ELECTRONIC MEDIA(Broadcasting Media)TV AND RADIO By Pranav Kumar Ojha MBA 3rd Semester MONIRBA University of Allahabad
ELECTRONIC MEDIAElectronic Media are media that useelectronics or electrochemical energy forthe end user (audience) to access thecontent.
HISTORY OF TELEVISIONSep 15, 1959, TV was introduced in India. One hour telecasts fromsingle studio in Akashvani Bhawan were transmitted two days a week.Aug 1965, daily transmission was started in Delhi.TV station established in Mumbai in 1972. Doordarshan (DD), IndiasNational Channel, was established in 1959 as a part of All India Radio.Till 1975, only seven cities were covered by Television. Television wasseparated from Radio in 1976 and Doordarshan came into existence.National programme was introduced in 1982 and from thenonwards, there has been steady progress in Doordarshan.
Cont….Aug 15, 1982, colour TV introduced. First colour programmeis the PM’s address to the nation.Commercial TV started in 1976 but took off only in 1983 withthe soap opera of lt. Manohar Shyam Joshi’s “Hum Log”.Till 1964 one needed a license to own a TV set.1976-77 was a watershed in the history of Indian advertising.DD started accepting ads.First product to be advertised on Indian TV on Jan.1, 1976was Gwalior Suitings.In June 1981 Network Associate of UTV pioneered cable TVin India. CNN was introduced in the wake of the Gulf War in1991.Soon came STAR TV.
Cont…….DD started five satellite channels from Aug.15, 1993 vizentertainment, music, sports, current affairs andbusiness and Metro.Presently, Doordarshan operates 19 channels - two AllIndia channels, 11 Regional Languages Satellite Channels(RLSC), four State Networks (SN), an Internationalchannel and a Sports Channel. Regular satellitetransmissions began in 1982 (the same year colortransmission began).DTH service started in 2000.
MERITS OF TVTV has immense impact.Excellent quality of production.Familiar, friendly voices and faces.Retailers also watch TV.Comprehensive technique.Animation and image building
DEMERITS OF TV ADS•Time consuming.•Transient and immobile medium.•Time gap to purchasing.•Difficult to gain inquiries.•Time constraint.•Production costs.
TV COMMERCIALS•It is the advertising message that iscarried in a limited time span of 10 sec, 30sec or 60 sec.•The copy of the commercial includes theaudio part and the video part. It alsoincludes music and sound effects.•TV advertising is nearly face-to-facepersonal selling, except that it is one way.
TV COMMERCIALScontd………•TV commercial must have entertainment value.•TV commercials are produced at a great cost.Before production one has to decide about thescript, the cast, the set and the props.•This is followed by a shooting phase.•After the commercial is complete it is subjectedto post-production process consisting of editing,dubbing, special effects and super-impositions.
TV ADVERTISING SPENDS Channel Amount (in crores)Mainstream Hindi channels 1820English and other 600entertainment channels 180Tamil channels 40Malayalam channels 40Kannada channels 30Others ______ 2170Total
INFOMERCIALS:•Infomercials are programme lengthcommercials.•They are being produced on TV – theyare longer and pass on moreinformation to provoke consumers toaction.•Highly effective for relationshipmarketing.•Broadcast TV is the preferred media forinfomercials with a usage of 60%.
SATELLITE TV:•The cable TV industry exploded in the early 1990swhen the broadcast industry was liberalized, and sawthe entry of many foreign players like RupertMurdochs Star TV Network in 1991, MTV, and others.•Five new channels belonging to the Hong Kong-based STAR TV gave Indians a fresh breath oflife. MTV, STAR Plus, Star Movies, BBC and PrimeSports were the 5 channels.•Zee TV was the first private owned Indian channel tobroadcast over cable. A few yearslater CNN, Discovery Channel, National GeographicChannel made its foray into India.
Contd……….•Star expanded its bouquetintroducing STAR World, STARSports, ESPN, Channel V and STAR Gold.Regional channels flourished along with amultitude of Hindi channels and a fewEnglish channels.•By 2001 HBO and History Channel werethe other international channels to enterIndia. By 2003 international channels suchas Nickelodeon, Cartoon Network, VH1,Disney and Toon Disney came into foray
Contd….•The most recent channels that have come up are UTV Movies,UTV Bindass, Zoom, Colours, 9X and 9XM. Colors - apartnership between US media giant Viacom and Indian mediaconglomerate Network18 Group - has been continuallychallenging the leading incumbents in this genre.• Its rise has been attributed to Colors’ use of differentiated anddisruptive programming and extensive marketing, promotionaland distrbution activities. Some of its key launch shows FearFactor - Khatron Ke Khiladi, and Jai Shree Krishna were thehighest rated shows in its launch weeks. Initially the channelwas launched as free-to-air but after its successful showsincluding Balika Vadhu, the channel converted itself into a pay-channel with effect from April 2009.
Contd….•The number of television channels in India has boomed inrecent years, As per press reports, there are in excess of150 applications to launch new channels awaitingpermission from the Ministry of Information andBroadcasting.• Approximately 400 broadcasting channels were givenpermission and 33 of these were awarded licences in 2008.• 2008 was the year of launching specialised channelscatering to the needs of up-scale and urban audiences.These new niche offerings included Showbiz, NDTVLumiere, World Movies, E24, Firangi and Topper TV amongothers.•Star India has aggressive plans in the home shoppingspace and plans to start a home shopping channel via a jointventure with CJ Home Shopping Co. of Seoul.
Contd…….•As of 2010, over 500 TV Satellitetelevision channels are broadcastin India. This includes channelsfrom the state-owned Doordarshan,News Corporation owned STARTV, Sony owned SonyEntertainment Television, SunNetwork and Zee TV.
DIRECT-TO-HOME (DTH)•Defined as the reception of satelliteprogrammes with a personal dish in anindividual home.•It does away with the need of the local cableoperator.•DTH service was first proposed in 1996.•Finally reached India in 2000.•DISH TV was the first DTH service providerin India.•Nowadays there are many DTH serviceproviders like VideoconD2H, DD Direct Plus,Airtel Digital TV and so on.
CHANNEL VIEWERSHIP VS. REVENUESCHANNEL SHARE OF SHARE OF ROI INDEX VIEWERS REVENUES HIP (%) (%)Mass Entertainment 46.8 57.4 1.2Regional Language 39.6 17.2 0.4News 2.00 11.3 5.7Hindi Film 3.5 4.7 1.4English Entertainment 1.6 4.00 2.5Sports 3.9 2.7 0.7Infotainment/Kids 1.8 1.6 0.9Music 0.9 1.1 1.2Total 100 100 1.00
REGIONAL TV MARKETTAMIL A.P KARNATAK KERALA MARATHI W.BNADU ASun TV, Gemini Udaya TV Asia Net, Zee AakasshKalaignarTV TV, ETV, Surya Marathi, Bangla,KTV, Teja TV, Kannada TV, ETV Zee Bangla,Vijay TV, Eenadu Udaya Asianet Marathi, ETVJaya TV, TV, Movies, Plus, Zee Talkies, Bangla,Raj TV. Maa Zee Kiran TV, Star Star Jalsha, Telugu, Kannada. Kairali , Pravah, Star Zee Amrita Star Majha. Ananda . Telugu. TV.
CURRENT STATUS OF TV ININDIA•As per the TAM Annual UniverseUpdate - 2010, India now has over 134million households with television sets,of which over 103 million have access toCable TV or Satellite TV, including 20million households that are DTHsubscribers.
CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIAContd……•TV owning households have been growingat between 8-10%, while growth inSatellite/Cable homes exceeded 15% andDTH subscribers grew 28% over 2009.• There have been some major changes inthe past year or two and the change thatare coming in are more rapid.
CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIAContd……•TV remains important, in India between 2 to 4 hours of TVis consumed a day, whereas in the US, nearly 5 hours of TVis consumed a day, and these figures have been constantfor the past 20 years. More than $130 billion is spent on TVadvertisement.• Advertisement is growing across the world and in India it ismore rapid as compared to any other country.We live comfortably in mostly linear TV. What is changing is‘time shift TV’, ‘personalized TV’ and ‘On demand TV’. Thebusiness is changing and it is going to change even rapidlyin the coming years. This is because of new technology andthe control of getting what one wants, with the consumer.
CURRENT STATUS OF TV IN INDIA Contd……•For example, Sony has come out with a DVR which can record programs24 hours a day and 7 days a week. All this technology is not the future but ishere today. This also means that the consumer is the boss and people wanttechnology.•. Television content segment has maintained a steady and healthy growthrate of 16.5% from 2004-08. Its share in the television industry too has notchanged materially and stands at 4% in 2008. In 2008, it stands at anestimated Rs. 10.1 billion in 2007, which is up from Rs. 9.4 billion in 2007.•Growth achieved by the television content industry is on account ofsignificant increase in the number of television channels in India. In addition,this growth has necessitated the requirement for differentiation and hencehigher emphasis is being placed on the quality of television content beingproduced.
INTERACTIVE TV•It is a convergence technology that willconvert the one-way passive TV viewing into atwo-way interactive experience.•The technology would enable televisionviewers accessing remote servers and theinternet through their television and the digitalset top device.• To begin with, you can watch programmes ofyour choice at any given time. You can watchmore than one programme simultaneously; orwatch one and record another.
INTERACTIVE TV•Viewers will not be restricted to watchingmovies being screened by the channel theyhappen to be watching but can choose the onethey wish to see.• They can select from a menu on the screenand access a list of movies from which they canchoose the one they wish to see.• While you are still watching television, in thenew order you can also have video on-demand,electronic programming guides, customisedlocal information like news and weather, videorecording, t-commerce and internet access.
INTERACTIVE TV Contd…..•Whats more television will move out from the box tofit snugly into your mobile phones pretty shortly. Fromyour mobile you can dial a number and request a 1-minute download (mobisode) of a 24-minute episode.•Incredible as it may sound, interactive TV does notuse technology that will require you to change yourtelevision set. All that is required is a digital set topbox and a compatible remote. Experts say, it wouldbe quite affordable to the common man.
RADIOHISTORY OF RADIO•1923 – Radio Club, Mumbai broadcastthe first radio programme.•July 21, 1924 – First voice emerged outof radio in Chennai.•1957 – Vividh Bharti service started.•1967 – AIR started commercial servicescalled ‘Akashvani ka PanchrangiProgramme’.•1970 – AIR adopted the concept ofsponsored programmes•Slowly, AIR overshadowed RadioCeylon•Boom period lasted till 1981.
Indian Broadcasting Corporation•23rd July, 1927 – IBC was set up inMumbai.•Forerunner of the present AIR.•After govt. take over, company renamedas Indian State Broadcasting Corporation.•1936 – Company restarted for the thirdtime under the name ‘All India Radio’.•1957 – AIR officially renamed as‘Akashwani.’•At Present:•Number of Radio Stations in India: 312•Number of Radio Receivers:116,000,000.
RADIO ADVERTISINGStrengths :•Offer local coverage.•Permeates all economic andsocial strata.•Message broadcastedrepeatedly.•Reach uneducated villagefolk. Weaknesses:•Audio medium only.•Limited commercial timeavailable.Limited availability ofcommercial radio.
ADVANTAGES:•Most suitable medium for a diverse audience.•Most interactive medium available.•Immensely flexible, adaptable and suitable formodern life.•We can do many other things while listening to radio.•Has great impact in terms of ad recall.•Improves campaign efficiency as a multiplier medium•One of the greatest advantages of radio is to be withthe consumer at the right time, at the right placeand with the right message at the right cost.
LIMITATIONS•Possibilities of distortion incommunication.•Repetitions are monotonous.•Short advertising life.•No durability of message.•Less no. of audience than that oftelevision.
COMPARISON BETWEEN TV AND RADIOTV•Audio visual has the greatest impact.•Useful for those products which require demonstration.•Reach very wide•Drawback – Doesn’t offer demographic selectivityRADIO:•Transistors are mobile and ubiquitous.•Many time spots available near the popular news casts allover the day which TV can’t offer.•Greater flexibility for ads.•Possible to exercise cost control.•Can be heard from anywhere whereas TV requirescompulsory seating near the set•Current events and happenings can be introducedsimultaneously
FM Broadcasting•Started by AIR since 80s in metros.•Introduction of private participation from 15th August, 1993.•FM channel would be best suited in the beginning for brandbuilding with specific target audience in mind.•Audio re-kindles visual association of a previously viewed ad•Offer excellent music experience.•FM is the ideal medium for niche-marketing.•Has potential for commuters.•The total number of private FM radio stations India hasincreased to 69•Radio Mirchi, along with its alliances, has retained its numberone position in the Indian FM radio industry, with over 41.2million listeners, as per the Indian Readership Survey (IRS)quarter 1 (Q1), 2010..
FM ChannelsFM Channels Locations GroupRadio Mirchi Mumbai, Delhi, TOI Kolkata, Chennai, Indore, Pune, AhmedabadRadio City Mumbai, Delhi GW Capital ,Kolkata, Bangalore, LucknowRed Mumbai, Delhi India TodayGo Mumbai Mid-Day Multimedia
Some Facts About Radio•The first Radio wave was transmitted in 1887.•Bulovo Watch - First brand to be advertised on radioin the US in 1926.•In India AIR covers 95% population and 86% area ofthe country.•37% of rural population still gets information fromradio and only 27% get from TV.•Radio stations generated revenue of INR 8 bn in2008; expected to reach INR 18 bn by 2012.•Share of Radio advertising was 3.3 % in 2008;expected to reach 4 % in 2012
Performance of the Indian radio Industry in 2008•In 2008, the Indian radio advertising industry recorded agrowth of 20.3% over the previous year.•Over the last 4 years, from 2004-08, the Indian radio industryhas grown by 36.4%.•The radio advertising industry stood at Rs. 8.3 billion in 2008,which was up from Rs. 6.9 billion in 2007.•The bulk of revenues of the radio advertising industry comefrom private FM broadcasters and the balance from the Statebroadcaster All India Radio (AIR)•In terms of share of ad pie, radio industry has been able toincrease its share to 3.8% in 2008, which is marginally up from3.6% in 2007, thus almost doubling its share over the period2004-08.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in2008Mergers and acquisitions allowed in private FMradio business-•During 2008, the Government made regulatorychanges aimed at promoting the growth of the radiosector and increasing its financial flexibility.•The changes involved allows FM radio broadcastingcompanies to create subsidiaries, enter into mergers orde-mergers and amalgamation of companies by way oftransfer of shares, without any change in ownership ofthe company and without any prior permission of theMinistry of Information and Broadcasting.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008Mergers and acquisitions allowed in private FM radiobusiness.BCCL acquires Virgin Radio UK for Rs. 448 crore.Radio sector’s first out-bound investment took place in 2008with Bennett Coleman and Company Ltd. (BCCL) acquiringVirgin Radio Holdings from UK-based SMG Plc for aconsideration of $106 million (Rs. 448 crore). Virgin Radio is a music station, which operates under a FMlicence in London and an AM licence in the rest of the UK.They will invest £15 million in developing and re-launching thebrand over the next few months.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008 contd…….•Indian radio goes international.Reliance Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group (R-ADAG)has launched a 24-hour FM radio station inSingapore that will broadcast Indian film music,news and other entertainment trivia in a collaborativeventure with local station Media Corp. Radio.The station is called Big Bollywood 96.3 FM. This isthe first time an Indian FM station is going offshore.The channel will play celebrity interviews, songs andgossip.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industryin 2008 contd…….Phase III FM expansion.The Phase II of FM licensing has been both exciting andchallenging for the radio industry.The Phase II expansion saw the Government issuing 245licenses, and it is believed the Ministry of Information andBroadcasting is likely to roll out in excess of 600 licenses (inover 250 additional towns) in Phase III. The industry is also hopeful of TRAI recommendations beinggiven the go-ahead. Some of these include allowing sports andcurrent affairs news, increase in FDI from 20% to 26% i.e.same as print and allowing multiple frequencies in radio percity.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industryin 2008 contd…….Phase III FM expansion.On the matter of allowing news on radio, TRAI in itsrecommendations has suggested that radio broadcastersshould be allowed to broadcast news provided that they usecontent only from All India Radio, Doordarshan, authorizedtelevision news channels, United News of India, Press Trust ofIndia and any other authorized news agency.There is also a debate that if the FM radio industry is notallowed to broadcast news in the air waves, the same shouldnot be allowed on Satellite radio as well. Presently, thereseems to be an anomaly that Satellite radio, with an allowanceof 100% FDI, is allowed to broadcast news whereas FM radio,with an allowance of 20% FDI, is not allowed to broadcastnews.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008contd…..Number of radio-listeners increases.As per IRS 2008/2009 radio listenershiphas increased. Total listening has increasedin some cities to as high as 22 hours perweek. Average time spent on radio as per theIRS has increased from 70.4 minutes to81.1 minutes for radio in 2007-08.SourceIRS
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008contd…..Political advertisements allowed onradio.As a run up to the General Elections,political advertisements were allowed onradio via Government notification.This helped radio broadcasters emerge asa strong media ally for most political partiesin their campaigns. As per press reports,approximately Rs. 50 crores was spent onradio alone by political parties in theseelections.
Key developments in the Indian Radio Industry in 2008contd………. IPL on radio- Radio was also the beneficiary from IPL with respect to advertising revenues. Most radio stations tied up with IPL teams from their respective states for launching various contests that enticed listeners with tickets to South Africa in addition to other goodies. Most radio stations also provided regular updates on the score and this too resulted in more listeners tuning into radio to listen, as well as participate in contests. Radio stations were also able to earn additional revenues from SMSs from listeners participating in these contests.
Outlook for the Indian Radio Industry 2009-2013•Spending on radio advertising is growing rapidly,and now accounts for around 4% of total mediaspend.•The Indian radio advertising industry is projected togrow by 18% over the next five years, reaching toRs. 19 billion in 2013 from the present Rs. 8.3 billionin 2008, which is more than double its current size.•In terms of share of ad pie, it is projected that theradio advertising industry will be able to increase itsshare from 3.8% in 2008 to 5.2 % in 2013.
Radio Re-invented•Satellite Radio•Net Radio•Digital Radio &•Podcasting