DRUG AND DRUG ABUSE• Drugs are defined as ‘any substance that, when taken into living organism, may modify one or more function’ (WHO)• Drug abuse – self administration of a drug – for non-medical reasons – in quantities and frequencies which may impair an individuals ability to function effectively – and which may result in social, physical, or emotional harm
CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS1. Narcotics2. Depressant3. Stimulant4. Hallucinogens
NARCOTICS• An analgesic or pain-killing substance that depresses vital body functions such as blood pressure, pulse rate, and breathing rate• Regular administration of narcotic-analgesics produces physical dependence
HEROIN• Slurred speech• Slow gait• Constricted pupils• Droopy eyelid• sImpaired night vision• Respiratory depression or failure• Increased risk of exposure to HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases if injected
DEPRESSANT• A substance that depresses the functions of the central nervous system• Depressants calm irritability and anxiety and may induce sleep
STIMULANT• A substance taken to increase alertness or activity
CAFFEINECaffeine is a central nervous system stimulant. In moderate doses, caffeine can:• increase alertness• reduce fine motor coordination• cause insomnia• cause headaches, nervousness and dizziness
CAFFEINE• Some studies show that caffeine causes physical dependence• Typical withdrawal symptoms associated with caffeine are headache, fatigue and muscle pain• These symptoms can occur within 24 hours after the last dose of caffeine• One study has stated that the minimum consumption of caffeine for physical dependence is 4 cups of coffee per day• Other studies say that a few more cups of coffee are needed to develop dependence
NICOTINE• Tobacco contains nicotine • Nicotine is a drug • Therefore, when people smoke or chew tobacco, they are using a drugSmoking can be stimulating or relaxing - it depends on a persons mood and dosage of nicotineThe rapid effects of nicotine include:• Increases in blood pressure and heart rate• Faster respiration• Constriction of arteries• Stimulation of the central nervous system
NICOTINELong Term Effects:• increases the chances of cancer and results in addiction and dependence. It is clear though, that nicotine is one of the most addicting substances known...just ask anyone who has tried to quit smoking.Common withdrawal symptoms in people who are trying to "kick the habit" of tobacco include:• Anxiety• Depression• Headaches• Fatigue
EFFECTS OF NICOTINEHEALTHY LUNGS UNHEALTHY LUNGS
HALLUCINOGENS• A substance that induces changes in mood, attitude, though-processes and perceptions• Perceptual changes include visual, auditory, kinesthetic (skin) and temporal (time) effects
MARIJUANASHORT TERM EFFECTS:• Distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch)• Problems with memory and learning• Loss of coordination• Trouble with thinking and problem-solving• Increased heart rate• reduced blood pressur
MARIJUANALONG TERM EFFECTS:• Hallucinations• Delusions• Impaired memory• Disorientation• Daily cough and phlegm production• More frequent acute chest illnesses• Increased risk of lung infections• Obstructed airways
WHAT IS IN ONE CIGARETTE• In one cigarette there is over 500 chemicals here are some of them• ACETONE- also found in finger nail polish• AMMONIA- used in household cleaning products• ARSENIC-commonly known as rat poison• BUTANE- key ingredient of lighter fluid• CADIUM- active component in battery acid• CARBOMN MONOXIDE- the same gas released from car exhausts• ETHANOL-alcohol• HYDROGEN CYANIDE- yet another lethal poison• METHANOL- component of rocket fuel• NAPHTHALENE-ingredient used in mothballs• NICOTINE- yet another insecticide, and a highly addictive substance• STEARIC ACID- found In candle wax• TOLUENE-industrial strength cleaning solvent• METHANE- gas
THE PRO’S OF SMOKING• It is a stress reliever• Makes you feel good• Keeps the weight off• Feeling of a ritual• Nicotine is addictive• Watching the cigarette burn is relaxing• Nicotine makes the brain relax
THE CON’S OF SMOKING• Makes you smell• Wrinkles• Heart disease• Cancer• Suffer from migraines• The sense of smell and taste goes• Costs lots of money to supply• Skin appears yellow• suffer from colds and bronchitis
DISEASES• Bronchitis• Emphysema• Heart disease• cancer
SMOKING WHILE PREGNANT• Complications of pregnancy, including bleeding during pregnancy, detachment of the placenta, premature birth, and ectopic pregnancy• Low birth weight. Babies born to women who smoke are on average 200 grams (8 oz) lighter than babies born to comparable non-smoking mothers. Premature and low birth weight babies are more prone to illness and infections• Congenital defects in the baby — such as cleft palate• Stillbirth or death within the first week of life — the risk is increased by about one-third• Poorer long-term growth, development, and health of the child. On average, compared to children born to non-smokers, children born to smokers are smaller, have lower achievements in reading and maths, and have an increased risk of developing asthma
AFFECTING OTHER PEOPLE• Children and babies• Passive smoking• Unborn babies• Increased risk of dying from cot death (sudden infant death syndrome)• Increased risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer
PROBLEMS• Cancers• Lung cancer• Mouth, throat and nose cancer• Cancer of the larynx• Oesophageal cancer• Pancreatic cancer• Bladder cancer• Stomach cancer• Kidney cancer• Leukaemia• Respiratory disease• Chronic bronchitis• Emphysema• Recurrent infection in the airways
WHAT SMOKING DOES TO YOUR BODY TEETH TONGUE HEALTHY LUNGS SMOKERS LUNGS
HOW CAN WE PREVENT DRUGS AND SMOKING• FAMILY• FRIENDS• PASSIONS• GOALS• AWARENESS• SHARE
FAMILY• Be involved and open with your family!• Though adolescence stage can be a shaky stage between teens and their parents• Its very important to maintain your communication and connection with them• Family involvement can help you handle temptations to use alcohol, cigarettes and drugs that you might encounter
FRIENDS• Now, think of your friends• Think of the activities that you do together• Are these activities beneficial to you or not?• What kind of friends do you have?• Teens would most likely try using drugs when theyre around other teens who take drugs.• Peer pressure; but with the right kind of friends, its most likely that you will not encounter such• Our friends can have the greatest influence in our choices, the way we think and in our activities• Choose your friends!
PASSION• Be active. Know your passions and do them!• Find alternatives. Some teens use drugs because of boredom and its something to do• Think of your talents, skills and abilities• Are they being used and developed?• What can you do to improve on your abilities?
GOALS-Do you have goals in your life? -(Family, Academics, Others..) -What are they? -Write them down!• Goals can serve as motivations to be busy and to stay committed towards their accomplishment!• Goals will keep you focused in attaining them, minimizing the possibilities of being distracted along the way• Set your goals, move and work for them!
AWARENESS• The key is awareness!• Research more on the effects of drug addiction on your physical and mental state• Youll gain knowledge that will help you decide about this matter in the future• Be aware and keep learning!
SHARE• SHARE WHAT YOUVE LEARNED!• Talk and discuss the information that you have gained to your classmates and friends!• Form a group among your peers which will aim to educate people about drugs, drug addiction and its effects• Be concerned and responsible. Be an agent of drug usage prevention. Share your knowledge, time and talents!
REFERENCESWeb Sites with helpful information:• familydoctor.org• www.smokefree.gov• www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco• http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/quit_smoking• http://www.cancer.org/Healthy/StayAway from Tobacco