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  1. 1. NOTES- ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR- MODULE 1 & 2 Complied BY- DR Pradip Kumar Das.Definition of Organizational BehaviorOrganizational Behavior (OB) is a discipline that deals with the study and application ofknowledge about how people as individuals and as groups act within organizations. Fred Luthansdefines OB as "the understanding, prediction and management of human behavior inorganizations." OB seeks to explain the behavior of individuals and their performance at work,both individually and in a group. The nature of social structures or organizations (comprising ofseveral work groups) and organizational design are also dealt in the study of OB. Apart fromthese, it also attempts to explain the processes that contribute to individuals and groups adaptingtheir behavior in response to the changing environmental conditions to achieve organizationalgoals. In this chapter, we will discuss the theoretical framework and would throw meaningfulinsights on individual and group behavior offered by OB which can help managers deal withcomplex situations at the workplace.Challenges and opportunities of OBChallenges and Opportunities for OB Typical employee is getting older More women andminorities in the workplace Global competition is requiring employees to become more flexibleHistorical loyalty-bonds that held many employees to their employers are being severedResponding to Globalization: Responding to Globalization Increased Foreign AssignmentsWorking with People from Different Cultures Coping with Anti-Capitalism Backlash OverseeingMovement of Jobs to Countries with Low-cost LaborManaging Diversity: Managing Diversity Workforce diversity -organizations are becoming amore heterogeneous mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, and sexual orientationDiversity Implications: Diversity Implications Managers have to shift their philosophy fromtreating everyone alike to recognizing differences and responding to those differences in waysthat ensure employee retention and greater productivity.Improving Quality and Productivity : Improving Quality and Productivity Qualitymanagement Process reengineeringQuality Management: Quality Management Intense focus on the customer Concern forcontinual improvement Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does Accuratemeasurement Empowerment of employeesProcess Reengineering: Process Reengineering Evaluating process in terms of contribution togoals Inefficient processes thrown out and new systems introduced Redefines jobs and requiresmost employees to undergo training.
  2. 2. Subject Matter of Organizational BehaviorEvery organization have their own objectives to achieve the ultimate target. To achieve thoseobjectives the management should operate their employees in a proper way. In this lesson wewill try to understand what is organizational behavior means and what are the main goals oforganizational behavior.Definition of Organizational BehaviorKeith Davis defined “Organizational Behavior is the study and application of knowledge abouthow people as individual or as groups act within organizations.”Again it can be said that OB is like a tool, by which the mgt. teams are understood or justifiedthe nature of employees and take an appropriate decision to lead the organization purport.At last we can say that OB is valuable for examining the dynamics of relationships with thesmall groups, both formal teams and informal groups.Goals of Organizational BehaviorThere are some goals of organizational behavior which are as follows:Describe: The first goal is to describe, systematically how people behave under a variety ofconditions. Achieving this goal allows managers to communicate about human behavior at workusing a common language.Understand: A second goal is to understand any people behave as they do. The managers wouldbe frustrated if they could talk about behavior of their employees, but not understand the reasonsbehind those actions.Predict: The managers would have capacity to predict which employees might be dedicated andproductive or which ones might have absent, cause problem. And thus the managers could takepreventive actions.Control: The final goal of OB is to control and develop some human activity at work. Sincemanagers are held responsible for performance outcome, they are vitally interested in being ableto make an impact on employee behavior, skill development, team effort, and productivity.Managers need to be able to improve results through the actions they and their employees take,and organizational behavior can aid them in their pursuit of this goal.Forces or Elements of Organizational BehaviorOrganizations operate their functional activities by some elements, which affect organizations.
  3. 3. People: People make up the internal social system in the organization. They consist ofindividuals and groups. Groups may be large or small, formal and informal, official or unofficial.Human organization changes every day. People are living, thinking and feeling beings thatcreated the organization and try to achieve the objectives and goals.Structure: Structure defines the formal relationship and use of people in the organization.Different people in an organization are given different roles and they have certain relationshipwith others. Those people have to be related in some structural way so that their work can beeffectively coordinated.Technology: The technology imparts the physical and economic conditions within which peoplework. With their bear hands people can do nothing. So they are given assistance of building,machines, tools, processes and resources. The nature of technology depends very much on thenature of the organization, influences the work or working conditions.Social System: Social system provide external environment within which organization operates.A single organization can not exist alone. It is a part of the whole. A single organization can notgive everything and therefore there are many other organizations. All these organizationsinfluence each other.Fundamental Concepts of Organizational BehaviorIn every field of social science, or even physical science, has a philosophical foundation of basicconcepts that guide its development. There are some certain philosophical concepts inorganizational behavior also. The concepts are-Individual differences: Every individual in the world is different from others. This idea issupported by science. Each person is different from all others, probably in million ways, just aseach persons DNA profile is different.The idea of individual difference comes originally from psychology. From the day of birth, eachperson is unique, and individual experiences after birth tend to make people even more different.Perception: Peoples perceptions are also differ when they see an object. Two people candifferently present a same object. And this is occurring for their experiences. A person alwaysorganizes and interprets what he sees according to his lifetime of experience and accumulatedvalue.Employees also see work differently for differ in their personalities, needs, demographicsfactors, past experiences and social surrounding.A whole person: An employee’s personal life is not detached from his working life. As anexample, A women who attend the office at 8:30 AM is always anxious for her children’s schooltime (if her children able to attend the school or not). As a result, its impact falls on her
  4. 4. concentration that means her working life. For this reason, we cannot separate it. So managershould treat an employee as a whole person.Motivated behavior: An employee has so many needs inside him. So, they want to fulfill thoseneeds. That’s why; they had to perform well in the organization. Some motivations are needed toenrich the quality of work. A path toward increased need fulfillment is the better way of enrichesthe quality of work.Desire for involvement: Every employee is actively seeking opportunities at work to involve indecision-making problems. They hunger for the chance to share what they know and to learnfrom the experience. So, organization should provide them a chance to express their opinions,ideas and suggestion for decision-making problem. A meaningful involvement can bring mutualbenefit for both parties.Value of the person: An employee wants to be treated separately from other factor ofproduction (land, capital, labor). They refuse to accept the old idea that they are simply treated aseconomic tools because they are best creation of almighty Allah. For this reason, they want to betreated with carrying respect, dignity and other things from their employers and society.The nature of organization :There are two assumptions as to nature of organization.Social Systems: Organizations are social systems and governed by social and psychologicallaws. They have social roles and status. Their behavior influenced by their group’s individualdrives. Organization environment in a social system is dynamic. All parts of the system areinterdependent.Mutual interest:In order to develop the organization behavior mutually of interest organizations and people isnecessary. Organizations need people and people in tern need organizations. People satisfy theirneeds through organization and organization accomplish their goal through people.Ethics: In order to attract and retain valuable employees in an era in which good workers areconstantly required away, ethical treatment is necessary. To succeed, organization must treatemployees in an ethical fashion. Every Company is required to establish codes of ethics,publicized statements of ethical values, provided ethics training, rewarded employees for notableethical behavior, publicized positive role models, and set up internal procedures to handlemisconduct.Models of Organizational BehaviorAutocratic Model :The autocratic model depends on power. Those who are in command musthave the power to demand “you do this-or else,” meaning that an employee who does not followorders will be penalized.
  5. 5. In an autocratic environment the managerial orientation is formal, official authority. Thisauthority is delegated by right of command over the people to it applies.Under autocratic environment the employee is obedience to a boss, not respect for a manager.The psychological result for employees is dependence on their boss, whose power to hire, fire,and “perspire” them is almost absolute.The boss pays minimum wages because minimum performance is given by employees. They arewilling to give minimum performance-though sometimes reluctantly-because they must satisfysubsistence needs for themselves and their families. Some employees give higher performancebecause of internal achievement drives, because they personally like their boss, because the bossis “a natural-born leader,” or because of some other factor; but most of them give only minimumperformance.The Custodial Model :A successful custodial approach depends on economic resources.The resulting managerial orientation is toward money to pay wages and benefits.Since employees’ physical needs are already reasonably met, the employer looks to securityneeds as a motivating force. If an organization does not have the wealth to provide pensions andpay other benefits, it cannot follow a custodial approach.The custodial approach leads to employee dependence on the organization. Rather than beingdependence on their boss for their weekly bread, employees now depend on organizations fortheir security and welfare.Employees working in a custodial environment become psychologically preoccupied with theireconomic rewards and benefits.As a result of their treatment, they are well maintained and contended. However, contentmentdoes not necessarily produce strong motivation; it may produce only passive cooperation. Theresult tends to be those employees do not perform much more effectively than under the oldautocratic approach.The Supportive Model :The supportive model depends on leadership instead of power ormoney. Through leadership, management provides a climate to help employees grow andaccomplish in the interests of the organization the things of which they are capable.The leader assumes that workers are not by nature passive and resistant to organizational needs,but that they are made so by an inadequately supportive climate at work. They will takeresponsibility, develop a drive to contribute, and improve themselves if management will givethem a chance. Management orientation, therefore, is to support the employee’s job performancerather than to simply support employee benefit payments as in the custodial approach.
  6. 6. Since management supports employees in their work, the psychological result is a feeling ofparticipation and task involvement in the organization. Employee may say “we” instead of“they” when referring to their organization.Employees are more strongly motivated than by earlier models because of their status andrecognition needs are better met. Thus they have awakened drives for work.The Collegial Model :A useful extension of the supportive model is the collegial model. Theterm “collegial” relates to a body of people working together cooperatively.The collegial model depends on management’s building a feeling of partnership with employees.The result is that employees feel needed and useful. They feel that managers are contributingalso, so it is easy to accept and respect their roles in their organization. Managers are seen asjoint contributors rather than as bosses.The managerial orientation is toward teamwork. Management is the coach that builds a betterteamThe employee’s response to this situation is responsibility. For example employees producequality work not because management tells them to do so or because the inspector will catchthem if they do not, but because they feel inside themselves an obligation to provide others withhigh quality. They also feel an obligation to uphold quality standards that will bring credit totheir jobs and company.The psychological result of the collegial approach for the employee is self-discipline. Feelingresponsible, employees discipline themselves for performance on the team in the same way thatthe members of a football team discipline themselves to training standards and the rules of thegame.In this kind of environment employees normally feel some degree of fulfillment, worthwhilecontribution, and self-actualization, even though the amount may be modest in some situation.This self-actualization will lead to moderate enthusiasm in performance.The System Model :An emerging model of organization behavior is the system model. It is theresult of a strong search for higher meaning at work by many of today’s employees; they wantmore than just a paycheck and job security from their jobs. Since they are being asked to spendmany hours of their day at work, they want a work context there that is ethical, infused withintegrity and trust, and provides an opportunity to experience a growing sense of communityamong coworkers.To accomplish this, managers must increasingly demonstrate a sense of caring and compassion,being sensitive to the needs of a diverse workforce with rapidly changing needs and complexpersonal and family needs.
  7. 7. In response, many employees embrace the goal of organizational effectiveness, and reorganizethe mutuality of company-employee obligations in a system viewpoint. They experience a senseof psychological ownership for the organization and its product and services.They go beyond the self-discipline of the collegial approach until they reach a state of self-motivation, in which they take responsibility for their own goals and actions.As a result, the employee needs that are met are wide-ranging but often include the highest-orderneeds (e.g., social, status, esteem, autonomy, and self actualization).Because it provides employees an opportunity to meet these needs through their work as theirwork as well as understand the organization’s perspectives, this new model can engenderemployees’ passion and commitment to organizational goals. They are inspired; they feelimportant; they believe in the usefulness and viability of their system for the common goodHAWTHRONE STUDIESThe Hawthorne effect is a form of reactivity whereby subjects improve or modify an aspect oftheir behavior being experimentally measured simply in response to the fact that they are beingstudied, not in response to any particular experimental manipulation.The term was coined in 1950 by Henry A. Landsberger when analyzing older experiments from1924-1932 at the Hawthorne Works (a Western Electric factory outside Chicago). HawthorneWorks had commissioned a study to see if its workers would become more productive in higheror lower levels of light. The workers productivity seemed to improve when changes were madeand slumped when the study was concluded. It was suggested that the productivity gain was dueto the motivational effect of the interest being shown in them. Although illumination research ofworkplace lighting formed the basis of the Hawthorne effect, other changes such as maintainingclean work stations, clearing floors of obstacles, and even relocating workstations resulted inincreased productivity for short periods. Thus the term is used to identify any type of short-livedincrease in productivity.History:The term gets its name from a factory called the Hawthorne Works,[6] where a series ofexperiments on factory workers was carried out between 1924 and 1932.This effect was observed for minute increases in illumination.Evaluation of the Hawthorne effect continues in the present day. Most industrial/occupational psychology and organizational behavior textbooks refer to theillumination studies. Only occasionally are the rest of the studies mentioned.[10] In the lightingstudies, light intensity was altered to examine its effect on worker productivity.Relay assembly experiments:In one of the studies, experimenters chose two women as testsubjects and asked them to choose four other workers to join the test group. Together the women
  8. 8. worked in a separate room over the course of five years (1927–1932) assembling telephonerelays.Output was measured mechanically by counting how many finished relays each dropped down achute. This measuring began in secret two weeks before moving the women to an experimentroom and continued throughout the study. In the experiment room, they had a supervisor whodiscussed changes with them and at times used their suggestions. Then the researchers spent fiveyears measuring how different variables impacted the groups and individuals productivity.Some of the variables were: • Giving two 5-minute breaks (after a discussion with them on the best length of time), and then changing to two 10-minute breaks (not their preference). Productivity increased, but when they received six 5-minute rests, they disliked it and reduced output. • providing food during the breaks • Shortening the day by 30 minutes (output went up); shortening it more (output per hour went up, but overall output decreased); returning to the first condition (where output peaked).Changing a variable usually increased productivity, even if the variable was just a change back tothe original condition. However it is said that this is the natural process of the human being toadapt to the environment without knowing the objective of the experiment occurring.Researchers concluded that the workers worked harder because they thought that they werebeing monitored individually.Researchers hypothesized that choosing ones own coworkers, working as a group, being treatedas special (as evidenced by working in a separate room), and having a sympathetic supervisorwere the real reasons for the productivity increase. One interpretation, mainly due to EltonMayo, was that "the six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly andspontaneously to cooperation in the experiment." (There was a second relay assembly test roomstudy whose results were not as significant as the first experiment.)Bank wiring room experiments:The purpose of the next study was to find out how paymentincentives would affect productivity. The surprising result was that productivity actuallydecreased. Workers apparently had become suspicious that their productivity may have beenboosted to justify firing some of the workers later on. The study was conducted by Mayo and W.Lloyd Warner between 1931 and 1932 on a group of fourteen men who put together telephoneswitching equipment. The researchers found that although the workers were paid according toindividual productivity, productivity decreased because the men were afraid that the companywould lower the base rate. Detailed observation between the men revealed the existence ofinformal groups or "cliques" within the formal groups. These cliques developed informal rules ofbehavior as well as mechanisms to enforce them. The cliques served to control group membersand to manage bosses; when bosses asked questions, clique members gave the same responses,even if they were untrue. These results show that workers were more responsive to the socialforce of their peer groups than to the control and incentives of management.
  9. 9. Interpretation and criticism:H. McIlvaine Parsons (1974) argues that in the studies wheresubjects received feedback on their work rates, the results should be considered biased by thefeedback compared to the manipulation studies. He also argues that the rest periods involvedpossible learning effects, and the fear that the workers had about the intent of the studies mayhave biased the results.Parsons defines the Hawthorne effect as "the confounding that occurs if experimenters fail torealise how the consequences of subjects performance affect what subjects do" [i.e. learningeffects, both permanent skill improvement and feedback-enabled adjustments to suit currentgoals]. His key argument is that in the studies where workers dropped their finished goods downchutes, the "girls" had access to the counters of their work rate.It is possible that the illumination experiments were explained by a longitudinal learning effect.It is notable however that Parsons refuses to analyse the illumination experiments, on thegrounds that they have not been properly published and so he cannot get at details, whereas hehad extensive personal communication with Roethlisberger and Dickson.But Mayo says it is to do with the fact that the workers felt better in the situation, because of thesympathy and interest of the observers. He does say that this experiment is about testing overalleffect, not testing factors separately. He also discusses it not really as an experimenter effect butas a management effect: how management can make workers perform differently because theyfeel differently. A lot to do with feeling free, not feeling supervised but more in control as agroup. The experimental manipulations were important in convincing the workers to feel thisway: that conditions were really different. The experiment was repeated with similar effects onmica splitting workers.Richard E. Clark and Timothy F. Sugrue (1991, p. 333) in a review of educational research saythat uncontrolled novelty effects cause on average 30% of a standard deviation (SD) rise (i.e.50%-63% score rise), which decays to small level after 8 weeks. In more detail: 50% of a SD forup to 4 weeks; 30% of SD for 5–8 weeks; and 20% of SD for > 8 weeks, (which is < 1% of thevariance).A psychology professor at the University of Michigan, Dr. Richard Nisbett, calls the Hawthorneeffect a glorified anecdote. Once you have got the anecdote, he said, you can throw away thedata."Harry Braverman points out in Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in theTwentieth Century that the Hawthorne tests were based on industrial psychology and wereinvestigating whether workers performance could be predicted by pre-hire testing. TheHawthorne study showed "that the performance of workers had little relation to ability and infact often bore an inverse relation to test scores...” Braverman argues that the studies reallyshowed that the workplace was not "a system of bureaucratic formal organisation on theWeberian model, nor a system of informal group relations, as in the interpretation of Mayo andhis followers but rather a system of power, of class antagonisms". This discovery was a blow tothose hoping to apply the behavioral sciences to manipulate workers in the interest ofmanagement.
  10. 10. The Hawthorne effect has been well established in the empirical literature beyond the originalstudies. The output ("dependent") variables were human work, and the educational effects can beexpected to be similar (but it is not so obvious that medical effects would be). The experimentsstand as a warning about simple experiments on human participants viewed as if they were onlymaterial systems. There is less certainty about the nature of the surprise factor, other than itcertainly depended on the mental states of the participants: their knowledge, beliefs, etc.Research on the demand effect also suggests that people might take on pleasing the experimenteras a goal, at least if it does not conflict with any other motive, but also, improving theirperformance by improving their skill will be dependent on getting feedback on theirperformance, and an experiment may give them this for the first time. So you often will not seeany Hawthorne effect—only when it turns out that with the attention came either usable feedbackor a change in motivation.Adair (1984): warns of gross factual inaccuracy in most secondary publications on Hawthorneeffect and that many studies failed to find it. He argues that it should be viewed as a variant ofOrnes (1973) experimental demand effect. So for Adair, the issue is that an experimental effectdepends on the participants interpretation of the situation; that this is why manipulation checksare important in social sciences experiments. So he thinks it is not awareness per se, or specialattention per se, but participants interpretation must be investigated in order to discover if/howthe experimental conditions interact with the participants goals. This can affect whetherparticipants believe something, if they act on it or do not see it as in their interest, etc.Rosenthal and Jacobson (1992) ch.11 also reviews and discusses the Hawthorne effect. In a 2011paper, economists Steven Levitt and John A. List claim that in the illumination experiments thevariance in productivity is partly accounted for by other factors such as the weekly cycle of workor the seasonal temperature, and so the original conclusions were overstated.[ If so, this confirmsthe analysis of SRG Joness 1992 article examining the relay experiments MODULE 2Foundations of Individual Behaviour: Age :Effect of age on turnover: - older you get, less likely to quitReasons: fewer job opportunities, higher benefitsEffect of age on absenteeism: older employees, lower rates on unavoidable absenceEffect of age on productivity: unrelatedReason: some decay due to age, offset by gains due to experienceEffect of age on satisfaction: tends to increase among professionals, tends to decrease amongnonprofessionals during middle age and rises in later years
  11. 11. Gender :No consistent male-female differences in problem- solving ability, analytical skills,competitive drive, motivation, sociability, or learning abilityWomen are more willing to conform to authorityMen are more aggressive and more likely to have expectations of successWomen with pre-school children prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules, andtelecommuting to accommodate family responsibilitiesIssue on absenteeism, no significant differenceTenure • - Most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job productivity. • - tenure (work experience) appears to be a good predictor of employee productivity • - In terms of both frequencies of absence and total days lost at work, tenure is the single most important explanatory variable. • - potent (strong) variable in explaining turnover • - longer a person in a job, less likely to quit • - past behavior is the best predictor of future behavior • - tenure and job satisfaction are positively related • - stable predictor of job satisfaction than chronological age ABILITY :- Refers to an individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job.- Types of ability • Intellectual abilities – the capacity to do mental activities - thinking, reasoning, and problem solving. • Physical abilities – the capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics.s Dimensions of Intellectual Ability Salesperson : remembering the names of customersAbility to retain and recall past experiences Memory Interior decorator : redecorating an officeAbility to imagine how an object would look if its position is space were changed Spatialvisualization Supervisor : choosing between two different suggestions offered by employees
  12. 12. Ability to use logic and assess the implications of an argument Deductive reasoning Marketresearcher : forecasting demand for a product in the next time period Ability to identify a logicalsequence in a problem and then solve the problem Inductive reasoning Fire investigator :identifying clues to support a charge of arson Ability to identify visual similarities anddifferences quickly and accurately Perceptual speed Plant manager : following corporate policieson hiring Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each otherVerbal comprehension Accountant : computing the sales tax on a set of items Ability to dospeedy and accurate arithmetic Number aptitude Job Example Description Dimension .Ability to continue maximum effort requiring prolonged effort over time. Stamina Ability tomaintain equilibrium despite forces pulling off balanceBalance Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the bodyBody coordination Other Factors Ability to make rapid, repeated flexing movementsDynamic flexibility Ability to move the trunk and back muscles as far as possibleExtent flexibility- Flexibility Factors Ability to expend a maximum of energy in one or a seriesof explosive acts 4. Explosive strength Ability to exert force against external objectsStatic strength Ability to exert muscle strength using the trunk (particularly abdominal) musclesTrunk strength Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over timeDynamic strength- Strength Factors Nine Basic Physical AbilitiesThe ability-job fit • jobs make differing demands on people and that people differ in their abilities • employee performance in enhanced when there is high ability-job fit • poor ability-job fit, employees will likely to failThere are many different definitions (e.g., Allport; Fishbein & Ajzen).Examples:"Attitudes are associations between attitude objects (virtually any aspect of the social world) andevaluations of those objects""Attitudes are lasting evaluations of various aspects of the social world--evaluations that arestored in memory""An attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness organised through experience exerting adirective or dynamic influence upon the individuals response to all objects and situations withwhich it is related.""A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently favourable or unfavourable manner withrespect to a given object."
  13. 13. Meaning of Cognitive dissonance- Cognitive dissonance is the feeling of discomfort that ariseswhen a persons behavior clashes with the persons beliefs or when a persons beliefs areinconsistent. First developed by Leon Festinger in 1957, the concept of cognitive dissonanceexplains why people behave as they do in the face of contradictory beliefs and/or behavior.According to cognitive dissonance theory, people seek to ease or eradicate the discomfort ofinconsistent beliefs and/or behavior by changing their beliefs, changing their behavior, orrationalizing to explain the inconsistency. For example, someone who believes that eating meatis wrong but occasionally eats chicken might come to reject the belief that eating meat is wrong,rationalize that eating meat is sometimes okay, or stop eating chicken.Employee Attitude and Their Effects: E Attitude can be characterized in three ways: • First, they tend to persist unless something is done to change them. • Second, attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum from very favorable to very unfavorable. • Third, attitudes are directed toward some object about which a person has feelings( sometimes called “affect”) and beliefs.Three Components of Attitude : Attitudes Evaluative statements or judgments concerningobjects, people, or events.1. Cognitive Component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective ComponentThe emotional or feeling segment of an attitude . Behavioral Component An intention tobehave in a certain way toward someone or something . Evaluation Feelings Actionbme. My supervisor is unfair. Affective = feeling I dislike my supervisor! Behavioral = action I’mlooking for other work; I’ve complained about my supervisor to anyone who would listen.Negative attitude toward supervisor ATTITUDESN Functions of Attitude (According to Katz) 1. The Adjustment Function . Attitudes often helppeople to adjust to their work environment. 2. Ego-Defensive Function . Attitudes help people toretain their dignity and self- image. 3. The Value-Expressive Function . Attitudes provideindividuals with a basis for expressing their values. 4. The Knowledge Function . Attitudesprovide standards and frames of reference that allow people to understand and perceive the worldaround him.a Changing Attitudes : Employees’ attitudes can be changed and sometimes it is in the bestinterests of managements to try to do so. For example, if employees believe that their employerdoes not look after their welfare, the management should try to change their attitude and helpdevelop a more positive attitude in them. However, the process of changing the attitude is notalways easy.a Changing Attitudes Some of the possible ways of changing attitudes : • Providing New Information. • Use of Fear
  14. 14. • Resolving Discrepancies • Influence of friends and peer • Co-optingC Important Attitudes Related to Organizations • Job Satisfaction o - Is a set of favorable or unfavorable feelings and emotions with which employees view their work. • Job Involvement  - The degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth. • Organizational Commitment • - The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organizationa Job Satisfaction • A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job  A high level of job satisfaction equals positive attitudes toward the job and vice versa.  Employee attitudes and job satisfaction are frequently used interchangeably.  Often when people speak of “employee attitudes” they mean “employee job satisfaction.”j A pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job or job experiences(Locke, 1976). • An employee’s cognitive and affective evaluation of his or her jobJob SatisfactionJ JOB SATISFACTION Specific Components Satisfaction with Pay Satisfaction withPromotion Satisfaction with Work Satisfaction with Supervision Satisfaction with Co-workersOrganizational CommitmentO How Are Employee Attitudes Measured?
  15. 15. The most popular method for getting information about employee attitudes is through attitudesurveys. Using attitude surveys on a regular basis provides managers with valuable feedback onhow employees perceive their working conditions. Managers present the employee with setstatements or questions to obtain specific information. Individual Responses are then combinedand analyzeda Causes of Job Satisfaction  Most people prefer work that is challenging and stimulating.  Jobs with good compensation have average job satisfaction levels. Money may be a motivator, but may not stimulate job satisfaction.  There is a link between a person’s personality and job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs.N The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance • Satisfaction and Productivity o Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied o Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.Satisfaction and Absenteeism :Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.Satisfaction and Turnover:Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers.Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction :Satisfied workers provide better customer service.S Job satisfaction & organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) o Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: They are more friendly, upbeat, andresponsive.They are less likely to turnover, which helps build long-term customer relationships.
  16. 16. “ Pleasure in the Job puts perfection in the work” - Aristotle “ The best way to appreciateyour job is to imagine yourself without one.” - Oscar Wilde&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&