Presentation From The Blue Conference In Copenhagen 01 12 2011

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Presentation From The Blue Conference In Copenhagen 01 12 2011

  1. 1. Environmental rules and regulations seen as Business opportunities2011 MAN Diesel & Turbo  „Engineering the Future – since 1758“ The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011
  2. 2. DisclaimerAll data provided on the following slides is for information purposes only,explicitly non-binding and subject to changes without further notice. The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <2>
  3. 3. Environmental rules and regulations: Threats or opportunities?The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <3>
  4. 4. Topics EEDI Engines & Fuel Aft Ship optimization Examples on Green Retrofits The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <4>
  5. 5. EEDI EEDI Energy Efficiency Design Index IMO - International Maritime Organization Regulation has been adopted at IMO on 15 July 2011!The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <5>
  6. 6. EEDIBasicsEEDI – Energy Efficiency Design IndexDefinition:EEDI = CO2 emission = ΣP x CF x SFC Benefit of ship Capacity x SpeedUnit: gram CO2/(Ton*Nautical Mile)Reference: Requirement :The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <6>
  7. 7. EEDI Calculation Formula Πfj (ΣPME*CFME*SFCME) + PAE*CFAE*SFCAE + (Πfj*ΣPPTI –Σfeff*PAEeff)*CFAE*SFCAE - Σfeff*Peff*CFME*SFCMEEEDI = __________________________________________________________________________________ fi * Capacity * Vref * fw CO2 emission CO2 emission CO2 emission CO2 reduction CO2 reduction Main engine - PTO Auxillary engine Power Take In WHR or similar Wind, Solar … Ref: 75% *(PSMCR – PPTO) Ref: 2.5% x PMCR + 250 kW Ref: 75% PTI Ref: 75% MCR Ref: 75% MCR PMCR PPTO The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <7>
  8. 8. EEDI Calculation Formula Πfj (ΣPME*CFME*SFCME) + PAE*CFAE*SFCAE + (Πfj*ΣPPTI –Σfeff*PAEeff)*CFAE*SFCAE - Σfeff*Peff*CFME*SFCME __________________________________________________________________________________EEDI = fi * Capacity * Vref * fw Ship speed Speed obtained at: • Specified capacity of ship • Power as defined in EEDI (75% MCR) Capacity of ship Cargo ships: 100% DWT Container ships: 70% DWT Passenger ships: 100% GT Picture taken from http://fr.academic.ru/pictures/frwiki/83/Sirius_Star_2008e.jpg The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <8>
  9. 9. EEDIStepwise Introduction Requirements on EEDI – entering into force on 1 January 2013 Regulation: Attained EEDI ≤ (1-X/100) x Reference value  X = 0 for ships built after 1 Jan 2013  X = 10 for ships built after 1 Jan 2015  X = 20 for ships built after 1 Jan 2020 (X = 15 for some ship types)  X = 30 for ships built after 1 Jan 2025 EEDI 10 % 20 % 30 % 2013 – Reference line 2015 2020 2025 CapacityThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 <9>
  10. 10. EEDITechnical MeasuresConsequences of requirementsIf nothing else is done in the design: the propulsion power must be reduced the ship speed will consequently be lower the total cargo transport by the ship will be reduced the ship size – or numbers of ships – should be increased to keep transport capacityBut other solutions are available.The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 10 >
  11. 11. EEDITechnical MeasuresEEDI reduction – examples Speed reduction 5% reduction of ship speed results in 10% lower EEDI index – increased ship size or more ships required Waste Heat Recovery 10% reduction by Waste Heat Recovery Gas fuelled engine 23% reduction using LNG, due to low carbon emission factor Increased propeller diameter Propeller efficiency increase by increased propeller diameter and lower engine speed Derated engine 5-10% reduction by derated engine – might cost engine margin Ship and propeller optimising Ship specific solutions by optimising hull and propeller Alternative (green) power Green, CO2 neutral power, as e.g. wind/solar energyThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 11 >
  12. 12. 12K80MC-GI-S – Chiba Power PlantThe 10 Years GI Experience 1994 - 2003 GI = High Pressure Gas Injection MitsuiThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 12 >
  13. 13. G-ME Engine Series Increased Stroke to Bore Ratio Layout diagrams of new green series of G-ME engines compared with existing super long stroke S-ME engines Longer Stroke Lower rpm Larger Propeller Higher Efficiency Fuel and CO2 SavingsSource: LEE4/BGJ The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 13 >
  14. 14. MAN AlphaSystem Supply Approach Propellers interacts mechanically with  Shaft – vibration, whirling  Bearing – load distribution  Gearbox – thrust bearing  Engine – vibration (torsional, axial) Propellers interacts hydrodynamically with  Hull – efficiency, cavitation (noise/vibration)  Struts – flow alignment  Rudder - manoeuvring, erosion The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 14 >
  15. 15. The optimum design The Balanced Design Fuel Consumption Vibration/Noise/ComfortThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 15 >
  16. 16. MAN Alpha - Aft Ship Approach The DFDS pilot project 2 x 3000 LM RoRo Vessels M.E.: 2x8S40ME-B9.2 Owner: DFDS, Denmark 2 x 9.080 kW @ 146 rpm Yard: P+S Werften, Germany CPP: 2 x VBS1350 / AT2000 NB500 / 501 Aux.: 3 x L16/24Special features 2 x VBS1350 with full feathering capabilities 2 x Becker Marine System twisted rudders Investigations on optimised rudder bulbs The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 16 >
  17. 17. CFD Calculation of Rudder BulbDFDS RoRo project 65 bulb model variants have been calculated Best shape offers 2% increased efficiency in open water condition Results has been verified at model basin HSVA in Hamburg, Germany The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 17 >
  18. 18. Self-propulsion Test at HSVA Withoutrudder bulb With rudder bulbThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 18 >
  19. 19. Result from Self-propulsion Test Annual fuel oil savings > 250.000 € Pay back time < 4 monthsThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 19 >
  20. 20. MAN|PrimeServThe Environmental Focus “Green Retrofit” Competition Pay - Back Rules Green ImageThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 20 >
  21. 21. Propeller Upgrade & Retrofit EEDI reduction – “Green retrofit”The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 21 >
  22. 22. Propeller Upgrade & RetrofitEEDI reduction – “Green retrofit” Up to 14% fuel savings - and reduced emissions Reduced propeller noise Short payback time 70 65 Old design New design 60 14% 55 Propeller Efficiency [%] 50 45 40 35 30 25 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ship speed [kn] The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 22 >
  23. 23. Ship Speed Reduction EEDI reduction – propeller “Green retrofit”  Ship speed reduction from 15 to 14 knots 13000 DWT Tanker  Results in lower EEDI index (approx. 20%)  Pay-back time of propeller retrofit < 2 years Existing propeller New propeller design 8000 66 Propeller Efficiency [%] 7000 64Engine Power [kW] 6000 62 60 5000 58 4000 Improved part 56 load efficiency 3000 54 52 2000 50 1000 48 0 46 12 13 14 15 16 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Ship speed [kn] Ship speed [kn] The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 23 >
  24. 24. Kappel Tip Fin PropellerKappel Tip Fin Propeller3-5 % efficiency gain M/F Kronprins Frederik M/F ASK & M/F URDThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 24 >
  25. 25. CPP Propeller Upgrade/ Retrofit Fuel savingsM/F Sassnitz Passenger, Vehicle and Train Ferry. Twin screw : 2 x 9,100 kW. MAN Alpha: High skew design. Improved efficiency: 12.5%M/F Aurora & M/F Merchant Passenger, Ro-Ro and Cargo Ferry. Twin screw: 2 x 13,200 kW. Kappel design ICE Class 1A Super. Improved efficiency: 8% The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 25 >
  26. 26. CP Propeller Upgrading Projects ScandlinesM/F “Ask” Passenger, RoRo Cargo Ferries Twin screw: 2 x 4,920 kW Kappel design, adapted to new service profile Improved efficiency: +10%M/F “Urd” The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 26 >
  27. 27. AHT Nozzle – Alpha High Thrust HIGH thrust at low speed Increased bollard pull – up to 16 %The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 27 >
  28. 28. Upgrade of Propeller Blades and Nozzle 13.8% more pull - and less noiseGECO TRITON New blades and AHT nozzle Bollard Pull test and measurementFacts and FiguresResulting improvement in Bollard pull: 13.8%Reduction of propeller noise: 30%Measured Bollard Pull – after upgrade: 79.1 tonsMeasured Bollard Pull – before upgrade: 69.5 tonsPropeller: Wichmann, ø3800 / 153 rpmEngine: Wärtsilä 12V32E, 4.920 kW The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 28 >
  29. 29. Speed PilotThe Overall Structure“Green retrofit”The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 29 >
  30. 30. Propeller and Aft Ship OptimizingUpgrade & RetrofitEEDI reduction – “Green retrofit” Rudder Bulb is combined with a twisted rudder Efficiency gain up to 4 – 6% Optimize Mewis Duct Optimize the propeller blade design for the modified wake Efficiency gain up to 5 – 8%The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 30 >
  31. 31. Nox-Reduction TechnologiesEngine internal measures - “Green retrofit” NOx Reduction Package for M/F GEISNES L23/30 engine retrofitted to Tier II limits Comprising:  Cylinder heads with improved flow properties  Camshaft for optimized timing ties  Fuel equipment (injection pumps and valves)  Increased compression ratio  Retarded injection  Pistons with optimized ring configuration  Cylinder liners with flame ringThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 31 >
  32. 32. Thank you for your attention.All data provided in this document is non-binding.This data serves informational purposes only and isespecially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on thesubsequent specific individual projects, the relevantdata may be subject to changes and will be assessed anddetermined individually for each project. This will dependon the particular characteristics of each individual project,especially specific site and operational conditions. END The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 32 >
  33. 33. Site Frederikshavn PrimeServ Frederikshavn Employees (31.09.2011) : 473Products + Employees (D-DK site HOL) : ~Propellers 100Gears Gears Propellers PrimeServ After Sales Service The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 33 >
  34. 34. Curriculum Vitae – Poul KnudsgaardBorn 23.07.1959 Aabenraa, DKMarried, 4 kids – age 15->281985 Marine Engineering Apprenticeship1988 B. Sc. in Mechanical Engineering2011 MBA1988-1991 Project Engineer, APV Anhydro A/S1991-1992 Sales Engineer, FAG Danmark A/S1992-2002 Misc jobs at MAN B&W Diesel (CPH & FRH)2002-2008 Technical Director, RAIS A/S2008- ? Misc jobs at MAN Diesel & Turbo Site Manager FRH & Head of PrimeServ Four-stroke DKSupervisory Board member: MARCOD and EMUC The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 34 >
  35. 35. H.A.M. (Humid Air Motor) A System Preventing NOx FormationH.A.M. Influence on NOx Formation Humidification of the charging air increases heat capacity and lowers the O 2 content High heat capacity and low O2 in the charging air gives low combustion temperatures Low combustion temperatures gives low NOx The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 35 >
  36. 36. Installation of H.A.M. M/V “Kvannøy” – 84 meter Purse Seiner / Trawler Wet methods - “Green retrofit” Installation of Humid Air Motor (H.A.M.)  61. 3% NOx Reduction after Retrofit  IMO E2 NOx emissions - reduced from 9.3 g/kWh to 3.6 g/kWh  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sb1SA0U5rSMEngine type : 16V28/32AReduction gear : ACG 950CP Propeller : VB 1080Propulsion control : AT IIA The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 36 >
  37. 37. M/V “Mariella” – H.A.M Installation Test Results Measured Onboard Measured switching from air cooler to H.A.M. operation: Emissions of NOx decreased from 14.32 g/kWh to 4.57 g/kWh (68%) Emissions of THC (C3) increased from 0.17 g/kWh to 0.21 g/kWh (22%) Emissions of CO decreased from 0.75 g/kWh to 0.71 g/kWh (4.8%) Emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) increased from 0.30 g/kWh to 0.46 g/kWh (56%) Fuel consumption decreased from 216.8 g/kWh to 212.1 g/kWh (2.15%)All figures are corrected according to ISO 8178.Emissions and fuel consumption for 25, 50, 75 and 100% load are weighted according to ISO 8178, E3 cycle (Propeller curve), The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 37 >
  38. 38. Nox-Reduction TechnologiesDry methods - “Green retrofit”Installation of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR)  IMO MARPOL, Annex IV - Tier III compliant  Treatment of exhaust gas after engineThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 38 >
  39. 39. H.A.M. versus SCR – Summery Table HAM SCR Low maintenance and operation costs Low investment costs NOx reduction up to 70% NOx reduction up to 80% Possible urea slip, Safe and ecological process risk of N2O formationImproved performance at part load operation, Reduced performance at part load operation dependent on available heat dependent on exhaust gas temperature Heavy system reduces the “Lighter” system total payload of the ship No fuel quality limitation: Engine needs low sulphur fuel oil The engine can run on high (LSFO) during SCR operation sulphur fuel oil (HSFO)No additional reducing agent (uses sea water Urea transport + storage aboard ship only), water decalcification agent necessary The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 39 >
  40. 40. Nox-Reduction TechnologiesDry methods - “Green retrofit”Installation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation(EGR)  IMO MARPOL, Annex IV - Tier III compliant  O2 in the scavenge air is replaced with CO2 Exhaust  Reduced O2 content in the scavenge air – gas thus reducing the peak temperatures loop  CO2 has a higher heat capacity - thus reducing the peak temperatures  Decreased peak temperatures reduces the formation of NOxThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 40 >
  41. 41. Conversion to Gas Fuelled EnginesEEDI reduction – “Green retrofit” 23% EEDI reduction using LNG, due to low carbon emission factor IMO MARPOL, Annex IV - Tier III compliant Clean combustion of natural gas Improved opportunities for Waste Heat Recovery Two - Stroke Four - StrokeThe Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 41 >
  42. 42. Waste Heat RecoveryEEDI reduction – by Waste Heat Recovery Reduction of EEDI by Waste Heat Recovery - Opportunity for “Green retrofit”The Blue Conference 2011 Poul Knudsgaard © MAN Diesel & Turbo 01.12.2011 < 42 >

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