UNIT 11Behaviour ModificationByPranav Kumar OjhaArvind KumarSiddharth Kumar Upadhyay
Contents• Introduction• Behaviour Modification in Organisations• Methods of the Behaviour Management andChange• Business and Industrial Applications: A look tothe future• Transitional Contingency Contracting and thePremack Principle in Business
Contents• A Skill Training Approach• Training Format in Industrial BehaviourModification• Ethics of Behaviour Modification• Conclusion• References
Introduction• It is the application of the techniques ofexperimental psychology to applied problems.• One of the roles of a manager is managingpeoples behaviour.• Positive reinforcement -more effective technique.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Behaviour is a function of its consequences.• Relationship between the act and the results isthe heart of behaviour management
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Industrial behaviour modification is based on– The work of B.F. Skinner (1938, 1958) and– The broad area of psychology called learning theory.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• For a Manager Behaviour change techniques maybe-– Incentive plans,– Wages,– Bonuses,– Disciplinary procedures, and– At last resort the threat of termination.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Some Behaviour Modification Theories-Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory. Herzberg’s Motivation-hygiene TheoryExpectancy Theories of Motivation
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Maslow’s Need Hierarchytheory.It’s most widely discussedand researchedmotivational theory.Individuals are motivatedto act by –• internal forces, whichMaslow labels as needs.
dNeeds when ActivatedProduce tension withinindividualIndividual act to reduce the tension orsatisfy the needMaslow’s Need Hierarchy theory
Behaviour Modification inOrganizationsMaslow’s Theory Herzbergs theoryPhysiological, safety andsocial needs.Look of pay, job security,company policy, andsupervision.Ego and self-actualisationneeds.Organisational factors ofachievement, recognition,and responsibility.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Expectancy theories ofmotivationVroom (1964), porter andlawler (1968) specified- How organisational factorsinteract with individualvariables to influence aworker to behave in acreating manner.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Expectancy Theories of Motivation– The force a person to perform an act is a functions ofthe algebraic sum of the products of the valences of alloutcomes and the strength of his expectancies.Mathematically,Fi = Σ(Eij Vj) (I = n 1,..........,m) 1Fi = the force to perform act IEij = the strength of the expectancy that act I will befollowed by outcome jVj= the valence of outcome jN = the number of outcomes.
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations
Behaviour Modification inOrganizations• Expectancy theories of motivation– Porter and lawlers performance model• Refutes that satisfaction causes good performance.• Good performanceThe attainment of equitable anddesired rewardsSatisfaction.– The key variable for both good performance andsatisfaction is the receipt of desired rewards.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• How does one Implement a BehavioralContingency System?– The most importent thing to do is to find outperformance problem.– It may be most difficult step in the entire process.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Guidelines for Implementing BehaviourManagement ProgrammeStep 1: Observe– Try to identify the crucial productivity behaviours.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Guidelines for Implementing BehaviourManagement ProgrammeStep 2: Pinpoint– Identify those behaviours that may requirechange.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Guidelines for Implementing BehaviourManagement ProgrammeStep 3: Record– Record not only the actively itself but also• The stimulus conditions under which it occurs,• As well as the consequences that follow it for theemployee.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Guidelines for Implementing BehaviourManagement ProgrammeStep 4: Change the Consequences– Correct the feedback deficiencies discovered ifany.– The lack of rewards etc.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and ChangeTable 1: Questions for Analyzing CurrentPerformance Contingencies:1. What is the standard of performance?2. Does the employee know the standard?3. How well does the employee think he is doing?4. How well does this supervisor think he is doing?
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and ChangeTable 1: Questions for Analyzing CurrentPerformance Contingencies:5. What is reinforcing the undesired behaviour?6. What is reinforcing the desired behaviour?7. What aversive consequences of the undersizedbehaviour are at hand?
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and ChangeTable 1: Questions for Analyzing CurrentPerformance Contingencies:8. What schedule of reinforcement is most efficient fordeveloping and maintaining the desired behaviour?9. What reinforces are available to reward the workerssupervisor for reinforcing the workers newbehaviour?
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Implementing a Positive ReinforcementProgramme– Rule 1: Reward Selection– Rule 2: New Rewards should be Identified– Rule 3: Look for Naturally Occurring Rewards
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Implementing a Positive ReinforcementProgramme– Rule 4: Give Out Enough of the Reward so that it isWorthwhile for the Employee to Respond.– Rule 5: Provide Rewards Contingent uponPerformance of Appropriate Work Behaviours.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Implementing a Positive ReinforcementProgramme– Rule 6: Set up Reinforcers for a Behaviour so thatThey Follow that Behaviour as Quickly as isPractical.– Rule 7: Make Sure that Your Rewards FollowRather than Precede the Behaviour You Wish toIncrease .
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Implementing a Positive ReinforcementProgramme– Rule 8: Make Your Rewards Contingent onBehaviour not Outcomes.– Rule 9: Start at the Current Level of Performance.
Methods of the BehaviourManagement and Change• Implementing a Positive ReinforcementProgramme– Rule 10: Reward Small Steps of ImprovementToward a Final Goal .– Rule 11: Establish a System that will OverrewardRather than Underreward Behaviour.– Rule 12: State Your Objectives in Positive Terms.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future• The studies suggest the CRF(ContinuousReinforcement) and VR(Variable Ratio) schedulesof reinforcement may prove beneficial whenproperly employed in the work arena.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future• It is to be noted that the powerful controllingproperties of the chosen values were suchthat the performance under each schedulewere comparable despite obvious differencesamong studies .
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future1. Both CRF(Continuous Reinforcement) andVR(Variable Ratio) schedules can be employed toenhance productivity relative to that found withan hourly payment schedule only.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future“At low values”, the VR schedule is shown to bemore effective then CRF.“At times” the CRF schedule is shown to be moreeffective then VR.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future2. The establishment of an individual payment systembased on the performance of a small group ofworkers. Such an arrangement may improve groupcohesion and on-task behaviors.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future3. When using an intermittent schedule in whichthe values permit long period of nonreinforcement.
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future• Workers should be informed of the relationshipbetween their performance and the delivery ofreinforcement to prevent a disruption in the level ofproductivity due to the intermittency ofreinforcement
Business and Industrial Applications: ALook to the Future4. In it implementation of low value CRF schedulesmay improve response maintenance relative to thatfound with payment based on an hourly rate.And, the CRF schedule specifies the delivery ofreinforcement on a more predictable basis than theVR schedule.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Contingency Contracting– a technique that entails clearly specifying all ofthe responsibilities and elements in aprogramme of behavioral change.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Contingency Contracting1.The contract must provide for immediatereinforcement.2.Initial contracts must call for and reinforce smallapproximations.3.Reinforce frequently with small amounts.4.The contract must call for a rewardaccomplishment rather than obedience.5.Reward the performance after it occurs.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Contingency Contracting6. Attempt to impose a criterion of quality as wellas of quantity.7. The contract must be fair and reasonable.8. The terms of the contract must be clear.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Contingency Contracting9. The contract must be positive.10. Contracting as a method must be usedsystematically.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Transitional Contingency Contracting– In Transitional Contingency Contracting, peopleproceed through several types of contingencycontract.– They move from the point of having noinvolvement in designing the terms of contract tohaving total responsibility for the contracts.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Transitional Contingency ContractingLevel 1– The manager selects both the Task andReinforcement.Level 2– Here the Manager selects the Task and the Workerand Manager select the Reinforcement.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Transitional Contingency ContractingLevel 3– Manager and Worker jointly decide the Task andReinforcement.Level 4– Manager and Worker jointly decide upon the Task,and the Worker selects the Reinforcement.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Transitional Contingency ContractingLevel 5– Worker is responsible for both Task and theReinforcement.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• The Premack Principle– Behaviours having higher probabilities ofoccurrence will reinforce behaviours having lowerprobabilities of occurrence.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• The PremackPrincipleExp"You have tofinish yourvegetables (LowFrequency) beforeyou can eat anyicecream (HighFrequency)“.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Operant Terms and Concepts Applied toIndustryDiscoveres and describes mechanisms ofprinciples which -• Relate behaviour variations to the history of theindividual organism and• The environmental consequences of behaviour, pastand present.
Transitional Contingency Contracting and ThePremack Principle in Business• Application to Control BehaviourA behaviour control system can be designed to• Obtain or increase desired behaviours and• Reduce undesired behaviours.
A Skill Training Approach• There is a need to investigate theefficacy of cognitive andbehavioral approaches of jobfinding both independently andas an integrated technique usingemployment as the outcomemeasure.
A Skill Training Approach• Skill Program-It is systematic program which can be integrated intoan already functioning vocational counseling settings.The utilization of this program will provide thecounselor with specific techniques to lead to beneficialchanges in the behavior, thoughts, and emotions oftheir clients during the job-findings process.
A Skill Training Approach• Skill Program-it usually goes something like this:1. Specify the performance desired.2. If it is not occurring, find out if the deficiency due to(a) Inadequate job design, tools, materials,(b) Inadequate knowledge and skill,(c) Inadequate incentives (reinforcement-contingencies) to sustain motivation.
A Skill Training Approach• Skill Program-3.Correct the deficiency by changing the job, bytraining, or by better reinforcement contingencies.4.Evaluate and recycle as needed to get desiredperformance.5.Once youve got it, maintain it.
A Skill Training Approach• The Managers Tool KitThere are tools for managing complexity. Indeed,that is what management is all about.Managers bring together the tools for dealingwith complex problems of organizations.
A Skill Training ApproachPlanning, organizing and directing and related tofinding the problems that need to be solved, findingor creating the tools to solve and bringing the toolsto bear on the problems.
Training Format in Industrial BehaviourModification• Minimal Repertories Regardless of where training is housed, thereappear to be following response repertoires thatare recommended for training practitioners.1. Behavioral2. Business3. Social
Training Format in Industrial BehaviourModification1.BehavioralTheoretical/conceptualExperimentalApplied
Training Format in Industrial BehaviourModification2.Business Production Management Finance and Accounting Current Events
Training Format in Industrial BehaviourModification3. Social Manager as Reinforcer Modelling Enthusiasm Flexibility Information Flow
Ethics of Behaviour Modification• Application ofbehaviour principles inmental health facilities,prisons, and schoolsprompted strongnegative reactions andeven the banning offunds.
Ethics of Behaviour Modification• Common MisconceptionsIsnt it unethical to modify another individualsbehaviour?Isnt behaviour modification worse than someother methods because it is planned rather thanunplanned - intentional rather than unintentional?
Ethics of Behaviour ModificationWouldnt successful programme of behaviourmodification cause people to lose their individuality?What behaviour modifiers can do?
Ethics of Behaviour ModificationWhat behaviour modifiers want to do?Can’t behaviour modification be misused?Arent the techniques of behaviour modificationmore objectionable than the techniques associatedwith other methods?
ConclusionFor a manager the Behaviour modification is a tool tocontrol, regulate, modulate or modify the behaviourof the employee in a direction to achieve thecommon organizational goal.
Continuous Reinforcement• Continuous Reinforcement is an operant conditioningprinciple in which an organism is reinforced everysingle time that organism provides the appropriateoperant response.
Variable Ratio Schedule• In operant conditioning, a variable-ration schedule isa schedule of reinforcement where a response isreinforced after an unpredictable number ofresponses. This schedule creates a high steady rateof responding.
Intermittent Schedule• It is given only part of the times which gives thedesired response. Once the desired response isconditioned by continuous reinforcement and thereinforce wishes to eliminate the no. ofreinforcements necessary to encourage the intendedresponse.