Poonan-wireless electricity and power transmission


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  • Poonan-wireless electricity and power transmission

    2. 2. Why do we need wirelesselectricity??? The ever increasing power demand The need of electricity in every nook and corner of the world The demand of eco-friendly power Requirement of efficient and reliable power To reduce dependence on wires and batteries
    3. 3. In the year 1891,Nikola Teslaproposed the method ofwireless transmission of electricpower One of the greatest breakthroughs of science at that time
    4. 4. Built the wardenclyffe towerwhich could broadcast powerwirelessly using far-fieldtechniques. Called off as itradiated power intosurroundings raising issues ofpower lossPower theftHealth concerns A dream crashes……
    5. 5. Types of wireless energy transfertechniques are:- Short range– Inductive coupling Mid range– Resonance Inductive coupling Long range- Microwave Transmission
    6. 6. Uses electromagnetic inductionconcept-A term for theinterdependence of time-varyingelectric and magnetic fieldsWireless electricity makes use ofthe concept-“Oscillating electric field producesmagnetic field and oscillatingmagnetic field produces electricfield”.
    7. 7. Resonant Inductive CouplingUses almost the sameconcept as Inductivecoupling just that the coilsoperate at resonantfrequency leading toefficient transfer of energyover a larger distance
    8. 8. Resonance Property of systems to operate at higher amplitudes at purticular frequencies known as resonant frequencies than at others.When 2 objects operate at same resonant frequency they transfer energyefficiently between them without interfering with the off resonant objects. Different Frequency
    9. 9. The glass which was having the resonant frequencyas of the singer’s voice accumulated sufficientenergy to explode eventually Different Frequency
    10. 10. The Witricity TeamIn 2007,6 MIT membersheaded by Marin Soljacic wereable to successfully transmitpower to a bulb within adistance of 2m at a freq of9.9MHz using concepts ofnon radiative mid range energytransferResonanceinductive couplingEfficiency at that point was justapproximately 43%
    11. 11. Block diagram for witricity mechanism
    12. 12. Circuit diagram for witricitydemonstration
    13. 13. Coupled mode theory for range & rate of couplingIn the coupled mode theory system with 2 resonators follow the below 2 equations:-
    14. 14. The solution of the equation show that at exact resonanceat: ωd= ωs and Γs=Γd The solution of the equation show that at exactad(t) dependsresonance at: on only geometry andω1=ω2 and Γ1=Γ2 them distance betweenprovided k/Γ>>1. the normal modes of the combined system are split The energyby 2κ. exchange between the two objects takes placein time Pi/κ and is nearly perfect, apart for losses, which are  The energy exchange between the two objectsminimal when the coupling rate is much faster than all loss takes place in time Pi/κ and is nearly perfect, apartrates (κ>> Γs, d). for losses, which are minimal when the coupling The desired optimal regime {κ/sqrt all loss rates (κ>> Γ1, 2). rate is much faster than (Γs,d)>>1} is called“Strong-Coupling” regime. There is No exchange of  The desired optimal regime {κ/sqrt (Γ1,2)>>1} isEnergy, unless κ/Γ>>1 is true. called “Strong-Coupling” regime. There is No change in Energy, unless κ/Γ>>1 is true.
    15. 15. Wireless electricity in our daily life
    16. 16. Efficiency chart of witricityIt is observed that efficiency decreases with increasein distance between source coil and load coil
    17. 17. Applications of Witricity(short range and mid range) 1.DIRECT WIRELESS POWER No device would need wires For TVs, toasters or any form of immobile electronic devices. 2. AUTOMATIC WIRELESS CHARGING Device with rechargeable batteries charges itself. For any form of mobile devices . 3.INDUSTRIAL would be free of heavy installation of wires and devoid of any hazardous electric shock incidents. 4.TRANSPORTATION Could charge an electric car or automobile.
    18. 18. Types of Long range/Far fieldtransmission techniques Radio frequency Transmission extracts small quantities of energy in the range 902 and 928 MHz Disadvantage—interference caused by metal surfaces Laser Transmission Highly directional and coherent Inefficient for wireless power transmission
    19. 19. Microwave TransmissionAims at higher power transfer over longerdistances practically in the range of some milesRequires a microwave source, antenna andrectennaoperates in the frequency range of 1-40GHzoperates at the highest efficiency at 2.45GHzSteps: 1.conversion of electrical to microwave energy 2.Capturing of microwave beams by Rectenna 3.conversion of microwave to electrical energy
    20. 20. Block diagram for microwave powertransmission model
    21. 21. Major components of the model Microwave generator: Microwave power sources used like Klystron, magnetron, TWT or GaAs MESFETs Output power is controlled by electronic circuits. Magnetron is most preferred at 2.45 GHz Transmitting antenna: Has the responsibility of transmitting power. Patch, Microstrip, parabolic dish or slotted waveguide antenna may be used. Rectenna: Consists of a antenna ,rectifying diodes and low pass filter. Rectenna area has to be large. Important for receiving microwave power
    22. 22. Rectenna block diagram OntrollerMatching circuit matches receiver load to antennaSchottky diode generally used as rectifying diode to provide DC powerLow pass filter ensures no RF is input to the power management systemwhere electrical energy is stored.Power management circuit enables storage of received power.Controller ensures delivery of DC power in time when required.
    23. 23. Applications of long range transmission SOLAR POWER SATELLITES: The most imp. Application or advancement: absorb light energy from sun. converted to electric energy and beamed to earth stations in form of microwave beams so it can power satellites,aircrafts,even supply electricity to places where wired connections are not possible at lower prices. SPACE POWER TRANSMISSION AND LUNAR BASED PROJECTS: satellites in space can receive microwave signals from earth and beam it to any place on earth. in future it encourages power projects on the moon
    24. 24. Image of a Rectenna in US with diameter of about half a milewhich is important as 95% of the microwave power is receivedby rectennas.US receives about 5000MW of power as a result.
    25. 25. Wireless power transmission and receptionusing microwaves
    26. 26. Advantages: 1. Efficient and reliable power. 2. Creation of a shock free environment devoid of any chances of power thefts. 3. Provides solution to the ever increasing demand for power. 4. A solution to reduce e-waste- a more safe environment. 5. A more cost effective methodology for getting electricity to your houses which includes paying less for use of power. 6. SPS are not affected by the day and night cycle leads to lesser limitations on power harvesting.Disadvantages:1.For short and mid range transfer system has to be set at theright frequency or there would be no power transfer.2.For long range the installation cost is high while EMI is also aconcern.
    27. 27. Conclusion: Wireless electricity is not just a great idea but an urgent measure that has to be taken to deal with the current energy crisis. Even the smallest entity can lead to one of the most mindboggling dilemmas of the world. Electrons the source of electricity puts us in a similar fix. It is on us to decide how to tap these electrons to be useful in our lives. Wireless electricity comes with its baggage but no can deny that it is here to stay.Prospects & Issues:From the discussion its clear that this idea needs awareness toremove doubts from minds of the people about safety issues.It requires both support from government and the peoplefinancially and psychologically.
    28. 28. References:•An article published in the Science Magazine as “Wireless PowerTransfer via Strongly coupled magnetic fields ”•“Efficient Non-Radiative Midrange Energy Transfer” by Aristeidieskaralis, Marlin Soljacic,2006.• http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/Xplore/•www.WiTricity.com•www.WiTricitypower.com•www.techjournal.com•www.wikipedia.org•http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journals