981125 Performance Analysis And The Officials Coach
Analysis and the
An Ethological and
You can’t make a waiter
see you until he is ready
to see you …
Bill Bryson (1989) The Lost Continent
the Potential of
an Interdisciplinary, Inter-Game
A disciplined insight that …
1. uses systematic observation …
2. to record and then analyse performance
3. to provide quantitative and qualitative
Aims to provide objective and reliable
observations of performance …
That facilitate recall of performance …
To develop performance.
Official as Machine
1. Event tallies and frequencies.
2. Movement characteristics.
3. Physiological profiles.
4. Psychological profiles.
5. Verbal and non-verbal behaviour.
The Human Official!
1. A social person.
2. Vocational commitments.
3. Able to reflect-in-action and to reflect-on-
4. Able to communicate about officiating.
5. Able to give MEANING to actions.
Recovery: Humanised Machinery?
Angela Calder’s work indicates the
opportunities for enhanced performance
when we combine our interest in the
official as a machine and as a social
Recovery methods integrate and make
personal officiating performance.
of Australian Research
into Officiating Performance
Time and Motion Analysis
Donna O’Connor’s (1994) study of elite
touch referees and Leonie Otago and
others’ (1994) study of netball umpires
identified methodologies for quantifying in-
game movement patterns ...in order to
enhance referee/umpire performance.
Time and Motion Analysis
TOUCH REFEREES: NETBALL UMPIRES:
Locomotor activities identified. Impact of changes in standard
A study of eight referees. and speed of play for
Intermittent nature of activity umpires.
profile and significance of Heart rate data were collected
buddy referee system. in competition.
Implications for training Umpires’ movement patterns
programmes. were recorded on videotape.
In order to optimise a referee’s performance,
training programs should enable referees to
replicate as closely as possible the physical
requirements demanded in a game.
Training is essential to improve fitness
for umpires in order for them to keep up
with play and be able to operate effectively
in decision-making …
Otago, Riley and Forrest (1994)
David Pyne’s (1994) reported an ACTAFL
training programme for field and boundary
umpires that emphasised specificity.
A programme devised for a wide range of
umpires of different age, experience and fitness
Psychological Profile of
Richard Evans’ (1994) study of soccer
1. Limited information about officials.
2. Communication strategies and proxemics.
3. Psychological profiles of successful referees?
4. A case study of 20 Australian referees.
Psychological Profile of
5. A study of how referees interpret their
6. Results indicated that elite Australian referees
appeared to have similar psychological
… we must continue to
investigate the characteristics
that comprise the performance
of top level referees just as we
would investigate what causes
superior athletic performance.
Richard Evans (1994)
Rest and Recovery
Russell Trotter (1994) has written about rest
and recovery for rugby union referees in
Develop of training rhythms.
Optimise performance in games.
Increase work load.
“with a view to improve performance and enjoyment”
Interdisciplinary and Inter-Game?
1. A range of excellent Australian practice to
share and develop.
2. Officiating offers the opportunity to integrate
what we know.
3. Recovery is an excellent example of how to
harmonise the physiological, psychological
and nutritional aspects of officiating.
What Do We Know About ...?
1. The INVARIANT structure of officiating
2. The VARIANCE in officiating performance.
3. The relative importance to be attached to
quantitative and/or qualitative performance
A Great Divide?
Scott Dickson and Paul Webb (1998)suggest
that officials have in common with coaches:
1. Respect for the game.
2. Effective invisibility.
5. Health and safety.
Each game has a special music.
When the referee is in tune, the game
is good …There is a different feeling
in a children’s game than an international,
and the referee must have empathy
with the feeling of the game.
(Water Polo Referee)
… the biggest problem is to firstly improve
the standard of performance by umpires.
This is probably applicable to most sports
in this country. From where I stand,
improved performance is basic to solving
most of the problems which confront
Dave Parkin (1991)
1. A collaboration between stakeholders?
2. Formative and summative assessment.
3. Specificity of augmented information and
Competent and Effective
Mark Anshel and Paul Webb (1991)
investigated competencies of effective
1. Focus on behaviours.
2. Panels of experts determined
3. Essential, important and non-essential
competencies were identified.
There is a need to systematically
assess the performance of sports
officials in an objective, measurable,
and observable manner.
Anshell and Webb (1991)
1. Celebrate the DIVERSITY of officiating
2. Recognise that there are GENERIC issues
available for discussion and reflection.
3. Acknowledge the DYNAMIC nature of
4. Open up to the INTEGRATION of
The Official’s Coach
Quis custodiet custodiens?
(How can we support and empower those
who are committed enough to officiating
to want to develop the training and
development of other officials?)
Vision for Official Coaching
1. Officiating performance is multi-faceted.
2. Performance development is a partnership.
3. Integration of knowledge and experience is
demanding, challenging and fallible.
4. It is forward looking whilst building upon the
craft knowledge of past careers.
5. It is a wonderful mix of art, science and
How do we enhance the
performance of officials
without leaving it to chance?
How do we routinise excellence
so that it becomes a new standard
Work at Cardiff
Game structures: control and management.
Decision-making under microscopic
Vulnerability: pre-emptive strategies and self-
Situational conflict resolution.
1. Listen with empathy.
2. Enlist support.
3. Offer advice without taking responsibility
(whilst remaining accountable).
1. The National Officiating Programme is an
excellent example of the innovative vision
required to integrate performance.
2. Within and Between sport development.
3. Performance is diverse and provides an
opportunity to transform officiating