Daniel H. Pink is the author of several provocative, bestselling books about the changing world of work.
New York Times bestseller, A Whole New Mind; Free Agent Nation; The Adventures of Johnny Bunko, and Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us.
Author – Daniel Pink Drive reached every national bestseller list in its first month of publication and has spent 39 weeks on the New York Times lists. The book has been translated into Japanese, German, Spanish, Chinese, Hungarian, Polish, Dutch, Brazilian Portuguese, Italian, and Swedish — and will soon appear in 19 other languages. Pink also speaks to corporations, associations, universities, and education conferences about such topics as the shift from the Information age—with its premium on logical, linear, computer-like abilities—to what he calls "the Conceptual age", where right-brain qualities like empathy, inventiveness, and meaning predominate.
Author – Daniel Pink Daniel Pink comes with a paradigm-shattering look at what truly motivates us and how we can use that knowledge to work smarter and live better. Most of us believe that the best way to motivate ourselves and others is with external rewards like money—the carrot-and-stick approach.
Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0 Motivation 1.0 was all about Survival Motivation 2.0 was all about rewards and punishments. These cannot work in the 21st century. This is incompatible with how we organize what we do , how we think about what we do, and how we do what we do…
Rise and Fall of Motivation 2.0 Motivation 1.0
Carrot and Stick Approach Most of us believe that the best way to motivate ourselves and others is with external rewards like money—the carrot-and-stick approach
Candle Experiment “candle experiment” devised by Karl Duncker in 1945 In the original experiment, given a box with some thumbtacks, matches and a candle, you have to figure out how to attach the candle to the wall.Thesolution is to tack the empty thumbtack box to the wall and use it as a stand People find it difficult because they have to overcome “functional fixedness”: seeing the box only as “container of tacks” which blinds them to its use as a “potential candleholder.” I suspect, even when you do see the possibility, you might hesitate out of undue deference to authority and the idea that you aren’t “allowed” to use the box that way. Subjects solve the problem much faster if presented with the same raw material, but with the tacks outside the box.
Experiments.. The point in Drive is made by further experiments by Sam Glucksberg of Princeton, on what motivational schemes do to solution times. The unambiguous result is this: adding cash incentives results in the subjects taking, on average, three and a half minutes longer to “see” the solution. This perverse effect goes away if you redesign the problem to be routine/mechanical instead of requiring creativity (by taking the tacks out of the box). Pink cites dozens of other experiments and variations that validate and build on the same basic point: creativity is killed by carrots and sticks.
Disadvantages of carrots and sticks. Carrots and sticks do work for more mechanical tasks. They can extinguish intrinsic motivation They can diminish performance They can crush creativity They can crowd out good behavior They can encourage cheating, shortcuts, and unethical behavior They can become addictive They can foster short-term thinking
Some Advantages… For rule based routine tasks- Because there is little intrinsic motivation to undermine but not much creativity needed. Those who give the tasks , tell why is it necessary, acknowledge that it is boring, and allow the people their autonomy
Type X Behavior: Motivation 2.0 fostered Type X behavior Fueled by extrinsic desires than intrinsic ones and concerened less with the inherent satisfaction of an activity and more with external rewards to which an activity leads.
Type I behavior: Motivation 3.0 the upgrade that’s necessary for smooth functioning of twenty first century business Deals less external awards an activity brings and more with inherent satisfaction of the activity itself
Goal Type I behavior leads to stronger performance, greater health and higher overall well being.
Autonomy ROWE (results-only work environment): just have to get their work done. How they do it, when they do it, and where they do it is up to them. This era doesn’t call for better management. It calls for a renaissance of self-direction. Type I behavior emerges when people have autonomy over the 4 T’s: their task, time, technique, and team.
Mastery Mastery: the desire to get better and better at something that matters The highest, most satisfying experiences in people’s lives were when they are in flow. The challenge wasn’t too easy nor too difficult
Mastery 3 laws of mastery: Mastery is mindset: use learning goals instead of performance goals, e.g. getting an ‘A’. Mastery is a pain: it hurts and not much fun – intense practice of more than 10 years – “mundanity of excellence.” “Being a professional is doing the things you love to do, on the days you don’t feel like doing them” – Juilus Erving (Dr. J), Master is an asymptote: You can approach it, home in on it but you’ll never touch it. The joy is in the pursuit more than the realization.
Purpose Purpose provides activation energy for living. Motivation 3.0 places emphasis on purpose maximization in 3 realms of organization life – goals (to pursue purpose – and use profit as the catalyst rather than the objective), words (they vs. we), and policies (handing employees control over how the organization gives back to the community). People who’d had purpose goals felt they were attaining them reported higher leves of satisfaction.
Using it in physical therapy practice We can use this with how treatment is planned and implemented. Once dreaded and viewed as boring, routine, and pointless, trying to make the exercise and treatment becoming more creative, collaborative, and appealing to the patient’s interest’s. There will be many patient’s to admit that they would be motivated by the number of sessions left. The possibility of getting the exercise done was more often the goal than mastering the way to do it. Patient’sare in danger of falling under some of Pink's Seven Deadly Flaws of using Carrots and Sticks
Using it in physical therapy practice Offer a rationale - I would often explain why the patientwould be performing an exercise or taking the treatment. Acknowledge when a task is boring - I won't pretend that all the tasks given to them would be interesting so I would try to warn patientin advance, often tying in the rationale whenever possible. Allow for patients‘ autonomy - I would tell my patient’sthat there were often many different solutions to similar problems, and as long as the patient could explain that they did the exercise even when do the same exercise while doing it I would likely accept and reward the effort.
Using in the motor learning and Motor control concepts. Mastery-based learning – Daniel found that when we master a skill, explore a talent, or grasp a concept, the reward of accomplishment is far more compelling and gratifying than receiving an outer reward. He also cites the work of Professor Carole Dweck, of Stanford, who states that what children believe, they achieve. They can set their own boundaries regarding what can be accomplished. Personalization – Daniel believes that the task to be performed, the challenge to be overcome, and the material to be learned, must be personalized to meet the learning style of the individual. Autonomy – When individuals are free to explore a new realm, idea, or skill, they tend to demonstrate enhanced motivation. “When it becomes ‘my’ idea, ‘my’ job, ‘my’ program, it makes it far more exciting than a dictated task. Control leads to compliance, autonomy leads to engagement.”
Using in the motor learning and Motor control concepts We focus on high levels of patient’sengagement, exploration, and achievement via Personalization. We help patient’s and relatives to understand their child’s learning style and embed learning style opportunities throughout the treatment, often modifying the lessons to meet each patient’s needs.
Using in the motor learning and Motor control concepts In practicing Mastery-based learning, we focus primarily on process rather than solely on the product. This gives the patient the opportunity to truly learn the materials for the joy of learning rather than simply focusing on getting the work done in order to move on to the next exercise. Allowing to move at the pace most comfortable for them, where real learning takes place, gives them a sense of autonomy – of self-direction. When patient feel they are participants in decisions surrounding their treatment, their performance is remarkably higher than when they feel they’re being forced into an uncomfortable structure that doesn’t resonate with who they feel they are.
Conclusion There is so much more I’d love to share with you: such as the importance of what the author calls flow, how effort enhances mastery, and the joy of the pursuit. Instead, I highly recommend that you read Drive. It will give you a new appreciation for how to motivate people to take charge of their lives and give a roadmap to your patient to follow experience a great sense of mastery.
Related Videos http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u6XAPnuFjJc http://www.ted.com/talks/dan_pink_on_motivation.html