What is Solar Energy?• Solar energy, radiant light and heat from thesun, has been harnessed by humans sinceancient times using a range of ever evolvingtechnologies.• Solar energy technologies include solarheating, solar photo voltaic, solar thermalelectricity and solar architecture.
Solar Energy In India• With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, Indias theoreticalsolar power reception, on only its land area, is about 5000Petawatt-hours per year (PWh/yr).• The daily average solar energy incident over India variesfrom 4 to 7 kWh/m2 with about 1500–2000 sunshine hoursper year.• India is ranked number one in terms of solar energyproduction per watt installed, with an insolation of 1,700 to1,900 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak (kWh/KWp).• By May 2012 the installed grid connected photo voltaic hadincreased to over 979 MW, and India expects to install anadditional 10,000 MW by 2017, and a total of 20,000 MW by2022.
Applications of solar technology1. Architecture and urban planning:• Sunlight has influenced building design sincethe beginning of architectural history.• Advanced solar architecture and urban planningmethods were first employed by the Greeks andChinese, who oriented their buildings towardthe south to provide light and warmth.
2. Agriculture and horticulture:• Agriculture and horticulture seek tooptimize the capture of solar energy in orderto optimize the productivity of plants.• Techniques such as timed plantingcycles, tailored row orientation, staggeredheights between rows and the mixing ofplant varieties can improve crop yields.
3. Solar lighting:• Day lighting features such as this oculus at thetop of the Pantheon, in Rome, Italy have beenin use since antiquity.• The Romans recognized a right to light asearly as the 6th century and English lawechoed these judgments with the PrescriptionAct of 1832.
4. Solar power:• Solar power is the conversion of sunlight intoelectricity, either directly using photo voltaic(PV), or indirectly using concentrated solarpower (CSP).• CSP systems use lenses or mirrors andtracking systems to focus a large area ofsunlight into a small beam.• PV converts light into electric current usingthe photoelectric effect.
5.Photovoltaics:• A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell (PV), is adevice that converts light into electric currentusing the photo electric effect.• The first solar cell was constructed by CharlesFritts in the 1880.
Advantages• Non polluting: no noise, no harmful orunpleasant emissions or smells.• Very reliable.• Solar panels produce more power within 5years than the power consumed in theirproduction.• Solar Power is a renewable energy source.Disadvantages• Sun does not shine consistently.• Solar energy is a diffuse source. Addressed byapproaching the problem through:1) collection, 2) conversion, 3) Storage.