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Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
Motivation
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Motivation

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  • 1. MOTIVATION
  • 2. Defining MotivationMotivationThe processes that account for an individual’sintensity, direction, and persistence of efforttowards attaining a goal. Key Elements 2. Intensity: how hard a person tries 3. Direction: towards what a person tries 4. Persistence: how long a person tries 6–2
  • 3. Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow)There is a hierarchy offive needs—physiological, safety,social, esteem, andself-actualization; aseach need is substantiallysatisfied, the next needbecomes dominant. 6–3
  • 4. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs.Lower-Order NeedsNeeds that are satisfiedexternally; physiologicaland safety needs. 6–4
  • 5. Hierarchy of Needs TheoryPhysiological: Safety: Social:Includes hunger, thirst, Includes security and Includes affection,shelter, sex, and other protection from belongingness,bodily needs. physical and acceptance, and emotional harm. friendship.Esteem: Self-actualization:Includes internal esteem factors such as The drive to become the best oneself-respect, autonomy, and achievement; is capable of becoming; includesand external esteem factors such as growth, achieving one’s potential,status, recognition, and attention. and self-fulfillment.
  • 6. Theory X and Theory Y (Douglas McGregor)Theory XAssumes that employees dislikework, lack ambition, avoidresponsibility, and must bedirected and coerced to perform.Theory YAssumes that employees likework, seek responsibility, arecapable of making decisions,and exercise self-direction andself-control when committed toa goal. 6–6
  • 7. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg)Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory•Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation. These aremotivational factors. Eg. Challenging work, advancement, growth in the jobRecognition, etc* Extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction. These aremaintenance factors.Hygiene FactorsFactors—such as company policy andadministration, supervision, and salary—that, wheninadequate in a job, dissatisfy workers. When thesefactors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfiedbut not necessarily motivated either. 6–7
  • 8. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs Need for Achievement Need for Affiliation The drive to excel, to achieve The desire for friendly in relation to a set of and close personal standards, to strive to relationships. succeed. Need for Power nPow The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. nAch nAff 6–8
  • 9. Matching High Achievers and Jobs 6–9
  • 10. Goal-Setting Theory (Edwin Locke) .Specific and difficult Goals with Feedback lead toHigher Performance Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment, adequate self- efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. 6–10
  • 11. Equity TheoryEquity TheoryIndividuals compare their job inputs and outcomeswith those of others and then respond to eliminateany inequities. 6–11
  • 12. Equity Theory (cont’d) 6–12
  • 13. Equity Theory (cont’d)Choices for dealing with inequity:2. Change inputs (slack off)3. Change outcomes (increase output)4. Distort/change perceptions of self5. Distort/change perceptions of others6. Choose a different referent person7. Leave the field (quit the job) 6–13
  • 14. Thank you

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