WHAT IS A GENE ?A Gene is a fundamental, physical andfunctional unit of heredity.It is responsible for the physical andinheritable characteristics of anorganism.
Genetic Engineering ismanipulation/alteration of structure of a geneto create a desiredcharacteristic in anorganism.
If genetic material from another species is added tothe host, the resulting organism is calledtransgenic.Genetic engineering can also be used to removegenetic material from the target organism, creatinga knock out organism.
The term “Genetic Engineering" was first coined by JackWilliamson in his science fiction novel.James Watson and Francis Crick showed that the DNA moleculehas a double-helix structure.In 1972, Paul berg created the first recombinant DNA moleculesby combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40 with that of thelambda virus.
In 1973 Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen created the first transgenic organism by inserting antibiotic resistance genes into the plasmid of anE.coli bacterium. The first trials of genetically engineered plants occurred in France and the USA in 1986, tobacco plants were engineered to be resistant to herbicides.
The Flavr Savr tomato was a tomatoengineered to have a longer shelflife.In 1995, Bt Potato was approved safeby the Environmental ProtectionAgency.
Bt-Cotton is a genetically modified cotton which is resistant to pests. Golden Rice genetically modified to containbeta-carotene(a source of Vitamin A).
Transgenic fruit obtainedfrom pear and apple. A Blue Rose is a genetically modified Rose.
It’s a miracle of geneticengineering.You can see through theskin how organs grow, howcancer starts anddevelops without dissectingthe Frog.
The GloFish was the firstgenetically modified animal tobecome available as a pet. It is anatural Zebrafish which hasgenetic information frombioluminescent jellyfish added toits DNA.
Using Modern DNA andcross fertilizationtechniques; the Dolion ia cross between a lionand a dog.
Dolly the sheep is the world’smost famous clone.Dolly was born 5 July 1996to three mothers (oneprovided the egg, another theDNA and a third carried thecloned embryo to term).
The Zorse is a crossbetween a zebra and adomestic horse.The crosses were originallydone in England and Africato try to produce a domestichorse like animal that wasresistant to diseases spreadby a fly in Africa.
Isolating a gene to be insertedInserting the gene in a Vector(Agent used to carry foreign gene)Inserting Vector into the host.Multiplication of host cells by cloning.Extraction of desired product.
Vaccination generally involves injectingweak live, killed or inactivated forms ofviruses or their toxins into the person beingimmunized.Gene therapy is the genetic engineering ofhumans by replacing defective human geneswith functional copies.
Agriculture: .Benefits of genetically modified plants:1. Improved nutritional quality.2. Better Nitrogen Fixation.3. Disease resistant Plant.4. Enhanced efficiency of minerals used by plants to prevent early exhaustion offertility of soil.5. Reduced post harvest losses.