Leadership theory & styles


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Leadership theory & styles

  1. 1. Leadership theory & styLesJune 27, 2012 1
  3. 3. LeadershipTrait Theory: theories there is a set of characteristics thatdetermines a good leader:• Personality• intelligence• Self confidence• Sociability• Will• DominanceJune 27, 2012 3
  4. 4. Leadership theories• Are such characteristics inherentlygender biased?• Do such activities produce goodleaders?• Is leadership more than just bringingabout change?• Does this imply that leaders are bornnot madeJune 27, 2012 4
  5. 5. Leadership theoriesBehavioral: Imply that leaders can be trained –focus on the way of doing things.• Structure based behavioral theories– focus on the leader institutingstructure-task oriented.• Relationship based behavioraltheories- focus on the developmentand maintenance of relationships-process oriented.June 27, 2012 5
  6. 6. Leadership theories Four important behavioral theories: 2.University of LOWA studies: the studies conducted by KURT LEWIN gave three leadership styles: d.The Autocratic Style e.The Democratic Style f.Free-Rein or Laissez-Faire StyleJune 27, 2012 6
  7. 7. Leadership theories1. The Ohio State Studies:b. Initiating structure: refers to the extent to which a leader structure and defines the activities of the subordinates.d. Consideration: refers to the ability of the leader to establish rapport, mutual respect and two way communication.June 27, 2012 7
  8. 8. Leadership theories • University of Michigan studies: The Michigan researches identified two types of leadership styles: c. Employee oriented. d. Production oriented.June 27, 2012 8
  9. 9. Leadership theories4. Managerial Grid: •Developed by Robert Blake & Jane Mouton. •Focuses on task and employee orientation of managers as well as combinations of concerns between the two extremes.June 27, 2012 9
  10. 10. Likert’s System of Leadership• Exploitive -Autocratic• Benevolent Autocratic• Consultative• DemocraticJune 27, 2012 10
  11. 11. Leadership As A Continuum• This theory implies that leadership involves a variety of styles, raging from one that is highly boss- centered to one that is highly subordinate-centred The continuous theory recognizes that the appropriate style of leadership depends on the leader, the followers and situationJune 27, 2012 11
  12. 12. This theory find three forces3) Forces in managers.4) Forces in subordinates.5) Forces in situation.June 27, 2012 12
  13. 13. Continuum of manager-non managJune 27, 2012 13
  14. 14. Leadership theories Contingency Theories: • Leadership as being more flexible – • Different leadership styles being used at different times depending upon the circumstances. • Suggest leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts. • May depend on: vi. Type of staff vii.History of business viii.Culture of the business ix.Quality of relationship x.Nature of the change neededJune 27, 2012 14
  15. 15. Leadership theoriesTypes of contingency theories:2. Fiedler Model: • Fiedler developed LPC questionnaire. • LPC measured whether leader was task oriented or relationship oriented. • Based on this Fiedler gave three contingency dimensions: vi. Leader-Member relation vii.Task-Structure viii.Position-PowerJune 27, 2012 15
  16. 16. Leadership theories 2. Hersey and Blanchards Situational Leadership: •This theory focuses main attention on follower readiness and situation behavior of leader. •It gives three variables. 1- Task behaviour 2- Relationship behaviour 3- Marturity of followersJune 27, 2012 16
  17. 17. Leadership theories The four styles: ii.Telling / Directing (h t & l r) iii.Selling (ht & hr) iv.Participating (l t& hr) v.Delegating (l t& l r)June 27, 2012 17
  18. 18. Leadership theories3. Path-Goal Theory:Leader -•Clarify the path so subordinates know which way to go.•Remove roadblocks that are stopping them going there.•Increasing the rewards along the route.•According to House, there are four different types ofleadership styles depending on the situation:1. Directive Leadership2. Supportive Leadership3. Participative Leadership4. Achievement-oriented Leadership June 27, 2012 18
  19. 19. Leadership theoriesTransactional Leadership:• The transactional leader works throughcreating clear structures .• Subordinates are considered to be fullyresponsible for it, whether or not they have theresources or capability to carry it outJune 27, 2012 19
  20. 20. Leadership theoriesTransformational: Widespread changes to a business or organisation Requires: • Long term strategic planning • Clear objectives • Clear vision • Leading by example – walk the walk • Efficiency of systems and processesJune 27, 2012 20
  22. 22. types of Leadership styLeAutocratic :•Decision making power lies with Leader .Hemakes decision without reference tosubordinate and wishes to dominate• High degree of dependency on the leader .• Can create de-motivation and alienation ofstaff .• Maybe valuable in some types of businesswhere decisions need to be made quickly anddecisively.June 27, 2012 22
  23. 23. types of Leadership styLe Democratic: • The power of decision making is decentralized. • Consultative - process of consultation before decisions are taken. •It raises employee morale and job satisfaction. Draw back of this styleJune 27, 2012 23
  24. 24. types of Leadership styLeLaissez-Faire:• ‘let it be’-the leadership responsibilities areshared by all.• Can be very useful in businesses where creativeideas are important.• Can be highly motivational, as people havecontrol over their working life. Draw backJune 27, 2012 24
  25. 25. types of Leadership styLePaternalistic:• Leader acts as a ‘father figure’.• The leader aim to protect and guide his followers. Draw backJune 27, 2012 25
  26. 26. Leadership styLe PERSONAL LEADERSHIP It is exercised through the influence of personality. Directions and motivations are given personally.June 27, 2012 26
  27. 27. IMPERSONAL LEADERSHIPImpersonal leadership is a term used to designate leadership exercised through subordinates of the leader or by non personal medium such as written instructions, orders, polices, etc.June 27, 2012 27
  28. 28. FUNCTIONAL LEADERSHIP• Functional leadership exits because an individual possesses specialized skill and renders expert advice. The group follows him as it believes that his advice will help and guide them in difficult and complicated situation.June 27, 2012 28
  29. 29. CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP• This style of leadership emerges out of magnetic qualities of a leaders.June 27, 2012 29
  30. 30. Leadership styLe Leadership styles given by LIKERT’S: Exploitative autocratic: • Low concern for employees • Uses threat and fear based methods to achieve excellence. •Benevolent autocratic : • Leader adds concern for employees –a ‘benevolent dictatorship’ is formed. • Uses rewards to achieve excellence. • Major decisions are centrally made.June 27, 2012 30
  31. 31. Leadership styLeConsultative:• Set goals and issue orders after discussing them with the subordinates.• Leader makes genuine efforts to listen to thesubordinates.• Major decisions are still largely centrally made.Participative:• Maximum use of participative methods.• Supervision and control are group-oriented• Employees across the organization arepsychologically more close.June 27, 2012 31
  32. 32. Leadership styLe Leadership styles given in path-goal theory: Directive Leadership: Supportive Leadership: Participative Leadership: Achievement-oriented Leadership:June 27, 2012 32
  33. 33. thank youJune 27, 2012 33