Sociology of food: Food models between bio-diversity and ethno-diversity
Taylor’s University 7 september 2011, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Bio-diversity, ethno-diversity and food cultures How to face the world food challenge Jean-Pierre Poulain sociologue et anthropologue, Professeur à l’Université de Toulouse 2, CERTOP UMR-CNRS 5044 Master Sciences sociales appliquées à l’alimentation
Seminary content The awakening of diversity The biodiversity The Ethno-diversity The diversity as a patrimony/heritage Feeding humankind: the world food challenge Thomas Malthus theory Demographical transition and population health Back on Malthus traces The food models: Central resources of ethno-diversity: Social food space/ environment Sustainable development The role of cultural diversity in sustainability 2
The emergence of ecological thoughts Revealing/Highlighting the notion of « eco-systems » and « world system » Interdependence of vegetal and animal species and their contribution toward the cycle of life The biodiversity is seen as a human heritage 3
Consequences “Sanctuarization” of certain locations and certain species Natural parks, African animal reserves, (example of Malaysia- Sipadan and Sempurna national park) Designation of protected species ( Wales, tuna, sharks, Elephants, Wolfs) Apparition of wild life protection associations (WWF) Development of Eco-tourism 4
The drivers of this awakening The oil crisis and the warnings thrown by the forecasters (club of Rome 1972) The duality of the modern man over nature The emergence of a “world system” Internationalization (mondialization) and Globalization 5
Rio Earth Summit This conference ended with: The creation of the action plan for the XXI ST century (Agenda 21), The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) The convention on bio-diversity and The convention to combat desertification 6
The integration of cultural diversity The consideration of societies behaviours as a component of biodiversity. It is the concept of Ethno-diversity and the consideration of local knowledge, as stated in the article 8 of the biological diversity convention signed in Rio in 1992. 7
The ethno-diversity The cultural differences are based on the framework of bio-diversity. They represent as many witness of the diversity and wealth of humanity 8
Various conceptions of Ethno- diversity For the first conception: it is the most astonishing expression of humankind and therefore an element of a living heritage, as much as bio-diversity. For the second: it is in line with the cultural ecology perspective, it is the result of a co-evolution between societies and their environments. It shows some original adaptations that represent the « print/impact » of the past and present bio-diversity of the planet on the human species.(J. Steward, 1955). Finally, for the last conception, more “utilitarianism” it is the local usages that have allowed the biodiversity to be what it is today. Hence, describing and preserving those knowledge and local practices is the best mean to protect the biodiversity itself. (Roussel, 2003 ; Chouvin et al, 2004). 9
Consequences of ethno-diversity Broadening of the notion of heritage The cultural differences are brought to the rank of heritage They are no more considered as weirdness due to the arbitrary power of cultures, but the sign of the originality of the links between one human group and its natural environment. Therefore, those heritages need to be protected We move from biological interdependence to cultural interdependence 10
The Slow Movement began with a protest against the opening of a McDonalds restaurant in Piazza di Spagna, in Rome (Italia). Slow Food is a non-profit, eco-gastronomic member-supported organization that was founded in 1989 to counteract fast food and fast life, the disappearance of local food traditions and people’s dwindling interest in the food they eat, where it comes from, how it tastes and how our food choices affect the rest of the world. To do that, Slow Food brings together pleasure and responsibility, and makes them inseparable. Today, it have over 100,000 members in 132 countries Carlo Petrini Founder and President of the Slow Food movement
Slow Food is a non-profit, eco-gastronomic member-supported organization that was founded in 1989 tocounteract fast food and fast life, the disappearance oflocal food traditions and people’s dwindling interest inthe food they eat, where it comes from, how it tastesand how our food choices affect the rest of the world.To do that, Slow Food brings together pleasure andresponsibility, and makes them inseparable.Today, we have over 100,000 members in 132 countries.
GOOD• It tastes good and gives us pleasure to eat it
CLEAN• The way it’s produced respects the environment, animal welfare and our health
FAIR• Those who produce it should receive compensation and recognition for their work
Seminary content The awakening of diversity The biodiversity The Ethno-diversity The diversity as a patrimony Feeding humankind: the world food challenge Thomas Malthus theory Demographical transition and population health Back on Malthus traces The food models: Central resources of ethno-diversity: Social food space/ environment Sustainable development The role of cultural diversity in sustainability 16
Feeding humanity:a recurrent question Anton Zischka, Bread for 2 billions humans, 1942. Josué de Castro, Geography of hunger FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) Joseph Klatzman, Feeding humankind, 1991 2008, Hunger riots 2011, Starvation in the horn of Africa 22
Frank Notestein at theRockefeller foundation Conceived by Frank Notestein 1945. Model of population change based upon effects of economic development and based on the experience of the Western world. It was used for decades as a model to predict what should/would happen to developing countries eventually. All countries are supposed to pass through four or five stages to reach the state of maturity.
Alimentation role in the epidemiological transition Steps Mortality causes Life expectancy Alimentation role Social differentiation and death rate processThe epidemic Infectious diseases +- 40 years old Rare and uncertain food The abundance and the Deficiency High infant mortality Strong ecological outsourcing as a social and famine Parasitic diseases High mortality dependence distinction process period A Transition Parasitic, deficiency and Life expectancy gains Food availability Taste esthetization phase infectious diseases - 60 years old increase Big as a social position sign regression, Infant mortality fall Scheduled redistribution B Degenerative diseases appearance Setting up Infectious mortality Life expectancy Food abundance Leanness appearance as a C Quasi-disappearance extension +70 years old distinction sign Mortality degenerative setting upDegenerative Chronicle diseases Life expectancy Food overabundance Diffusion of slimness esthetic Settling between 45 and progression increase Diffusion on nutritional model diseases 54 years old and knowledge Slimness = healthmanagement Regression between 55 and 75 years oldSociopathies Suicides and violent death Life expectancy Food overabundance Slimness model Growth, AIDS progression decrease Food anomie intensification Eating disorders and “ deregulation” Fat persons stigmatization obesity
Epidemiologic transition: Definition The epidemiologic transition is that process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children and episodic famine and epidemic affecting all age groups to one of degenerative and man-made diseases (such as those attributed to smoking) affecting principally the elderly. Encyclopedia Britannica Abdel Omran. The Epidemiologic Transition: A Theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Quarterly. 1971;49:509-538 34
Health transition: mortality rates (US, 1910-1970) (up to >1000 earlier) 600Death rate per 100,000 population Infectious diseases 500 Heart disease 400 Cancer 300 Stroke Violent/accident 200 Infancy disease 100 Tuberculosis 0 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 IUMSP-GCT
Back on Malthus’ trace Food production depends on: Exploitable agricultural areas Water supply Sunlight Agrarian techniques Inputs (fertilizers.) Agricultural machinery Energy supply ... Food requirement depends on : The number of individuals to feed What people consume = FOOD MODELS 37
Seminary content The awakening of diversity The biodiversity The Ethno-diversity The diversity as a patrimony Feeding humankind: the world food challenge Thomas Malthus theory Demographical transition and population health Back on Malthus traces The food models: Central resources of ethno-diversity: Social food space/ environment Sustainable development The role of cultural diversity in sustainability 42
The stakes of sustainability From 3 dimensions.... To 4 dimensions Cultural Social Environment
socio-anthropological framework Cultural Social Environment Economic and ecological frame work 44
Perspective Perspective Economico-ecological socio-anthropologicalKey concepts Priority to environment Priority to humanbeings Ecological print, (km/food), Fair-trade, AMAP, Slow food, CO2 community supported agricultureOrientation and Universality of global ecological Specificity of social and culmturalevaluation criteria stakes situations Inter-generational equity Inter-generational equity What kind of planet will we Solidarity with the victims of health leave to our children? scandals.System evaluation Mathematical modelization Case study, experience feedbackmodalityMarket relation The market is set, it is required The market is a social and political to understand how it works construction. It is necessary to act toward what is favorable.Consummers places Consumers make choices Consumers are actors of the systemsScience princeps Econometry, ecology, Anthropology, sociology, sciences of agronomy development D’après P.M. Stassart ULG,
Argentina Colombia Portugal japan Rwanda 46Source : Malassis et Padillat
Food Social Space: The social dimensions of food(Condominas, 1980; Poulain, 1997 et 2002) Cultures Room of Freedom Social Physiological and Ecological Dimensions constraints biological constraints of Food Impact of the Impact of the culture on the • Edible/ Inedible culture on the biotope genetic structure of • Food System population • Culinary • Consumption Patterns • Food Temporality • Social Differentiation
Interaction Culture-Biology, but relative cultural autonomy « Our conception of the social food space accept the idea of interactions , meanwhile underlining the existence of cultural autonomy, as long as it does not shakes (too much) the vital processes…..It insists on the fact that the elements of the natural environment only become resources if they completely belong to the cultural system.» (Poulain, 2002)We join the conception developed by Jean Baechler :« We have the right to affirm that the natural conceptions always involve asanswers by yes or by no to questions asked by actors situated in a given context.… Nature doesn’t impose anything, but it makes possible or impossible someactions conducted in a given context… » (Baechler, 2001, 469-470)
What is a food model? A specific configuration of the social space A body of technological knowledge accumulated from generations to genrations, allowing the selection of resources in a natural environement, to prepare them to be food, then dishes and to consume them. It is also, some symbolic codes’ systems showing the values of a human group participating to the construction of cultural identities and to the internal processes of differenciation. Jean Pierre Poulain, université de Toulouse 50
Food models They are complex social constructions that functions unconsciously and allow: To deal with food cognitive ambivalences To articulate the various horizons of food act: pleasure, health and symbolic order The construction of social identities through internal and external processes of identifications and differentiation / through processes of identifications and internal and external differentiation To ease decision making They are living heritages leaving and evolving/transforming/morphing with societies.
Relocation and environment The awakening of the environmental impact contributes to the relocation
The present food production could be sufficient for 12 billion people There are 6.3 billion of us on the face of the earth and more than 1 billion suffer from malnutrition and hunger More than half of the food we produce is thrown away
Components of food systems FOOD UTILISATION • Health safety perception • Order of edible • Nutritional Value • Social Value • Food Safety DISPONIBILITY • Agricultural production ACCESS • Transformation • Conservation • Affordability • Transport • Allocation • Mise sur le marché • Preference Production • Distribution • Exchange From GECAFS 56
Determinants of Food Systems FOOD UTILISATION Meal frequencies Dietary patterns Nutritional Value, Customs, tastes & trends Social Value & Food Social bonding and solidarity Safety Skills, education, & knowledge Storage, processing & cooking techniques Waste disposal & management Bioavailability & bioefficacy Contamination and toxinsFOOD AVAILABILITY Nutrient content FOOD ACCESSProduction, Distribution Nutrient balance Affordability, Allocation & Exchange Hygiene & Preference Mobility Financial & social assets Support services Supply chain infrastructure Advertising & media Labour availability & productivity Customs, tastes & trends Land tenure & exclusive economic zones Financial & social assets Market policies (prices, credit & subsidies) Prices & household budgets Trade policies (border controls, int’l Food standard regulations agreements) Employment, wages & incomes Distribution infrastructure (storage, transport) Natural resource base & productivity Food quality and quantity Plant and animal pests & diseases Seasonality Post-harvest management Appearance Primary processing Preparation Technology GermplasmRed = socioeconomic determinants From GECAFS Green = biophysical determinants
« Through the choice of his food the individual choses the kind of man he wants to be…By reducing bread to calories, wine to a drug, sex to hygiene, we deny the affective role of flesh et we proclaim that our science is sufficient to give a meaning to life, we leave the spiritual and sacred to the rank of barbarian vestiges.Jean Trémolières, The big of nutrition (Le grand livre de la nutrition), Laffont, 1973.
Pour en savoir plus J.-P. Poulain, Sociologie de l’obésité, PUF, 2009. J.-P. Poulain, Sociologies de l’alimentation, PUF, 2005, traduit en italien Alimentatione Cultura e societa. J.-P. Poulain et E. Neirinck, Histoire de la cuisine et des cuisiniers, Lanore, 2004. J.-P. Corbeau et J.-P. Poulain, Penser l’alimentation, entre imaginaire et rationalité, Privat, 2002. J.-P. Poulain, Manger aujourd’hui, Attitudes, normes et pratiques, Privat, 2001. J.-P. Poulain, « Eléments de sociologie de l’alimentation et de la nutrition », in A. Basdevant, M. Laville et E. Lerebours, Traité de nutrition clinique, Flammarion, 2001. « French gastronomie, french gastronomies », in Goldstein D. et Merkele K., 2005, Culinary cultures of Europe Identity, Diversity and dialogue, Éditions du Conseil de l’Europe, p. 157-170.