DISSERTATION REPORT                 ONTRANSFORMING SHELTERS LEADING TO     AFFORDABLE HOUSING             Submitted by    ...
CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Pragya Sharma has worked on the Dissertation Projectentitled Transforming Shelters Lead...
DECLARATION        I Pragya Sharma hereby declare that the Thesis entitled “TransformingShelters Leading To Affordable Hou...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe journey has been long and there have been numerous co pilots. I‘d like tothank all of them. First of al...
CONTENTSS/NO                      DESCRIPTION                 PAGE.                                                     S1...
FOREWORDArchitecture is always an answer to need. Starting from shelter through public buildings till highrise commercials...
“Space and light and order   These are the things that men need       Just as much as they need       Bread or a place to ...
OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF STUDYOBJECTIVES:-Scope of study is to find out the basis for setting parameters of Human Living St...
RESEARCH METHODOLOGYFirst, generating a case for the typology known as‘ Mixed Land use‘ in Delhi and analyzing thevarious ...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   10
INTRODUCTIONDwelling is one of the basic need of human, from ancient time till date. Demand andaffordability has defined t...
INDIA –G.D.P. GROWTHThe real estate world has changed significantly after the global financial meltdown causedby defaults ...
AFFORDABLE HOUSING –DEFINITIONDefining Affordable Housing:“Affordability” as a concept is very generic and could have diff...
AFFORDABLE HOUSING V/S LOW COST HOUSINGLow-cost housing is generally meant for EWS category and comprises bare minimum hou...
INDICATIVE SIZE & POTENTIAL IN INDIA  Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   15
DEMAND AND SUPPLY CONSTRAINTSThe demand drivers for affordable housing are as below:Urbanization:Rising income levels lead...
THE DEMAND MODEL METHODOLOGY   The land market is fundamentally described by household choices of    location and lot siz...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   18
DEMAND SUPPLY DYNAMICS• Short Supply of residential dwellings• Supply shortfall existing since post independence• In 2005 ...
BIRTH AND MIGRATIONTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   20
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   21
POPULATION AND HOUSINGPERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF ROOMSOCCUPIED 1961 – 2001( in million ):         ...
TOTAL HOUSING SHORTAGEIndia Demographics : Housing Shortage Populatio     Residents          %              Per           ...
CATEGORY VISE HOUSING SHORTAGEEstimated Urban Housing Unit Shortage as on 1.4.2007:Total      :        24.71 m 100.00%EWS ...
GROWTH OF SLUMS                                                        61.                                                ...
The housing requirement for the Rs.3-10 Lakh income group is approx.2.06 million units by 2011,translating to a market siz...
SUGGESTED PARAMETER FOR HOUSING                       EWS/ LIG                         MIGSize                   300-600 s...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   28
IDENTIFYING AFFORDABILITYNCR revealed a number of interesting facts during the household survey carriedout in order to asc...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   30
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   31
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   32
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   33
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   34
H;H;H;...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   36
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   37
PROVISION AND LOCATION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To facilitate the incorporation of affordable housing in residenti...
INTEGRATION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives   Integrating affordable housing    Affordable housing is integrated into new...
40     SITE PLANNING OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To ensure site planning and related design responses facilitate good...
41                                     External circulation                                       External pathways servi...
DESIGN OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To facilitate the provision of comfortable, pleasant, safe, efficient and cost-  e...
OPEN SPACES WITHIN A PLOTEvery room intended for human habitation shall abut on aninterior or exterior open space or an op...
44           Community open spaces and amenitiesResidential and Commercial ZonesIn any layout or sub-division of land meas...
MEANS OF ACCESSWidth of Means of AccessThe residential plots shall abuton a public means of accesslike street-oad. Plots w...
MEANS OF ACCESS-Cntd..In the case of special housing schemes for low income groupand economically weaker section of societ...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   47
Plot SizeThe minimum plot size with ground coverage not exceeding 75 percent, shall notbe less than 40 sqm in small and me...
SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTER PLANNINGVehicular AccessA right of way of at least 6 m width should be provided up to thee...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   50
SALARY                                                          CLASS    SocialClassification                             ...
Following are the Mixed Land Use Streets in various Zones of Delhi:Zone –F:  a)         New Delhi South Ext. Part-II (Port...
HOUSING COMPONENTThe component method of design provides a broad frame work forachieving the described life style objectiv...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   54
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   55
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   56
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   57
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   58
the wheelchair turning radius is to be 1,500 mm (5 ft.) to 2,440mm (8 ft.) with 2,440 mm provided in building common areas...
Desired outcomes                          Suggested responsesOne,      two   and     three-bedroom     Where a site incorp...
Afordability Survey and AnalysisCateg Samp Income                     Current        Current                           Aff...
EXERNAL ENVIRONMENTAREA - GOVINDPURI & GOVINDPURI EXTENSIONCASE -1                                                        ...
63AREA -DAYANAND COLONYCASE -1Category - L.I.G.                                                                           ...
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   64
GENERAL PLANNINGTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   65
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   66
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   67
NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATIONTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   68
SPACE RELATIONSHIPTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   69
Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury   70
Preferred Location w/in            Area Neighborhood                                  Affordability                       ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005OBJECTIVES:   The Housing and Habitat Policy 1998 aims at:   1. Creation of s...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WOULD:•      Take steps to bring in legal reforms incl...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005 • Evolve parameters for optimal use of available   resources to promote deve...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE STATE GOVERNMENT WOULD:1. Liberalize the legal and regulatory regime to g...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES WOULD: 1. Identify specific housing shortages and prepa...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE PUBLIC / PRIVATE                   FINANCECOMPANIES WOULD:  1. Redefine t...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005HOUSING BOARDS / CORPORATIONS /DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES ANDOTHER PUBLIC AGENCI...
NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERORGANIZATIONS WOULD :1. Direct research effor...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING                                                            ...
References                                                      References                                   Internet     ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Dessertation ii sem [autosaved]

1,435

Published on

Published in: Business, Real Estate
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,435
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
125
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Dessertation ii sem [autosaved]

  1. 1. DISSERTATION REPORT ONTRANSFORMING SHELTERS LEADING TO AFFORDABLE HOUSING Submitted by Pragya Sharma Guided by Ar. G.MitraFACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE & EKISTICS JAMIA MILIA ISLAMIA NEW DELHI-110025 2010-2011
  2. 2. CERTIFICATEThis is to certify that Pragya Sharma has worked on the Dissertation Projectentitled Transforming Shelters Leading To Affordable Housing under myguidance and supervision.Ar. G.Mitra Prof. S.M. AkhtarThesis Guide DeanExternal Examiner 1External Examiner 2External Examiner 3
  3. 3. DECLARATION I Pragya Sharma hereby declare that the Thesis entitled “TransformingShelters Leading To Affordable Housing” submitted in the partialfulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Masters ofArchitecture is my original design/ research work and that the information takenfrom secondary sources is given due citations and references. [Signature]Pragya Sharma[Name of the Student]Roll. No:Date: 21Dec2010Place: DelhiM.Ekistics: 2ndSem. (2010-11)
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTThe journey has been long and there have been numerous co pilots. I‘d like tothank all of them. First of all I would like to express my indebtedness towards mycomputer and the world wide web, which stood by me at each and every secondof my academic semester and after him, my parents and friends who have beeninstrumental in shaping me as I am.I‘d like to thank Prof. G. Mitra, my guide, who was persistent, patient andconsiderate towards my idea and for planting all the seeds in my mind, directly orindirectly.I would also like to thank our coordinator Ar. Mahinder Sethi & Ar. Qamar Irshadfor his consistent guidance and update of the study, and for his immense supportand consistent guidance that was never short of encouragement whenever it wasneeded the most.I‘d like to thank my husband Ar. Bhupendra Kumar who have been constantly thesource of new ideas and who gave me invaluable inputs.And a special thanks to Google and Wikimapia [Signature]Pragya Sharma[Name of the Student]Roll. No:Date: 21Dec2010Place: DelhiM.Ekistics: 2ndSem. (2010-11)
  5. 5. CONTENTSS/NO DESCRIPTION PAGE. S1 Fore word 62 Objective & scope of study 73 Research Methodology 84 Introduction Defining Affordable Housing 10 Comparison between Affordable 11 Housing & Low Cost Housing G.D.P. Growth& Housing Demand 13 Demand & Supply Constraints 145. Role of P.P.P. in Affordable Housing Land Availability & Cost 16 Construction & Other Costs 17 Connectivity & Infrastructure 183 Case study 30 Land Availability & Cost 164 Inferences 665 Bibliography 69
  6. 6. FOREWORDArchitecture is always an answer to need. Starting from shelter through public buildings till highrise commercials, its has experienced a dynamic paradigm change with pace of life and itsinfluences. The time of Stone Age(when Caves were the buildings erected by nature andcaptured by human), experienced a comfortable feeling of being inside a house ,and it emergedlike a nuclear reaction, multiplying in doubles, each moment of seconds. Need being mother ofall inventions gave birth to shelters like Terra Amata , and gradually developed into ancientcities. This was the time when residences were of most importance, as it was the basic need oflife. Later on after demise of golden era, neoclassical age started searching forarchitecture styles from past, but still public buildings were dominating various architects andthey kept them self limited to the roman temples , and other communal structure. Here camethe role of architect Robert Adam, who left the rat race and decided to study and implementresidential architecture techniques used so far. Adam devoted his attention to what little wasknown about ancient residential design and interior detailing, in part because he realized thathis architectural practice would rely on clients who requires homes, not temples or churchesbased on classical styles. Due to changing needs, and reducing resources, grand HAVELI are gettingconverted into compact villas, where as individual residences are smartly converting into multi-story apartment. Its controversial whether architecture is changing living styles or living stylesare changing architecture. This study is aiming to answers the same, reading & analyzing thegoverning factors and the transformations. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 6
  7. 7. “Space and light and order These are the things that men need Just as much as they need Bread or a place to sleep.” sleep.” -Le CorbusierTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 7
  8. 8. OBJECTIVES AND SCOPE OF STUDYOBJECTIVES:-Scope of study is to find out the basis for setting parameters of Human Living Standards.-Study will find the habitable size of shelter in combination with AFFORDABILITY with DEMANDof space. To study the basic requirements of shelter e.g. requirement depending on family size,lifestyle, etc.SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS:-Scope of study is to find out the basis for setting parameters of Human Living Standards.-Study will find the habitable size of shelter in combination with AFFORDABILITY with DEMANDof space. To study the basic requirements of shelter e.g. requirement depending on family size,lifestyle, etc.-Study the transformation of shelter i.e. shrinking of area. Study the Transformation of Shelterwith respect to the other four elements of Ekistics.( Man, Network, Nature & Society)-Study the Norms & Regulations for a Sustainable Shelter. Impact of Urban Lifestyle on shelter,e.g. DINK concept of Young working couples i.e. Double Income No Kid.-After effect of this transformation on the user. After diagnostic approach, interviews & surveywill bring up design parameters for designing a HABITABLE SHELTER. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 8
  9. 9. RESEARCH METHODOLOGYFirst, generating a case for the typology known as‘ Mixed Land use‘ in Delhi and analyzing thevarious factors and forces responsible for the legitimacy of such a planning typology. This wouldbe achieved by the critically analyzing the relevant literature .Second, highlight the dismal history of the Master Plan of Delhi over the years and project howin requisite the tools and strategies of MPD are for sustaining Mixed Land-use in the city.Through critical analysis of the role of MPD, citing an example of one such area in the city andalso through drilling discussions with advisors and experts in the field .These case study areas have been selected on the basis of their location, representation of allthe socio-economic groups of people and because these are fully developed and occupiedhousing schemes under the Delhi Development Authority (DDA), which is the principal planningagency to plan and regulate development in the city. The field surveys included commercial landuse survey, parking survey, and interviews of residents, shop keepers (doing business inproperties converted from residential uses) and customers selected randomly in thesesettlements.Third, understand the implications on master and land use plan on the introduction of such aplanning typology. This would be achieved by analyzing various successful cities that havemanaged to sustain this planning typology over the years. Fourth, highlight the various toolsand strategies required in the current planning system, for mixed land use to be successful inDelhi. Concluded from the case studies of the cities done in the previous chapters. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 9
  10. 10. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 10
  11. 11. INTRODUCTIONDwelling is one of the basic need of human, from ancient time till date. Demand andaffordability has defined the boundaries of various classes existing in society. The measureguiding factor is affordability as per day to day demands. Living styles, status or requirementsdemand may be anything but affordability makes the things available . There is no limit ondemands but affordability puts a stop mark on that.With the raise in scale of construction, residential demands scales up to social demands &responsibilities towards societies, such as open spaces , wide streets, low rise and high risebuildings as per density plan and so on. Here comes the bye laws which governs this individualresidential construction of buildings in such a way that once all are erected, these results into agood evenly distributed society. But these byelaws may need amendments as per changing demand and construction patterns to satisfy the contemporary culture. This study aims all these factors & tries to analyse existing laws supporting them and to class highlight those which needs to be changed. For example need of 200thk slab is reduced plus outdoor leasure space to 150 mm thick and similar others. space to rest and sleep plus space for lavatory plus space for parking plus leasure space plus space to cook plus space to bath plus space to dineDemand Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 11
  12. 12. INDIA –G.D.P. GROWTHThe real estate world has changed significantly after the global financial meltdown causedby defaults on sub-prime loans in US. India was no exception and the real estate marketwitnessed a contraction in both volume and value. Real estate developers were grippedwith the liquidity crisis and were forced to change the ways of doing business. Downturnand liquidity crunch forced developers to adopt a two pronged strategy –smaller units at lesser prices. In this study I have attempted to define Affordable Housing by using three key parameters viz. • income level, • size of dwelling unit and • affordability. While I have assessed the demand and supply constrains, I have also highlighted the initiatives taken by key stakeholders and their perspective concerns. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 12
  13. 13. AFFORDABLE HOUSING –DEFINITIONDefining Affordable Housing:“Affordability” as a concept is very generic and could have different meanings for differentpeople based on differences in income levels.Affordable housing refers to any housing that meets some form of affordabilitycriterion .Defining affordable housing in United States and In theIndia is a difficult task given that Canada, a commonly acceptedat every square kilo-meter of the guideline for affordable housing is that the cost of housing should notcountry, the dynamics of the be more than 30 percent of amarket are different. households gross income Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 13
  14. 14. AFFORDABLE HOUSING V/S LOW COST HOUSINGLow-cost housing is generally meant for EWS category and comprises bare minimum housingfacilities while affordable housing is mostly meant for LIG and MIG and includes basic amenitieslike schools, hospitals and other community facilities and services. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 14
  15. 15. INDICATIVE SIZE & POTENTIAL IN INDIA Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 15
  16. 16. DEMAND AND SUPPLY CONSTRAINTSThe demand drivers for affordable housing are as below:Urbanization:Rising income levels leading to a sizeable middle class segment: Urbanization is an“index of transformation from traditional rural 1 economies to modern industrial one .”Its a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural-urban migration.This resulted in pressure on urban infrastructure and in an increase in the number ofhomeless people living on the streets.As per the 2001 census the total urban homeless population was 7, 78,599 people,which would be much more currently given the inadequate availability of 2 affordable /low-cost housing . Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 16
  17. 17. THE DEMAND MODEL METHODOLOGY The land market is fundamentally described by household choices of location and lot size. The outcomes, as in all economics, arises from the interaction of demand (of household) and supply (of land parcel). Households are characterized by their income and preferences while land supply is characterized by quantity, location and lot characteristics. Household preferences can be represented by the price each household is willing to pay for each type. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 17
  18. 18. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 18
  19. 19. DEMAND SUPPLY DYNAMICS• Short Supply of residential dwellings• Supply shortfall existing since post independence• In 2005 estimated demand is 209.5 million, supply is 189.7 Million• Demand – Supply gap is narrowing • Low supply of housing for low income earners • As per 11th 5 year plan - Shortage of 24.71 million dwellings - Close to 99 % of shortage in EWS & LIG segment Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 19
  20. 20. BIRTH AND MIGRATIONTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 20
  21. 21. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 21
  22. 22. POPULATION AND HOUSINGPERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF HOUSEHOLDS BY NUMBER OF ROOMSOCCUPIED 1961 – 2001( in million ): No. of Rooms occupied 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 One Room 53.1 50 45.8 39.6 35.1 Two Rooms 24.7 27 27.8 30.4 29.5 Three Rooms 10.3 11.4 12.2 14.8 17.1 Four or more Rooms 11.1 11.4 12.1 14.7 15.9 No Exclusive rooms 0.9 0.2 2.1 0.04 2.3 40 35 % distribution of households 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 One Room Two Rooms Three Four or No Rooms more Exclusive Rooms roomsSource: Census of India 2001Approximate 50 % of the households has two and three bed room dwelling units. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 22
  23. 23. TOTAL HOUSING SHORTAGEIndia Demographics : Housing Shortage Populatio Residents % Per GDP Housing n with Populatio Capita Growth Shortage Buying n under 20 Income Rate Estimate Power 1.065 300 58% $539 8% 22 million billion millionHousing shortage at the beginning of 11th Five 24.71 millionYear Plan (1.4.2007) dwelling unitsAdditional Housing Requirement for the 11th 1.82 million dwellingPlan ( 2007-2012) unitsTotal housing requirement during 11th Plan 26.53 MillionPeriod including the carried over housing shortage dwelling units Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 23
  24. 24. CATEGORY VISE HOUSING SHORTAGEEstimated Urban Housing Unit Shortage as on 1.4.2007:Total : 24.71 m 100.00%EWS : 21.78 m 88.14%LIG : 2.89 m 11.69%MIG & HIG : 0.04 m 0.16%More than 99% shortage is for EWS/LIG segments Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 24
  25. 25. GROWTH OF SLUMS 61. 8 4 6 2 8 Source: Annual Report 2006-07, MoHUPASlum Population as %age of total urban population is given inparenthesis Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 25
  26. 26. The housing requirement for the Rs.3-10 Lakh income group is approx.2.06 million units by 2011,translating to a market size of Rs.3,300billion, or USD 66 billion Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 26
  27. 27. SUGGESTED PARAMETER FOR HOUSING EWS/ LIG MIGSize 300-600 sq ft carpet area Not exceeding 1,200 sq ft carpet areaCost Not exceeding 4 times Not exceeding 5 times household gross annual household gross annual income incomeEMI/Rent Not exceeding 30% of gross Not exceeding 40% of gross monthly income monthly incomeAFFORDABLE HOUSING: THE CONCEPT AND ISSUES Difficult to adopt a ‘one-size-fits-all’ concept Government should undertake a separate exercise to estimate the number of households falling under the ‘affordable housing’ category Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 27
  28. 28. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 28
  29. 29. IDENTIFYING AFFORDABILITYNCR revealed a number of interesting facts during the household survey carriedout in order to ascertain the affordability of the various income groups at citylevel. Table 6 depicts in detail the maximum affordable EMI of households invarious income levels. This EMI has been estimated from the annual income ofhousehold and its spending and saving behaviour. The maximum EMI has beentranslated into affordable house property value based on an assumed interestrate, loan tenure and loan to value ratio. The table also shows the capital valuesthat the households will have to pay keeping in view the preferred house size andthe affordable house property value. An interesting point that was inferred fromthe survey results was that the income groups of Rs.3-5 Lakh and Rs.5-6 Lakhpreferred similar sized units for their housing needs. Both the income categoriesexpressed the area of their residential units in the range of 700-800 sq.ft.However, while this allows the lower income group to purchase a property withan average price of Rs.2300/sq.ft., the same enabled the higher income group ofRs.5-6 lakh to opt for properties in the range of Rs.2900-3650/sq.ft. Meanwhile,NCR, spanning a larger area with vast land parcels available for residentialdevelopment, provides varied location options for the residents of the city tofulfill their housing needs. The category of households with income of Rs.6 lakhand above can afford residential units in select pockets of the newly developedzones in Gurgaon, Noida as well as along NH-2 and NH-24. Though these locationssuit the budget preference of households, they are located about 30 kms from theCBD area of Delhi i.e. Connaught Place. For example residential locations inGurgaon and Noida are atleast 30 kms from the CBD. Residential locations on NH24, Ghaziabad and NH 2, Faridabad, are about 35 kms and 27 kms respectivelyfrom the CBD. Meanwhile, if households, especially those in the income categoryof Rs.3-5 Lakh, are willing to compromise on unit Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 29
  30. 30. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 30
  31. 31. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 31
  32. 32. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 32
  33. 33. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 33
  34. 34. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 34
  35. 35. H;H;H;H Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 35
  36. 36. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 36
  37. 37. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 37
  38. 38. PROVISION AND LOCATION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To facilitate the incorporation of affordable housing in residential and mixed- use developments.• To facilitate the provision of affordable housing in locations with easy access to shops, transport and government and community services.• To ensure appropriate car parking provision for household requirements.• To facilitate the provision of affordable housing through management and ownership considerations.  Diversity of affordable housing The affordable housing development provides: • one, two and/or three- bedroom dwelling types; and/or • apartments;  Car parking Car parking provision is appropriate for site location and household requirements, and is provided on the site.  Location of affordable housing Affordable housing is located close to, or has easy access to, shops, employment, transport and government and community services. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 38
  39. 39. INTEGRATION OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives Integrating affordable housing Affordable housing is integrated into new residential and mixed-use developments, where it is not a stand-alone development on its own site. Suggested responses Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 39
  40. 40. 40 SITE PLANNING OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To ensure site planning and related design responses facilitate good housing outcomes.  Privacy Dwellings are designed to acknowledge the different requirements for privacy and control in the transition: 1) from public spaces; 2) through the privately controlled but publicly visible or semi-private shared space to the dwelling entry; and 3) onto its private open space.  Addressing public space A dwelling adjacent to a street or park addresses them functionally and visually. (On large sites, communal open spaces are the equivalent of a public park.)  Privacy within the development Development does not significantly reduce privacy and daylight to private open spaces.  Legibility of access Access to and sense of entry to a dwelling fronting a street or an internal path network is clear and unambiguous. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 40 Transforming Shelters-A journey of affordable Luxury
  41. 41. 41  External circulation External pathways serving an individual dwelling or multiples of dwellings within a development are designed to suit the needs and volume of intended occupants and users.  Carparking and street presentation The street frontage of the development is not dominated by car parking areas or structures, rubbish bin enclosures and utility structures.  Planting Landscaping forms an integral component of the design of the development.  Territoriality • To aid the control of external spaces by immediately adjacent households, the territorial boundaries of these spaces are clearly delineated. • Access by the general public through the site is prevented, and if this is unachievable, the path should be treated like a public realm area.Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 41
  42. 42. DESIGN OF AFFORDABLE HOUSINGObjectives• To facilitate the provision of comfortable, pleasant, safe, efficient and cost- effective accommodation for the intended occupants of affordable housing.• To facilitate the incorporation of adaptable housing design principles in affordable housing.  All dwelling types are provided with an appropriately located and functional area’s like:  External entry areas  Internal entry areas  Living/dining areas  Kitchens  Bathrooms  Hallways  Bedrooms  Storage Area  Clothes Drying  Stairs and lifts( as per N.B.C.)  Open space  Security  Adaptable housing Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 42
  43. 43. OPEN SPACES WITHIN A PLOTEvery room intended for human habitation shall abut on aninterior or exterior open space or an open VERANDAH open tosuch interior or exterior open space.SKETCH FOR EXAMPLE CONTRARY IMAGE FOUND IN SURVEYFRONT OPEN SPACESFor streets less than 7.5 m in width, the distance of the building(building line) shall beat least 5 m from the centre line of thestreet Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 43
  44. 44. 44 Community open spaces and amenitiesResidential and Commercial ZonesIn any layout or sub-division of land measuring 0.3 hectare ofmore in residential and commercial zones, the community openspaces shall be reserved for recreational purposes which shall asfar as possible be provided in one place or planned out for theuse of the community in clusters or pockets.The community open spaces shall be provided catering to theneeds of area of layout, population for which the layout isplanned and the category of dwelling units. The followingminimum provision shall be made:a) 15 percent of the area of the layout, orb) 0.3 to 0.4’ ha/1 000 persons; for low income housing the openspaces shall be 0.3 ha/1 000 persons.No recreational space shall generally be less than 450 sqmthe building line shall beat least 3 m away from the boundary ofrecreational open space. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 44
  45. 45. MEANS OF ACCESSWidth of Means of AccessThe residential plots shall abuton a public means of accesslike street-oad. Plots which donot abut on a streethoad shallabuthont on a means of access,the width and otherrequirements of which shall beas given in Table 1.In no case, development on plots shall be permitted unless it isaccessible by a public street of width not less than 6 m. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 45
  46. 46. MEANS OF ACCESS-Cntd..In the case of special housing schemes for low income groupand economically weaker section of society developed up to twostoried row /cluster housing scheme, the pedestrian pathwaywidth shall be 3 m subject to provisions of 9.4.l(a). Thepedestrian pathway shall not serve more than 8 plots on eachside of the pathway; the length of the pathway shall be not morethan 50 m.No mention of plotsize….large plotssub-divided andthe norm failsDistance from Electric LinesNo VERANDAH, balcony, or the like shall be allowed to beerected or re-erected or any additions or alterations made to abuilding within the distances quoted below in accordance withthe current Indian Electricity Rules as amended from time-to-time between the building and any overhead electric supplyline: Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 46
  47. 47. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 47
  48. 48. Plot SizeThe minimum plot size with ground coverage not exceeding 75 percent, shall notbe less than 40 sqm in small and medium town and not less than 30 sqm inmetropolitan cities.Plot sizes below 30 sqm but not less than 15 sqm may be permitted in case ofcluster planning, however, in such cases the ground coverage and FSI shall be 100percent and 2 percent respectivelyNOTES1 In exceptional cases in metropolitan cities with population more than 1 millionthe size of plots may be brought down to 25 sqm in cases of low income housingcolonies located in congested areas as decided by the Authority. In mega-cities itmay be further reduced to 15 m2 .In such cases where plot size is below 25 sqm ,only cluster planning or group housing may be adopted.2 A minimum of 25 percent of the plot size shall be left open without adverselyaffecting light and ventilation for habitable spaces and toilet. It shall not be mademandatory to leave set back on any side. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 48
  49. 49. SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS OF CLUSTER PLANNINGVehicular AccessA right of way of at least 6 m width should be provided up to theentrance to the cluster to facilitate emergency vehicle movement up tocluster.DensityCluster planning methodologies result in higher densities with low risestructures. With per dwelling unit covered area of 15 sqm densities of500 dwelling units per hectare (net) shall be permissible. Densitieshigher than this should not allowed.Group ToiletCluster housing for economically weaker section families can havegroup toilets at the rate of one water closet, one bath and a washingplace for three families.Size of RoomHabitable RoomEvery dwelling unit to be provided should have at least two habitablerooms. Even if one room house is provided initially it should be capableof adding a new second room in future. However, in case single roomtenements are required to be provided where future additions are notpossible, the carpet area of multipurpose single room should be at least12.5 m2.Such one room dwelling units with 12.5 m2 carpet area of habitablespace is permitted only in case of on site rehabilitation of slum dwellers.In a house of two rooms, first room shall. not be less than 9.0 m2 withminimum width of 2.5 m and second room shall not be less than 6.5 m2with@ minimum width of 2.1 m provided the total area of both therooms is not less than 15.5 m2. In incremental housing the bigger roomshall always be the first room. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 49
  50. 50. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 50
  51. 51. SALARY CLASS SocialClassification BUSINESS CLASS # Life style Life style BOTH WORKING JOINT FAMILY # Affordability Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 51
  52. 52. Following are the Mixed Land Use Streets in various Zones of Delhi:Zone –F: a) New Delhi South Ext. Part-II (Portion fronting on Ring Road). 1.Kalkaji Main Road (between Block G & H and E &F). LAND USE PLAN; (Source: MAPS OF INDIA) Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 52
  53. 53. HOUSING COMPONENTThe component method of design provides a broad frame work forachieving the described life style objectives Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 53
  54. 54. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 54
  55. 55. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 55
  56. 56. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 56
  57. 57. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 57
  58. 58. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 58
  59. 59. the wheelchair turning radius is to be 1,500 mm (5 ft.) to 2,440mm (8 ft.) with 2,440 mm provided in building common areassuch as lobbies and recreation areas. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 59
  60. 60. Desired outcomes Suggested responsesOne, two and three-bedroom Where a site incorporates dwelling typesdwellings with the following bedroom numbers,One, two and three-bedroom affordable dwelling floor areas should generally conformhousing to the following table:dwelling types provide rooms ofsufficient dimensions to support thesafe, comfortable and convenient use ofand movement around furniture,facilities and fittings needed byhouseholders. Studio apartments generally conform to aStudio apartments minimumStudio apartment rooms provide gross floor area of 30m2.adequate space for the function of The room sizes generally conform to theindividual units including: following table:• sleeping, living, dining and kitchenareas; and• adequate bathroom, laundry andclothes dryingfacilities. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 60
  61. 61. Afordability Survey and AnalysisCateg Samp Income Current Current Affordableory le group status Facilities Wishlist EMI Analysis Two rooms (25 A small <5000 Single single room 4000 Low Income Group sq.yrds) 2BHK unit common separate , of Rented case-1 washrooms washroom approx. 35 1500 PM no privacy Privacy sq.yard, in range of 9-12 lacs 10000- Single 2BHK Family, 2bhk 35000 Rented Good location 7000 small 11000 PM kitchen/laundry case-1 Bigger balcony More natural light A Good 2/3BHK Bigger Middle Class unit , of Bedrooms approx. Good storage 100 Space sq.yard, in 10000- Bigger range of Single 2Bhk 18-25 lacs 35000 bedrooms Bigger living Rented area 7000 PM Good height 10000 case-2 Minimum shafts small kitchen/laundry Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 61
  62. 62. EXERNAL ENVIRONMENTAREA - GOVINDPURI & GOVINDPURI EXTENSIONCASE -1 25%Category - E.W.S. 35% FLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS PECENTAGE (%) 40%GROUND PUBLIC →SEMI PRIVATE→PRIVATE 35→40→25FIRST NO FIRST FLOORCASE -2Category - L.I.G. FLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS PECENTAGE (%) 30%GROUND PUBLIC →SEMI PUBLIC →PRIVATE 30→10→60 60%FIRST & 10→60 10%SECOND SEMI PUBLIC → PRIVATE (SAME PROFILE)TERRCACE SEMI PUBLIC → PRIVATE 35→35CASE -3Category - M.I.G. 30% FLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS PECENTAGE (%)GROUND PUBLIC →SEMI PUBLIC →PRIVATE 30→10→60 60% 10%FIRST & 5→10→60SECOND SEMI PUBLIC→SEMI PRIVATE → PRIVATE (SAME PROFILE)TERRCACE SEMI PUBLIC → PRIVATE 45→25 Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 62
  63. 63. 63AREA -DAYANAND COLONYCASE -1Category - L.I.G. 10% PECENTAGE 10% FLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS (%) 10% 70% PUBLIC →SEMI PUBLIC→SEMI 10→10→10→GROUND PRIVATE→PRIVATE 70FIRST SEMI PUBLIC →PRIVATE 20→80CASE -2Category - M.I.G. PECENTAGE FLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS (%) 10% 10% PUBLIC →SEMI PUBLIC →SEMI 10→10→30→ 50%GROUND PRIVATE→PRIVATE 50 30% 10→50FIRST & (SAMESECOND SEMI PUBLIC → PRIVATE PROFILE) Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 63
  64. 64. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 64
  65. 65. GENERAL PLANNINGTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 65
  66. 66. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 66
  67. 67. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 67
  68. 68. NEIGHBORHOOD ORGANIZATIONTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 68
  69. 69. SPACE RELATIONSHIPTransforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 69
  70. 70. Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 70
  71. 71. Preferred Location w/in Area Neighborhood Affordability KnowledgePayment Preferred about futureMethod Location house Typological Space Preferences Preferences No. of Family Work Sector Members Income level Approach for Knowledge investigating about Family affordable housing No. of Educational Domestic Cars Level Labor (husband/wife) Type and No. Of Neighbourhood Spaces Knowledge Location Advantages/Dis about present house Degree of Ownership Satisfaction Home Type Status Transforming Shelters-A journey towards Affordable Luxury 71
  72. 72. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 72 SHELTERSAREA -DAYANAND COLONYCASE -1Categor 10%y- L.I.G. 10% 10% PECENTAGFLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS E (%) 70% PUBLIC →SEMIGROUN PUBLIC→SEMI 10→10→1D PRIVATE→PRIVATE 0→70FIRST SEMI PUBLIC →PRIVATE 20→80CASE -2Categor 10% 10%y- M.I.G. 50% PECENTAGFLOOR OUTDOOR COMPONENTS E (%) 30%GROUN PUBLIC →SEMI PUBLIC 10→10→3D →SEMI PRIVATE→PRIVATE 0→50FIRST & 10→50SECON (SAMED SEMI PUBLIC → PRIVATE PROFILE)
  73. 73. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 73 SHELTERS Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  74. 74. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 74 SHELTERSConclusionWhile the basic necessities of life – food, clothing, and shelter – areincreasingly becoming a luxury and unaffordable, luxury items such astelevisions, mobile phones, refrigerators, etc. are become affordable! Whilewe are often amazed at the progress our country has made when we see anauto rickshaw driver with a mobile phone, we fail to notice that he is still livingin a slum-like dwelling.It is understandable that economicgrowth leads to rise in income but thishas led to even faster rise in propertyprices leaving it unaffordable for majorityof population. Affordable housing isexpected to have a positive by improvingbasic quality of life. Problems like trafficcongestion, air quality, commute times,etc. can be resolved by providing properhousing facilities to the weaker sectionsof the society. While the concept ofaffordable housing seems to be a simplesolution to current housing woes, itsexecution remains complicated due to theunclear policy framework. To makeaffordable housing work in India, it wouldrequire “will” from all the stakeholders byslightly adjusting their interests towards awider social cause. Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  75. 75. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 75 SHELTERS Intervention usually takes three broad categories • planning regulations, • direct government investments and • fiscal measures of subsidies and taxation Land management improvements Example: Land Readjustment direct public investment Example: land banking Example : Site-and-ServiceLand use planning and Land marketdevelopment AllocationThe project of the poor DemandDevelopment standards Intervention rationaleLand supply Neo liberalismLand value Site and ServiceLand affordability SubdivisionSubdivisionLand policy Poverty alleviationEfficiency and equity Suitability andLand management acceptabilityDirect intervention world Affordability standardsbank subdivisionLearning by doingSite and servicesubdivision Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  76. 76. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005OBJECTIVES: The Housing and Habitat Policy 1998 aims at: 1. Creation of surplus housing stock either on rental or ownership basis . 2. Providing quality and cost effective shelter options, especially to the vulnerable groups and the poor 3. Ensuring that housing, along with the supporting services, is treated as a priority and at par with infrastructure sector. 4. Removing barriers related to legal, financial and administrative for facilitating access to land, finance and technology. 5. Forging strong partnership between private, public and cooperative sectors to enhance the capacity of the construction industry to participate in every sphere of housing and habitat. 6. Using technology for modernizing the housing sector to increase efficiency, productivity, energy efficiency and quality 7. Empowering the Panchayats Raj institutions and village cooperatives to mobilize credit for adding to the housing stock
  77. 77. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE CENTRAL GOVERNMENT WOULD:• Take steps to bring in legal reforms including formulation of effective foreclosure laws.• Devise macro economic policies to enable flow of resources to the housing and infrastructure sector.• Develop a debt market for housing and infrastructure fully integrated with the financial markets in the country.• Set up a national shelter fund to meet the requirement of low cost funds for the housing needs of the poor.• Promote research and development and transfer of technology for construction of houses.
  78. 78. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005 • Evolve parameters for optimal use of available resources to promote development and growth in a sustained manner. • Provide fiscal concessions for housing, infrastructure, innovative and energy saving construction materials and methods and also set up a regulatory mechanism to ensure that the concessions are correctly targeted and utilized. • Develop and enforce appropriate ecological standards to protect the environment and provide a better quality of life in human settlements. • Promote the creation of a secondary mortgage market.
  79. 79. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE STATE GOVERNMENT WOULD:1. Liberalize the legal and regulatory regime to give a boost to housing and supporting infrastructure.2. Promote private sector and cooperatives in undertaking housing construction for all segments in urban and rural areas.3. Undertake appropriate reforms for easy access to land.4. Facilitate training of construction workers by converging other development programs through building centers and other agencies.5. Promote decentralized production and availability of building material.6. Empower the local bodies to discharge their responsibilities in regulatory and development functions.
  80. 80. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES WOULD: 1. Identify specific housing shortages and prepare District Housing Action Plans for rural areas 2. Devise programs to meet housing shortages and augment supply of land for housing, particularly for the vulnerable group. 3. Plan expansion of both urban and rural infrastructure services. 4. Enforce effective regulatory measures for planned development.
  81. 81. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005THE PUBLIC / PRIVATE FINANCECOMPANIES WOULD: 1. Redefine their role and move away from their traditional approach to housing finance. 2. Develop and expand their reach to meet the needs of people. 3. Devise schemes to lend at affordable rates to those who are in dire need of housing finance support. 4. Mobilize resources from provident funds, insurance funds, mutual funds etc. For house building activities. 5. Develop innovative instruments to mobilize domestic savings.
  82. 82. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005HOUSING BOARDS / CORPORATIONS /DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITIES ANDOTHER PUBLIC AGENCIES WOULD:1. Revise their method of working and redefine their role for facilitating land assembly and development of infrastructure.2. Forge partnerships with the private sector and cooperatives for housing construction in an efficient manner.3. Devise flexible schemes to meet the users requirement. THE CORPORATE, PRIVATE AND CO-OPERATIVE SECTORS WOULD:1. Take the lead role in land assembly, construction of houses and development of amenities.2. Forge partnership with state governments and local authorities for construction of houses.3. Collaborate with the state governments to work out schemes for slum reconstruction on cross subsidization basis.
  83. 83. NATIONAL URBAN HOUSING & HABITATPOLICIES 2005RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY TRANSFERORGANIZATIONS WOULD :1. Direct research efforts to locally available raw materials.2. Reduce the use of scarce natural resources and replace them with renewable resources.3. Standardize the new technology for easy adoption by various public and private construction agencies.4. Promote energy efficiency in building materials and construction methods.5. Promote use of renewable energy sources for the housing sector particularly, solar, bio-mass and waste based energy.6. Promote disaster mitigation techniques for new constructions as well as strengthening of existing houses to prevent continuing loss of housing stock and human lives from natural hazards like earthquakes, cyclones and floods.7. Disseminate (spread) information about new technologies and provide training to construction workers in the use of new technologies.
  84. 84. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 84 SHELTERSRole of PPP in Affordable Housing Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  85. 85. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 85 SHELTERS Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  86. 86. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 86 SHELTERS JnNURM at a GlanceNo. of Houses Sanctioned 1.046 millionNo. of Houses under Progress 0.265 millionBudget for 2007-08-Rs.1991 Crores 99.7 %(BSUP+IHSDP) achievedUrban Reforms: Earmarking of 25% of 27 citiesMunicipal Budget as BSUP Fund; Timeline achievedTarget of 27 citiesUrban Reform: Earmarking of 20-25% of 16 citiesdeveloped land for EWS/LIG; Timeline achievedTarget of 16 cities The JNNURM Initiative Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  87. 87. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 87 SHELTERS Inclusive Planning & Architecturei. Minimum 25 Sq mtrs Carpet area under BSUP and Covered area under IHSDP,ii. Minimum provision of Two rooms, Kitchenette, Toilet & Bath,iii. Vector-free housing layout,iv. Provision of Basic Physical Amenities: Water Supply,Drainage, sanitation, Roads/Streets, street Lighting, Solid Waste management & appropriate Green Spaces,v. Provision of Social Infrastructure: Community Centre, Livelihood Centre & Informal Sector Market, andvi. Eco friendly Habitat which promotes Social Cohesiveness. Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  88. 88. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 88 SHELTERSRecommendations• Increase JNNURM funds for affordable housing by 100% – Part of these funds to be used for direct provisioning of housing for urban poor households – Part of the funds to be used as supplements for in-situ development to be routed through NGOs – Need to foster an environment that will make rental housing for EWS/LIG categories a worthwhile investment – Need for upward revision of FAR/FSI which is commensurate with investment in infrastructure – Bring in additional lands into urban usage on a regular basis by – Simplifying processes for land acquisition and conversion of agricultural lands for urban use – Reviewing processes of master planning for making a proper assessment of land requirements and allocation of such lands for different uses – Treat affordable housing as a ‘public purpose’ Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  89. 89. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 89 SHELTERS Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  90. 90. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 90 SHELTERS Various aspects for alternative systems Optimisation of land use Functional design of buildings Optimum use of building materials Rationalisation of specifications New construction materials and techniques Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  91. 91. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 91 SHELTERS Alternative Systems • Foundations • Walls • Roofs / slabs • Door frames and panelsAlternative Systems : Walls• 230 mm thick brick work with FPS bricks (224x114x70mm)in1:6 cement mortar in English / Flemish bonds• 200 mm thick brick work with modular bricks(190x90x90mm) in 1:6 cement mortar• 190 mm thick brick work with FPS bricks in 1:6 cementmortar in CBRI bond• 115 mm thick waffle walls with FPS bricks in 1:4 cementmortar• 230 mm thick brick work with FPS bricks in 1:2:12 cementlime mortar in rat trap/Rowlock bond• 200 mm thick masonry with reconstituted stone blocks in1:6cement mortar• 200 mm thick precast hollow concrete block masonry in1:6cement mortar• Fal-G sand block masonry Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  92. 92. Dissertation-Sem-II, Jamia Milia Islamia- Delhi | TRANSFORMING 92 SHELTERS Guided By: Ar. G.Mitra|Study by: Ar.Pragya Sharma
  93. 93. References References Internet Case Books Studies Inferen cesLibrary references: Net references: Case studies:•National Building Codes •Wikipedia.com •Residences in old•Green Households? Domestic consumers, •Google.co.in Delhienvironment and sustainability •DDA website•Sustainable design practice •W.H.O. living•Modern architecture standards •Other•Gaia House Design contemporary•Works of Laurie baker, Hassan Pathy, houses inCharles chorea and Raj surrounding Reval houses.•Intach librarySYNOPSIS-TRANSFORMING SHELTERS, PAGE NO. 6/6

×