AUTOCRATIC(Authoritarian) Manager retains power(classical approach) Manager is decision making authority Manager does not consult to the employees for input Subordinates expected to obey orders without explanations Motivation provided through structured rewards and punishments It is a one way traffic. Exercises complete control over his subordinates.
When to use autocratic? New untrained employees Employees are motivated Employees don’t respond to any other leadership style High volume production needs Limited time for decision making Managers power is challenged by an employee When required quick decisions Under the condition of stress and emergency and when variation cannot this style yield positive results.
Bureaucratic Manager manages “by the book¨ Everything must be done according to procedure or policy If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her Police officer more than leader
When to use Bureaucratic Performing routine tasks Use of dangerous or delicate equipment Safety or security training being conducted Tasks that require handling cash
Coercive Power from a person’s authority to punish Most obvious types of power a leader has. Good leaders use coercive power only as a last resort: In today’s sophisticated and complex workplace, excessive use of coercive power unleashes unpredictable and destabilizing forces which can ultimately undermine the leader using it.
When to use Coercive To meet very short term goals When left with no other choice In times of crisis
Transactional Motivate followers by appealing to their own self-interest Motivate by the exchange process. EX: business owners exchange status and wages for the work effort of the employee. Focuses on the accomplishment of tasks & good worker relationships in exchange for desirable rewards. Encourage leader to adapt their style and behavior to meet expectations of followers Leader has the right to punish team member if their work does not meet the pre-determined standard.
When to use Transactional Leader wants to be in control When there are approaching deadlines that must be met Relationship is short term
Transformational Charismatic and visionary Inspire followers to transcend their self-interest for the organization Inspire followers to think about problems in new or different ways Common strategies used to influence followers include vision and framing
Transformational cont. Instils feelings of confidence, admiration and commitment Stimulates followers intellectually, arousing them to develop new ways to think about problems. Uses contingent rewards to positively reinforce desirable performances Flexible and innovative.
When to use Transformational When leaders want members to be an active part of the organization and have ownership to it When leaders are building a sense of purpose When the organization has a long term plan When people need to be motivated
Personal leadership Exercised through the influence of personality of personal contacts. Direction anEnforced by means d motivation are given personally. A effective leadership style because of the personal contacts. Easy to administer.
Impersonal leadership Exercised through subordinates of the leader or by non personal media such as written instructions order, policies, plans, oaths,pledges,creed and so on. Because of lack of contact between the leader and his followers, much of the influence is lost in transit.
Functional leadership Here the leader posses specialized knowledge and skill and renders expert advice. In this style group follows the leader as it believes that the advice will help and guide them in difficult and complicated situations, because of the technical knowledge, and specialized skill he posses.
People/relations orientedleadership Here the leader is totally focused on organizing supporting and developing the people in the leader’s team. It is a participative style. It tends to lead to good teamwork and creative collaboration.
Task orinted leadership Focuses only on the getting the jobs done. It is a form of autocratic style. The leader actively define the work and the roles required, put structures in place, plan, organize and monitor.
Servant leadership When someone at any level within an organization leads simply by virtue of meeting the needs of his or her team. It is a form of democratic leadership . Here the whole team tends to be involved in decision making.
Situational style It is based on the principle that there is no one right way to lead or manage that suits all situations. To choose the most effective approach we must consider: The skill levels and experience of the members of the team. The work involved. The organizational environment.