981125 Performance Analysis And The Officials Coach


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A presentation made in Melbourne in 1998 to a Sports Coach and Officials' Conference hosted by the Australian Sports Commission.

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981125 Performance Analysis And The Officials Coach

  1. 1. Performance Analysis and the Official’s Coach
  2. 2. An Ethological and Ecological Celebration of Bio-Diversity!
  3. 3. You can’t make a waiter see you until he is ready to see you … Bill Bryson (1989) The Lost Continent
  4. 4. An Opportunity to Explore the Potential of an Interdisciplinary, Inter-Game Approach to Performance Excellence in Officiating
  5. 5. Performance Analysis A disciplined insight that … 1. uses systematic observation … 2. to record and then analyse performance … 3. to provide quantitative and qualitative augmented information.
  6. 6. Performance Analysis Aims to provide objective and reliable observations of performance … That facilitate recall of performance … To develop performance.
  7. 7. Official as Machine 1. Event tallies and frequencies. 2. Movement characteristics. 3. Physiological profiles. 4. Psychological profiles. 5. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour.
  8. 8. The Human Official! 1. A social person. 2. Vocational commitments. 3. Able to reflect-in-action and to reflect-on- action. 4. Able to communicate about officiating. 5. Able to give MEANING to actions.
  9. 9. Recovery: Humanised Machinery? Angela Calder’s work indicates the opportunities for enhanced performance when we combine our interest in the official as a machine and as a social person. Recovery methods integrate and make personal officiating performance.
  10. 10. Some Examples of Australian Research into Officiating Performance
  11. 11. Time and Motion Analysis Donna O’Connor’s (1994) study of elite touch referees and Leonie Otago and others’ (1994) study of netball umpires identified methodologies for quantifying in- game movement patterns ...in order to enhance referee/umpire performance.
  12. 12. Time and Motion Analysis TOUCH REFEREES: NETBALL UMPIRES: Locomotor activities identified. Impact of changes in standard A study of eight referees. and speed of play for Intermittent nature of activity umpires. profile and significance of Heart rate data were collected buddy referee system. in competition. Implications for training Umpires’ movement patterns programmes. were recorded on videotape.
  13. 13. In order to optimise a referee’s performance, training programs should enable referees to replicate as closely as possible the physical requirements demanded in a game. O’Connor (1994) Training is essential to improve fitness for umpires in order for them to keep up with play and be able to operate effectively in decision-making … Otago, Riley and Forrest (1994)
  14. 14. Physiological Preparation David Pyne’s (1994) reported an ACTAFL training programme for field and boundary umpires that emphasised specificity. A programme devised for a wide range of umpires of different age, experience and fitness levels.
  15. 15. Psychological Profile of Performance Richard Evans’ (1994) study of soccer referees: 1. Limited information about officials. 2. Communication strategies and proxemics. 3. Psychological profiles of successful referees? 4. A case study of 20 Australian referees.
  16. 16. Psychological Profile of Performance 5. A study of how referees interpret their motivations (metamotivations). 6. Results indicated that elite Australian referees appeared to have similar psychological profiles.
  17. 17. … we must continue to investigate the characteristics that comprise the performance of top level referees just as we would investigate what causes superior athletic performance. Richard Evans (1994)
  18. 18. Rest and Recovery Russell Trotter (1994) has written about rest and recovery for rugby union referees in order to: Develop of training rhythms. Optimise performance in games. Increase work load. Accelerate recovery. “with a view to improve performance and enjoyment”
  19. 19. Interdisciplinary and Inter-Game? 1. A range of excellent Australian practice to share and develop. 2. Officiating offers the opportunity to integrate what we know. 3. Recovery is an excellent example of how to harmonise the physiological, psychological and nutritional aspects of officiating.
  20. 20. What Do We Know About ...? 1. The INVARIANT structure of officiating performance? 2. The VARIANCE in officiating performance. 3. The relative importance to be attached to quantitative and/or qualitative performance indicators.
  21. 21. A Great Divide? Scott Dickson and Paul Webb (1998)suggest that officials have in common with coaches: 1. Respect for the game. 2. Effective invisibility. 3. Authority. 4. Teaching. 5. Health and safety.
  22. 22. Each game has a special music. When the referee is in tune, the game is good …There is a different feeling in a children’s game than an international, and the referee must have empathy with the feeling of the game. (Water Polo Referee)
  23. 23. … the biggest problem is to firstly improve the standard of performance by umpires. This is probably applicable to most sports in this country. From where I stand, improved performance is basic to solving most of the problems which confront umpiring/refereeing. Dave Parkin (1991)
  24. 24. Improving Performance? 1. A collaboration between stakeholders? 2. Formative and summative assessment. 3. Specificity of augmented information and coaching.
  25. 25. Competent and Effective Officiating? Mark Anshel and Paul Webb (1991) investigated competencies of effective touch referees. 1. Focus on behaviours. 2. Panels of experts determined competencies. 3. Essential, important and non-essential competencies were identified.
  26. 26. There is a need to systematically assess the performance of sports officials in an objective, measurable, and observable manner. Anshell and Webb (1991)
  27. 27. Performance Analysis 1. Celebrate the DIVERSITY of officiating behaviours. 2. Recognise that there are GENERIC issues available for discussion and reflection. 3. Acknowledge the DYNAMIC nature of sports contests. 4. Open up to the INTEGRATION of performance.
  28. 28. The Official’s Coach Quis custodiet custodiens? (How can we support and empower those who are committed enough to officiating to want to develop the training and development of other officials?)
  29. 29. Vision for Official Coaching 1. Officiating performance is multi-faceted. 2. Performance development is a partnership. 3. Integration of knowledge and experience is demanding, challenging and fallible. 4. It is forward looking whilst building upon the craft knowledge of past careers. 5. It is a wonderful mix of art, science and magic.
  31. 31. How do we enhance the performance of officials without leaving it to chance? How do we routinise excellence so that it becomes a new standard for all?
  32. 32. Work at Cardiff Game structures: control and management. Decision-making under microscopic investigation. Vulnerability: pre-emptive strategies and self- monitoring. Situational conflict resolution.
  33. 33. Empowerment 1. Listen with empathy. 2. Enlist support. 3. Offer advice without taking responsibility (whilst remaining accountable).
  34. 34. ZAPP! Self-directed Empowered
  35. 35. Working Together 1. The National Officiating Programme is an excellent example of the innovative vision required to integrate performance. 2. Within and Between sport development. 3. Performance is diverse and provides an opportunity to transform officiating behaviour.
  36. 36. The Future? Athletic Confident Motivated Empowered Secure Officials