Open spaces


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Open spaces, Green spaces, Parks, Urban lungs, Natural environment, land use

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  • garden city open space as a green belt was a mean of controlling the sprawl
  • garden city open space as a green belt was a mean of controlling the sprawl
  • garden city open space as a green belt was a mean of controlling the sprawl
  • NIPAs- National integrated open area system
  • NIPAs- National integrated open area system, utility easements- transmission lines, oil storage facilities etc
  • Open spaces

    1. 1. Open Spaces Presented by: Prakash Aryal SPRING Programme 2013/2014 School of Urban and Regional Planning University of the Philippines Diliman, Quezon City 437925/sizes/z/in/photostream/ L_HQ.JPG
    2. 2. Presentation Outline – What is Open Space? – Different types of open spaces – Its functions and uses – Benefits and values of having open spaces – How can we preserve open spaces – Open space planning in The Philippines – Summary
    3. 3. What it is? • Land or open surface open to sky ! • Surface not covered by impermeable surface! Characteristic • Relatively free from development • Vegetated to provide visual contrast to man made environment • It is much more than a leftover category of land. Source: Rye, R.D., 1998 Open Spaces
    4. 4. Open Spaces What it is?... Physically, Open space is described as - • Land not intensively developed for residential, commercial, industrial or institutional uses. • Public or privately held land. • Agricultural lands and forests. • Undeveloped shorelines and scenic lands • Public parks and preserves. • Water bodies, wetlands, streams, floodplains. Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007
    5. 5. Open Spaces Open Spaces contains one or more of the followings- • Rural landscape • Ecological and environmentally sensitive areas • Recreation areas • Trails Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007
    6. 6. Ian McHarg,1967 identified 8 important types of open space • Surface water • Marshes • Flood plains • Aquifers • Aquifers recharge areas • Steep lands • Prime agriculture land • Urban forest and wood lands Source: McHarg, L. I. (1967).
    7. 7. Types of Open spaces.. A. Utility Open Spaces B. General open spaces C. Corridor open space D. Multi use open space Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    8. 8. Types of Open spaces.. A. Utility Open Spaces i. Resource lands- for production and extraction, eg. Forests, grazing areas, lakes and rivers for water supply ii. Urban utility space- Dam sites, reservoir, land fills, waste disposal area, treatment facilities iii. Flood control and drainage- flood plain, flood banks, watershed, drainage ways etc. iv. Reserves and preserves- forest, area for wildlife, lands for future expansion etc. Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    9. 9. Types of Open spaces B. General open spaces i. Wilderness areas- Scenic & ecological values etc. ii. Protected areas- controlled for development, coastline and shore areas etc. iii. Natural parks- National parks, forests, city parks etc. iv. Urban parks- Zoos, botanical garden, urban forest, water bodies, amphitheater etc. v. Recreational areas- golf courses, play grounds, swimming pools, picnic area etc. vi. Urban development open spaces- Green belts, setbacks and open space around buildings etc. Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    10. 10. Types of Open spaces C. Corridor open space- Right of way spaces of highway, streets etc. D. Multi use open space- Campuses, private clubs with recreation facilities, cemeteries & garden areas etc. Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    11. 11. Function of open space Adequate open space is vital for proper functioning of urban system. Functions – To give structure, shape and form to the city. – To provide space needed for recreation, preserve scenic value, protect watershed, aquifers, natural habitats, flora and fauna and provide natural drainage Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    12. 12. Benefits of open space A. Social benefits – Interaction between man and nature, enjoyment, recreation etc. B. Aesthetic benefits – Preserve natural beauty, improve ugliness, buffering unpleasant view and disturbing spaces, visual relief from manmade cityscapes. C. Psychological – Maintain emotional well being Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    13. 13. Benefits of open space D. Economic – Spatial improvement are linked to cities economic future through development. E. Structuring development – Buffer between conflicting land use F. Ecological process – Adequate amount of carefully located spaces are necessary for the improved management and use of our essential natural resources, air and water Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    14. 14. The Value of Open Space • There is value to preserving most types of open space land uses, but the values tend to vary widely with the size of the area, the proximity of the open space to residences, the type of open space, and the method of analysis. • Both publicly held and privately held lands can provide open space benefits, but because people who do not directly own the land still enjoy the benefits, open space is likely to be underprovided by the private sector. Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007
    15. 15. The Value of Open Space… • Beyond the benefits to private land owners Open space provides a range of benefits to citizens of a community • Parks and natural areas -recreation; • wetlands and forests supply storm-water drainage and wildlife habitat; • farms and forests provide aesthetic benefits to surrounding residents. • And in rapidly growing urban and suburban areas, any preserved land can offer relief from congestion and other negative effects of development. Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007
    16. 16. The Value of Open Space… • It also depends on the size and location of open spaces. (Small fragment open space or large open space in distant location.) • use value- the benefit is related to seeing or using the open space. ( such as having a pleasant view, experiencing improved water quality, or having increased opportunity for viewing wildlife.) • direct use of the open space –(without knowing that open space exists-also called passive use values) • People may get utility, or satisfaction, from knowing that farms on the periphery of an urban area exist as they have for generations.
    17. 17. How can we preserve open spaces Situation • Open spaces are competing with urban growth and are on the losing ends • The first one sacrificing for development is open spaces • Perception that open spaces like public parks do not produce economic benefits • Open spaces shouldn’t be thought as residual spaces. Source: Rye, R.D., 1998
    18. 18. How can we preserve open spaces • Economic efficiency is also necessary, analysis is needed whether to invest on forest land, wet land or agriculture which is important? Target most valuable parcels so state and local governments, and conservation organizations, must figure out – how much land to target for preservation, whether that land should be in private or public ownership – where open space should be located, and what types of open space— farms, forests, wetlands, parks, etc. are the most desirable. Source: H. Clough & Associates LLP,2007
    19. 19. Open space planning in philippines • Functional open space- an important element of CLUP – Functional open spaces are lands that are deliberately kept in their open character for their contribution towards maintaining the amenity value of the environment. Local open space (LGUs are responsible to manage) - Communal forests, river banks, prime agricultural lands, historical sites, environmentally critical and hazardous areas could form part of open space. Source: Serote, 2004
    20. 20. Open space planning in philippines • Protected areas are part of the open space system. NIPAS protected areas are: – Strict nature reserve – Natural park – Natural environment – Wildlife sanctuary – Protected landscape or seascape – Resource reserve – Natural biotic area – Other categories established by national and international agreements Source: Serote, 2004
    21. 21. Source: Serote, 2004 Other protected areas are: 1. Non-NIPAS Categories – Second growth forest (>1000m &>50% slope) – Mangroves and fish sanctuaries – Buffer strips along river banks in forest, agricultural land, urban area etc. 2. Environmentally constrained areas – Areas prone to weather and water related hazards, vulnerable to earthquake-induced hazards, affected by volcanic hazards and areas subject to erosion 3. Protected agricultural areas 4. Others – Water sheds for domestic water supply source, Historic sites, Utility easements, Visual corridors with high aesthetic values, Geothermal reserves
    22. 22. Environment and Natural Resources- Sectors and Sub sectors for Ecological Profiling a. Lands i. Public lands ii. Private lands iii. Ancestral domain b. Forest lands i. Protection forest ii. Production forest c. Mineral lands i. Metallic mineral lands ii. Non- metallic mineral lands d. Park , wild life and other reservations e. Water resources i. Fresh water ii. Marine water f. Air quality g. Waste management areas i. Solid ii. Liquid iii. Toxic and hazardous Source: DILG, 2008
    23. 23. Open Space Summary • It is more than residual land. • It is not physically intensively developed and can be public and private. • Regardless of the ownership of the land almost every one can benefit from the open space • Adequate open space is vital for the functioning of urban system • Planning and regulatory framework of the Philippines have given emphasis on conserving and protecting various types of open spaces.
    24. 24. We are crushing ourselves by crushing open spaces Start planning by respecting the value of open space!
    25. 25. Thank you! References M. Connell Virginia and W. Margaret, 2005, THE VALUE OF OPEN SPACE: EVIDENCE FROM STUDIES OF NONMARKET, Resources for the Future Clough Harbour & Associates LLP,2007, Natural resources and open spaces conservation plan, Town of halfmoon, Saratoga County, New York McHarg, L. I. (1967). Design with Nature. New York: American Museum of Natural History. Rye, R. D., Open spaces Development Plan of Quezon City,1998, MA Thesis, School of Urban and Regional Planning, UP, Diliman Rationalizing Local Planning System, A source book (2008) 1st edition, Department of interior and local government, Bureau of Local Government Development Serote, E.M., Property, Patrimony & Territory, 2004, Foundations of Land Use Planning in the Philippines, SURP-UPPDRF, UP, Quezon city