Intro to OB


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Introduction to OB

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Intro to OB

  1. 1. Intro to OBOrganizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals,groups and organizational structure have on behavior within the organization, for thepurpose of applying such knowledge towards improving an organizational effectiveness.Foundation of OB • Individual difference • Whole person • Behavior of individual • Individual has dignity • Organizations are social systems • Mutuality of interest • Holistic organization behavior • Need for management i.e. planning, organizing, leading, controlling.Interdisciplinary influencePsychology: Psychology is broadly speaking concerned with the study of human behaviour, withtraits of the individual and membership of small social groups. The main focus of attention is onthe individual as a whole person. Organisational Behaviour learns a great deal in issues likepersonality, perception, emotions, attitude, learning, values, motivation, and job satisfaction etc.from the field of psychology.Sociology: Sociologists are more concerned with the study of social behaviour, relationshipsamong social groups and societies, and the maintenance of order. The main focus of attention ison the social system. Organisational Behaviour has developed by taking many issues fromsociology. Some of them are: group dynamics, communication, leadership, organisationalstructures, formal and informal organisations, organisational change and development etc.Social Psychology: Social Psychology examines interpersonal behaviour. The socialpsychologists are concerned with intergroup collaboration, group decision making, effect ofchange on individual, individual’s responsiveness to change, and integration of individual needswith group activities.Anthropology: Anthropologists are more concerned with the science of mankind and the studyof human behaviour as a whole. Issues like, individual culture, organisational culture,organisational environment, comparative values, comparative attitudes, cross-cultural analysis,are common to the fields of anthropology and OB. As far as OB is concerned, one of the mainissues demanding attention is the cultural system, the beliefs, customs, ideas and values within agroup or society, and the comparison of behaviour among different cultures. People learn todepend on their culture to give them security and stability, and they can suffer adverse reactionsto unfamiliar environments.Political Science: Political Science as a subject has many ingredients, which directly affecthuman behaviour in organisations since politics dominates every organisation to some extent.Many themes of interest directly related to OB are, power and politics, networking, politicalmanipulation, conflict resolution, coalition, and self-interest enhancement.Economics: Economic environment influences organisational climate. OB has learned a greatdeal from such economic factors as labour market dynamics, cost-benefit analysis, marginalutility analysis, human resource planning, forecasting, and decision making.Engineering: Industrial Engineering area has contributed a great deal in the area of man-machinerelationship through time and motion study, work measurement, work flow analysis, job design,and compensation management. Each of these areas has some impact on OB.Medicines: Medicines is one of the newest fields which is now being related to the field of OB.Issues like work related stress, tension and depression are common to both: the area of medicine,and OB. Pragnya Mishra
  2. 2. Semantics: Semantics helps in the study of communications within the organisation.Misunderstood communication and lack of communication lead to many behaviour relatedproblems in the organisation. Accordingly, adequate and effective communication is veryimportant for organisational effectivenessScope of OB • Individual perspective o Personality o Attitude o Perception o Learning o Motivation o Stress management o Job satisfaction • Interpersonal o Team dynamics o Inter-group conflict o Communication o Leadership • Organizational o Design o Structure o Hierarchy{{Individual behaviour ; Inter-personal behaviour ; Group behaviour and group dynamics ;Organisational issues; Environmental issues.}}Nature of Organisational Behaviour:· Interdisciplinary Approach: Organisational Behaviour integrates knowledge from variousrelevant disciplines. This issue will be clear to you after reading the section on genesis ofOrganisational Behaviour in this unit.· An Applied Science: Organisational Behaviour is oriented towards understanding the forcesthat affect behaviour so that their affects may be predicted and guided towards effectivefunctioning of organisation. This issue will be clearer to you after reading the section on goals ofOrganisational Behaviour in this section.· Behavioural Approach to Management: Organisational Behaviour is directly connectedwith the human side of management, but it is not the whole of management. OrganisationalBehaviour is related with the conceptual and human dimensions of management.· Concern with Environment: Organisational Behaviour is concerned with issues likecompatibility with environment e.g. person-culture fit, cross-cultural management etc.· Scientific Method: Organisational Behaviour follows the scientific method and makes use oflogical theory in its investigation and in answering the research questions. It is empirical,interpretive, critical and creative science.· Contingency Approach: There are very few absolutes in Organisational Behaviour. Theapproach is directed towards developing managerial actions that are most appropriate for aspecific situation.· A Systems Approach: Organisational Behaviour is a systematic vision as it takes intoaccount all the variables affecting organisational functioning.· Value Centred : Organisational Behaviour is a value-centred science. Pragnya Mishra
  3. 3. · Utilizes two Kinds of Logic: It utilizes both objective and subjective logic. Objectivity isconcerned with reaching a fact through empirical analyses. Subjectivity is concerned withdeciding about an issue through intuition, common sense, experiences, gut feeling, metaphors,learning from stories and cases, persuasive literature etc.Importance of OBChallenges and opportunitiesThe following are some of the significant problems:i) Improving People Skillsii) Improving Quality and Productivityiii) Managing Workforce Diversityiv) Responding to Globalizationv) Empowering Peoplevi) Coping with Temporarinessvii) Stimulating Innovation and Changeviii) Emergence of the e-organizationix) Improving Ethical BehaviorAttitudes - DefinitionAttitudes can be defined as an individual’s feelings about or inclinations towards otherpersons, objects, events, or activities. Attitudes encompass such affective feelings as likesand dislikes, and satisfactions and dissatisfactions. - Components o Cognitive (thinking)Cognitive component deals with thinking, evaluation, comparison, rational and logicalissues with respect to the targeted object. This will facilitate to form a strong belief orfurther strengthen the belief system towards various objects. o Affective (feeling)Affective component deals with feelings or emotional issues of the targeted objects. o Conotive (behavior)This refers to intention to behave in a certain way towards someone or something. - Nature of attitudes - How are attitudes formed? o Family members o Reference group o Peer group influence o Socialization and learning process - Social learning o Classical conditioningClassical conditioning is passive. Something happens and we react in a specific way. It iselicited in response to a specific, identifiable event. It is a type of conditioning in whichan individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such aresponse. o Operand / Instrumental conditioning Pragnya Mishra
  4. 4. Operant Conditioning: A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leadsto a reward or prevents a punishment. Operant conditioning argues that behavior is afunction of its consequences. People learn to have to get something they want or to avoidsomething they dont want. o Observational learningLearning from observation and direct experience. Although social-learning theory is anextension of operant conditioning – that is, it assumes that behavior is a function ofconsequences – it also acknowledges the existence of observational learning and theimportance of perception in learning. People respond to how they perceive and defineconsequences, not to the objective consequences themselves. o Social comparison - Attitudes and behaviors o Situational aspects o Attitudinal aspects - Theory of reasoned action - Theory of planned behavior - Locus of controlAn individual’s generalized belief about internal vs external control is called locus ofcontrol. - Cognitive, affective, behavior - ABC modelPurpose: to understand the complexity of an attitude.Components:A: affect -> (measured by – physiological indicators, verbal statements about feelings)B: Behavior intentions (mb – observation behavior, vsa intentions)C: Cognition (mb- attitude scales, vsa belief) - Theory of cognitive dissonanceCognitive dissonance refers to any incompatibility between their behavior and attitudesor incompatibility among a various attitudes. In general, people always prefer aconsistency or equilibrium in their life. Festinger argued that any form of incompatibilitywill lead to a state of discomfort in the minds of people and people will try to attempt toreduce the dissonance and seek a stable state where there is a minimum level ofdissonance. - Formation via direct learning and social learning - Vicarious learning via role models - Process of social learning o Attention o Retention o Reproduction o Motivation - Functions of attitude o Adjustment o Ego defense o Expressive o Knowledge Pragnya Mishra
  5. 5. - Manager’s need to know about attitudes - Types of job related attitudes o Job satisfaction  Locke’s value theory  Consequences  Dimensions • Pay • Work itself • Promotional opportunities • Org policies and procedures • Work environment o Job involvement o Org commitment - What is positive attitude? - Measure attitude o Self report o Indirect tests o Direct observation techniques o Psychological reaction - How to change attitudes o Fill in the information gaps o Resolving discrepancies o Peers impact o Co-opting research - Values and EthicsValues: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence ispersonally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-stateof existence.Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individuals values in terms of theirintensity.Values are important to the study of organizational behavior because they lay thefoundation for the understanding of attitudes and motivation and because they influenceour perceptions. - Characteristics of values o Difference and similarity between values and attitudes - Types of values o Rokeach value survey – distinguished types of values as -  Terminal values  Instrumental valuesTerminal Values: Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like toachieve during his or her lifetime.exA comfortable life (a prosperous life)An exiting life (a stimulating, active life) Pragnya Mishra
  6. 6. A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)A world at peace (free of war and conflict)A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)b) Instrumental Values: Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving onesterminal values.exAmbitious (hardworking, aspiring)Broad-minded (open-minded)Capable (competent, effective)Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)Clean (neat, tidy) - Other category values o Theoretical o Economic o Aesthetic o Social o Political o Religious - Personal values - Intended values - Adopted values - Operative values - EthicsEthics is the study of moral values and moral behavior. Ethical behavior is acting in waysconsistent with one’s personal values and commonly held values of an organization andsociety.Values are systems of beliefs that affect what the individual defines as right, good, fair.Ethics reflects the way the values are acted out. - Behavioral intentional model o Attitudes, values, OB - Building an ethical climate o O’brien -> establish ethics o Personal commitments  Localness  Merit  Openness  Leanness Pragnya Mishra