SUMMARY1) What is co-ordination?2) Meaning of co-ordination3) Elements of co-ordination4) Characteristic features of co-ordination5) Types of co-ordination A) Internal & external co-ordination B) Vertical & horizontal co-ordination6)Principles of co-ordination7) Approaches to co-ordination8) Significance of co-ordination
What is Co-ordination ? According to G.R. Terry, “Co-ordination is the orderly synchronization of efforts to provide the proper amount,timing ,and directing of execution in harmonious and unified actions to a stated objective.” Henry Fayol states , “to co-ordinate is to harmonize all the activities of a concern in order to facilitate it’s working and success.”
MEANING OF CO-ORDINATION 1) Co-ordination implies an orderly pattern or arrangement of group efforts to ensure unity of action in the pursuit of common objectives. 2) Co-ordination requires unification of diverse and specialised activities. 3) The purpose of co-ordination is to secure harmony of action or team-work and concurence of purpose.
Elements of Co-ordination According to Allen, “a manager in managing must co-ordinate the work for which he is accountable by balancing ,timing and integrating.” The three elements of Co-ordination are :- 1) Balancing 2) Timing 3) Integrating
Characteristic Features of Co-ordination 1)Co-ordination is not a distinct function but the very essence of management. 2)Co-ordination is the basic responsibility of management and it can be achieved through the managerial functions. 3)Co-ordination does not arise spontaneously or by force. 4)The heart of co-ordination is “unity of action”. 5)Co-ordination is a dynamic process. 6)Co-ordination is required in group efforts ,not in individual effort. 7)Co-ordination has a common purpose of getting organisational objectives accomplished.
Types of Co-ordination On the basis of scope or coverage , 1) Internal & External Co-ordination On the basis of flow, 2) Vertical & horizontal Co-ordination
Internal Co-ordination :- 1) Planing & Co-ordination – A well thought plan of action promotes coordination and a haphazard plan retards it. 2) Organising & Co-ordination – Organisation aims to secure coordination among various human and physical resources. 3) Direction & Co-ordination – Co-ordination is facilitated by good directing. 4) Control & Co-ordination – Controlling must see that there exists a co-ordination and harmony in working.
External Co-ordination :- External influences and forces where the co- ordination is most needed :- 1) Owner ,employees and customers 2) Government Regulations 3) Changing Technology 4) Other entreprises 5) Business and Political Environment
VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL CO-ORDINATION Vertical coordination is required to ensure that all levels in the organisation act in harmony and in accordance with the goals and policies of the organisation. Horizontal co-ordination Eg: Pyramid & Pizza concept.
Principles of Co-ordination Mary Parker Follet has laid own four principles for effective co-ordination: 1) Direct personal contact- Direct communication is the most effective way to convey ideas and information. 2) Early beginning-Coordination can be achieved more easily in early stages of planning and policy- making. 3)Reciprocity-All factors in a given situation are reciprocally related. 4)Continuity-Coordination is an on-going or never- ending process rather than a once-for –all activity.
Approaches to Co-ordination The main techniques of effective coordination are as follows :- 1)Sound planning – The goals of the organisation and goals of it’s units must be clearly defined. 2)Simplified organisation – A simple and sound organisation is an important means of coordination. 3) Effective communication - Open and regular communication is the key to coordination. 4) Effective leadership and supervision – Effective leadership ensures coordination of efforts both at the planning and the execution stage. 5) Chain of command – Authority is the supreme coordinating power in an organisation.
6) Indoctrination and incentives – Eg:- Profit-sharing 7) Liaison departments - Liaison officers may be employed where frequent contacts between different organisational units is necessary. 8) General staff – A general staff is very helpful in achieving interdepartmental or horizontal coordination. 9) Voluntary coordination – Self-coordination or voluntary coordination is possible in a climate of dedication and mutual co-operation.
Need and Significance of Co-ordination Coordination becomes necessary because of the following reasons : 1) Increase in size and complexity of operations – Need for coordination arises as soon as the operations become multiple and complex. 2) Specialisation - Division of work into specialised functions and departments leads to diversity and lack of uniformity. 3) Clash of interests – Coordination helps to avoid conflict between individual and organisational goals.
4) Different outlook – It becomes imperative to reconcile differences in approach ,timing and effort to secure unity of action. 5) Conflicts – Co-ordination avoids potential sources of conflict.
REFERENCES 1) MANAGEMENT – Stephen P. Robbins & Mary Coulter 2)MANAGEMENT – Cannice,Weihrich & Koontz 3)BUSINESS ORGANISATION & MANAGEMENT-C.B. Gupta 4)PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT –J.K.Jain 5)www.blonnet.com