Violence against women
Physical, Sexual or Mental harm or suffering
Jaipuria Institute of Management, Indore
• The history of violence against women remains vague in
• many kinds of violence against women often go unreported or
under-reported due to societal norms, taboos, stigma, and the
sensitive nature of the subject.
• 18th-century English common law allowing a man to punish
his wife using a stick "no wider than his thumb." This rule for
punishment of wives prevailed in England and America until
the late 19th century
• There is no region of the world, no country and no culture in
which women’s freedom from violence has been secured.
• UN designated November 25 as the International Day for the
Elimination of Violence against Women.
• Women who have HIV/AIDS infection are also among the
targets of the violence.
• Violence against women (in short as VAW) is
technical term used to refer violent acts that
are primarily or exclusively committed against
• Violence against women is a manifestation of
historically unequal power relations between
men and women.
• Forced subordinate position
Priority actions for parliaments
• Adopt laws that work
• Make sure they are implemented
• Educate and sensitize
• Build partnerships
• Show strong political will
• Establish a sound institutional framework
Female genital mutilation
• Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting
and female circumcision, is defined by the World Health
Organization(WHO) as all procedures that involve partial or total
removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female
genital organs for non-medical reasons.
• FGM is practiced as a cultural ritual by ethnic groups in 27 countries in
Sub-Sahara and northeast Africa
• It is carried out without anesthesia by traditional circumciser using knife
• The age of the girl varies from weeks after birth to puberty.
• The health effects depend on the procedure but can include recurrent
infections, chronic pain, cysts, an inability to get pregnant,
complications during childbirth and fatal bleeding
• As of 2013 anti-FGM legislation had been passed by 33 countries
outside Africa and the Middle East. Sweden banned the practice in
1982, the first Western country to do so.
Stages of violence against women
4. adolescence and adulthood
throughout the life cycle……….
• Pre-birth Sex-selective abortion; effects of battering during pregnancy
on birth outcomes
• Infancy Female infanticide; physical, sexual and psychological abuse
• GirlhoodChild marriage; female genital mutilation; physical, sexual and
psychological abuse; incest; child prostitution and pornography
• Adolescence and adulthood Dating and courtship violence (e.g. acid
throwing and date rape); economically coerced sex (e.g. school girls
having sex with “sugar daddies” in return for school fees); sexual abuse
in the workplace; rape; sexual harassment; forced prostitution and
pornography; trafficking in women; partner violence; marital rape;
dowry abuse and murders; partner homicide; psychological abuse;
abuse of women with disabilities; forced pregnancy
• Elderly Forced “suicide” or homicide of widows for economic reasons;
sexual, physical and psychological abuse
An analysis by the UN of several international studies
found domestic violence against women to be most
prevalent in Ethiopia
Is law is there??
• Gender equality is in the Indian Constitution
in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights,
Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles
• Our laws, development policies, Plans and
programmes have aimed at women‟s
advancement in different spheres
Constitutional Provisions for women
• Article 14, confers on men and women equal rights and
opportunities in political, economic and social sphere.
• Article 15, prohibits, discrimination against any citizen on
grounds of religion, race, caste, sex etc.
• Article 16, provides for equality of opportunities matters
relating to employment or appointment to any office
under the state.
• Article 39(a)(d), mentions policy security of state
equality for both men and women the right to a means
of livelihood and equal pay for equal work for both men
• Article 42, Direct the State to make provision for ensuring
just and humane conditions of work and maternity
Legal Provisions for women
• Factories Act 1948: Under this Act, a woman cannot be
forced to work beyond 8 hours and prohibits
employment of women except between 6 A.M. and 7
• Maternity Benefit Act 1961: A Woman is entitled 12
weeks maternity leave with full wages.
• The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961: Under the provisions
of this Act demand of dowry either before marriage,
during marriage and or after the marriage is an offence.
• The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976: This act provides
equal wages for equal work: It provides for the payment
of equal wages to both men and women workers for the
same work or work of similar nature.
• The Medical Termination of Pregnancy Act of 1971: The
Act safeguards women from unnecessary and
India still has one of the lowest
sex ratios on the world with
approximately 35 million women
"missing". The highest number
of missing women at birth is in
the north-western states of
Punjab, Rajasthan and Haryana,
etc. Research indicates that 12%
of this gap is found at birth
which increased to 25% in
The National Crime Research Bureau
statistics indicate that an Indian woman is
most unsafe in her marital
home with 43.6% of all crimes against
women being "cruelty" inflicted by her
husband and relatives.
These numbers do not include incidences
of marital rape, as India does not recognize
marital rape as an offence of the 24,923
rape incidences in India in 2012, 98% of
the offenders were known to the victim.
In India grow up in a situation where they
see violence against women as the norm.
The Nirbhaya effect
• amendments included recognizing acid
attacks, sexual harassment, voyeurism,
stalking and trafficking of persons as criminal
acts under the amendments to the Indian
Penal Code, 1860.
• Five exclusive fast track courts were set up to
deal with cases of sexual violence against
• Women’s distress helpline number, 1091 was
launched in various Indian cities.
The Verma Committee
suggested that marital rape
should be recognized as a
criminal offence but the
suggestion was opposed by
all major Indian political
• Instilling particular values to boys and girls, at
home, at school and in the public sphere
• India’s first female Assistant Solicitor General,
Indira Jaising, pointed out that “no amount of
Fast Track Courts and Special Courts will
deliver justice to women, if those who hold
the high office of a Judge of the High Court
hold and express male chauvinistic views”.
Together we can!!
• If a brother, friend, classmate, or teammate is
abusing his female partner. DON’T REMAIN
• If you suspect that a woman close to you is being
abused or has been sexually assaulted, gently ask
if you can help.
• Educate yourself and others about how larger
social forces affect the conflicts between
individual men and women.
• As a mother , sister mentor and teach young boys
about how to be men in ways that don’t involve
degrading or abusing girls and women.
There is no chance for the welfare of the world
unless the condition of the women is improved. It
is not possible a bird to fly only on one wing.