Canadian Sport for Life (CS4L) is a movement to improve the quality of sport and physicalactivity in Canada through improved athlete training and better integrationbetween all stakeholders in the sport system, including sport organizations, education,recreation and health. A key feature of CS4L is Long-Term Athlete Development (LTAD), a developmentalpathway whereby athletes follow optimal training, competition, and recovery regimensfrom childhood through all phases of adulthood. The vision behind CS4L is to reshape how we support sport and train athletes atall levels in Canada – from children to adults, from towns to cities, from provinces andregions through to the National level.In realizing this vision, we aim to keep more Canadians active for life with recreationalsport and physical activity, and at the same time help Canadians in all sports win moremedals internationally. Link
LTAD• is a philosophy and a vehicle for change.• is athlete-centred from a child’s ﬁrst involvement in sport to the transition to lifelong physicalactivity or other sport related activities.• integrates the needs of athletes with a disability into the design and delivery of sport programs.• provides a framework for reviewing current practices, developing new initiatives, andstandardizing programs.• establishes a clear development pathway from playground to podium and on to being active forlife.• identiﬁes the shortcomings in Canada’s sport system and provides guidelines for problem solving.• provides guidelines for planning for optimal performance for all stages of athlete development.• provides key partners with a coordinated structure and plan for change.• identiﬁes and engages key stakeholders in delivering change.• provides an aligned and integrated model for delivering systems including• long-term athlete development — technical, physical, tactical, and behavioural.• long-term coaching development.• sport and physical activity programs and services in NSO’s, PSO’s, recreational organizations,clubs, and schools.Long Term Athlete Development resource paper V2 (2005)
LTAD Key Factors:1.Excellence Takes Time2.FUNdamentals3.Specialization4.Developmental Age5.Trainability6.Physical, Mental, Cognitive and EmotionalDevelopment7.Periodization8.Competition Planning9.System Alignment and Integration10.Continuous ImprovementLink
10,000 hoursPhysical LiteracyEarly Specialisation Sports (4 Phases)Late Specialisation Sports (6 Phases)Peak Height VelocityRelative Age EffectWindows of Accelerated AdaptationCompetitionBalyi and Hamilton (2003, 2004)
Crossman, E. R. F. W. A theory of the acquisition of speed-skill. Ergonomics 2, 153–166 (1959)
As it stands the evidence base for the modelconstitutes the basic elements of theCanadian Mens Alpine Ski team programspanning three Olympic cycles.McDowell (2010)
I t i s c r u c i a l t h a t t h e LTA D m o d e l i ss e e n a s a ‘ ‘ w o rk i n p ro g r e s s ’ ’ a n dt h e c h a l l e n g e, p a r t i c u l a rl y f o rp a e d i a t r i c e x e rc i s e s c i e n t i s t s, i s t oq u e s t i o n , t e s t , a n d r e v i s e t h e m o d e l .Ford et al (2010)
Excellent coaching practice for the talent development coaching environment:•Emphasises development and investing for the future over results•Creates a respectful environment and fosters athlete empowerment and motivation•Involves coaches who are approachable and inspiring•Preparation of sessions with clear aims, that are competitive, intense and promotelearning•Requires the ability to spontaneously restructure one’s knowledge to changingsituational demands•Involves communication and tailored feedback•Uses questioning to guide learning•Encourages trying new thingsJustine Allen et al (2012)
Excellent coaching practice along the pathway:•Emphasis on learning and development•Guided by a “bigger picture” that allowed for ﬂexibility•Fostering a positive environment focused on learning and encouragement•Developing quality coach-athlete relationships with relaxed, open two-way interaction•Planning for sessions and longer whilst allowing for adaptation and ﬂexibility•Use of competition and game-like periods•Well developed interactive instructional techniques.Justine Allen et al (2012)
Balyi I. (2001) Sport System Building and Long-term Athlete Development in British Columbia. Canada: SportsMed BCSelected BibliographyBalyi I, and Hamilton, A. “The Concept of Long-term Athlete Development” Strength and Conditioning Coach, TheOfﬁcial Magazine of the Australian Strength and Conditioning Association. Volume 3, No. 2. pp.5 - 6.Balyi, I and Way, R. “Long-Term Planning of Athlete Development. The Training to Train Phase”. B.C. Coach, 1995. pp. 2- 10.Balyi, I. “Planning for Training and Performance.The Training to Compete Phase”. B.C. Coach, 1996. pp. 9 - 14.Balyi, I and Hamilton, A. “Planning for Trainingand Performance. The Training to Win Phase” B.C.Coach, 1996. pp. 9 - 26.Balyi, I. and Hamilton A. North American Soccer - Overplayed and Underdeveloped. How Long-termPlanning Can Makethe Difference for Our Young Players? Performance Conditioning Soccer, Lincoln, NE., Vol. 4, Number 6, pp 6 - 9, 1998.Balyi, I. and Hamilton North American Soccer - Overplayed and Underdeveloped. Long-term planning Part IV. TheTraining to Compete Phase of Training. Performance Conditioning Soccer, Lincoln, NE, Vol.5. Number 4. pp4 - 11., 1999.Balyi, I. and Hamilton North American Soccer - Overplayed and Underdeveloped. Long-term planning Part V. TheTraining to Perform Phase of Training.Performance Conditioning Soccer, Lincoln, NE, Vol.5. Number 4. pp.4, 1999.Balyi, I and Hamilton, A. The Concept and Practice of Long-term Athlete Development in Volleyball.VolleyballConditioning, Lincoln, NE, Vol.6., No.3. pp., 6 - 9, 1998.Balyi, I., “Long-term Planning of Athlete Development, The Training to TrainPhase” in FHS, The UK’sQuarterly CoachingMagazine, IssueOne, pp. 8 - 11. September,1998.Balyi, I., “Long-term Planning of Athlete Development, The Training to Compete Phase” in FHS, TheUK’s QuarterlyCoaching Magazine, Issue Two, pp. 8 - 11, December, 1998.Balyi, I., and Hamilton, A. “Long-term Planning ofAthlete Development, The Training to Win Phase” inFHS, The UK’sQuarterly Coaching Magazine, Issue Three, pp. 7 - 9. April, 1999.Balyi, I., “Long-term Planning of Athlete Development, Multiple Periodization, Modelling and Normative Data” in FHS,The UK’s Quarterly Coaching Magazine, Issue Four, pp. 7 - 9. May, 1999.Balyi, I. and Hamilton, A. “ The FUNdamentals in Long-term Preparation of Tennis Players.” pp. 250, in Bollettieri ClassicTennis Handbook,Tennis Week, NY, NY, 1999. pp. 258-280.Balyi, I., and Hamilton, A. Key to Success: Long-term Athlete Development. Sport Coach, Canberra, Australia. Vol.23. No.1. Autumn 2000. pp. 30-32.Balyi, I., and Hamilton, Long-term Athlete Development: The FUNdamental Stage. Part One/Two. Sport Coach,Canberra, Australia. Vol.23. No.3. 2000. pp. 10-13.
ImagesIstvan Balyi (Malmo IdrottsAkademi, Admin)Cigar roller_Cuba 177 (James Emery, CC BY 2.0)Charlene looking through Binoculars (Eric Harmatz, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)The VLT’s Next-generation Laser Launch Telescope, (European Southern Observatory, CC BY 2.0)The Homemade Dobsonian Telescope (Creag, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)
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