Theories X & Y SA Theory Y - a set of assumptions of how to Esteem manage individuals motivated by higher Social order needs Theory X - a set ofSafety & Security assumptions of how to manage individuals Physiological motivated by lower order needs
  • 17. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory Job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction are created y different factors.  Hygiene factors- Extrinsic ( Environmental ) factors that create job dissatisfaction.  Motivation Factors- Intrinsic ( Psychological ) factors that create job satisfaction. Attempted to explain why job satisfaction does not result in increased performance  The opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction but rather no satisfaction.
  • 18. Motivation–Hygiene Theory of Motivation• Company policy & Motivation factors administration increase job satisfaction• Supervision• Interpersonal relations• Working conditions • Achievement• Salary • Achievement recognition• Status • Work itself• Security • Responsibility • Advancement • GrowthHygiene factors avoid job dissatisfaction • Salary?
  • 19. Alderfer’s ERG Theory SA Growth Esteem Love (Social) RelatednessSafety & Security Existence Physiological
  • 20. McClelland’s Need Theory: Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement( nAch)The desire to excel andsucceed
  • 21. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for PowerNeed for Power – ( nPow )The need to influence thebehavior of others.
  • 22. McClelland’s Need Theory:Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation – ( nAff )The desire for interpersonalrelationship
  • 23. Motivational Need Theories Maslow Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Growth Need forHigher Esteem AchievementOrder self Need forNeeds interpersonal Power Belongingness (social & love) Relatedness Need for AffiliationLower Safety & SecurityOrder interpersonal physicalNeeds Existence Physiological
  • 24. Adams’s Theory of InequityInequity - the situation in which a person perceives he or she is receiving less than he or she is giving, or is giving less than he or she is receiving
  • 25. Motivational Theory of Social Exchange Person Comparison otherEquity Outcomes = Outcomes Inputs InputsNegative Outcomes < Outcomes Inequity Inputs InputsPositive Outcomes > Outcomes Inequity Inputs Inputs
  • 26. Strategies for Resolution of Inequity  Alter the person’s outcomes  Alter the person’s inputs  Alter the comparison other’s outputs  Alter the comparison other’s inputs  Change who is used as a comparison other  Rationalize the inequity  Leave the organizational situation
  • 27. New Perspectives on Equity TheoryEquity Sensitive I prefer an equity ratio equal to that of my comparison other
  • 28. New Perspectives on Equity TheoryBenevolent I am comfortable with an equity ratio less than that of my comparison other
  • 29. New Perspectives on Equity TheoryEntitled I am comfortable with an equity ratio greater than that of my comparison other
  • 30. Expectancy Theory of Motivation: KeyConstructs Valence - value or importance placed on a particular reward Expectancy - belief that effort leads to performance Instrumentality - belief that performance is related to rewards
  • 31. Expectancy Model of Motivation Effort Effort Performance Reward Perceived effort– Perceived Perceived performance performance– value of reward probability reward probability“If I work hard, “What rewards “What rewardswill I get the job will I get when do I value?”done?” the job is well done?”