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  • 1. PROCESS COSTING Process costing is famous topic of cost accounting. It is that method of costing which is used at that industry where production is done in step by step process. Every finished goods of one process will be the raw material of other process and production is continually operating in factory. At that time we calculate first process cost by making process account. A process account is made for every process of production. Process costing is a form of operations costing which is used where standardized homogeneous goods are produced. This costing method is used in industries like chemicals, textiles, steel, rubber, sugar, shoes, petrol etc. Process costing is also used in the assembly type of industries also. It is assumed in process costing that the average cost presents the cost per unit. Cost of production during a particular period is divided by the number of units produced during that period to arrive at the cost per unit. Process costing is an accounting methodology that traces and accumulates direct costs, and allocates indirect costs of a manufacturing process. Costs are assigned to products, usually in a large batch, which might include an entire month's production. Eventually, costs have to be allocated to individual units of product. It assigns average costs to each unit, and is the opposite extreme of Job costing which attempts to measure individual costs of production of each unit. Process costing is usually a significant chapter. Process costing is a type of operation costing which is used to ascertain the cost of a product at each process or stage of manufacture. CIMA defines process costing as "The costing method applicable where goods or services result from a sequence of continuous or repetitive operations or processes. Costs are averaged over the units produced during the period". Process costing is suitable for industries producing homogeneous products and where production is a continuous flow. A process can be referred to as the sub-unit of an organization specifically defined for cost collection purpose. Following are main industries where we use process costing method: 1. Chemical industry 2. Soap industry 3. Clothes industry 1
  • 2. 4. Paper industry 5. Dairy Industry MEANING OF PROCESS COSTING Process costing is a method of costing under which all costs are accumulated for each stage of production or process, and the 2 cost per unit of product is ascertained at each stage of production by dividing the cost of each process by the normal output of that process. Definition: CIMA London defines process costing as “that form of operation costing which applies where standardize goods are produced” Features of Process Costing: (a) The production is continuous (b) The product is homogeneous (c) The process is standardized (d) Output of one process become raw material of another process (e) The output of the last process is transferred to finished stock (f) Costs are collected process-wise (g) Both direct and indirect costs are accumulated in each process (h) If there is a stock of semi-finished goods, it is expressed in terms of equivalent units (i) The total cost of each process is divided by the normal output of that process to find out cost per unit of that process. Advantages of process costing: 1. Costs are be computed periodically at the end of a particular period 2. It is simple and involves less clerical work that job costing 3. It is easy to allocate the expenses to processes in order to have accurate costs. 4. Use of standard costing systems in very effective in process costing situations. 5. Process costing helps in preparation of tender, quotations 6. Since cost data is available for each process, operation and department, good managerial control is possible. 2
  • 3. Limitations: 1. Cost obtained at each process is only historical cost and are not very useful for effective control. 2. Process costing is based on average cost method, which is not that suitable for performance analysis, evaluation and managerial control. 3. Work-in-progress is generally done on estimated basis which leads to inaccuracy in total cost calculations. 4. The computation of average cost is more difficult in those cases where more than one type of products is manufactured and a division of the cost element is necessary. 5. Where different products arise in the same process and common costs are prorated to various costs units. Such individual products costs may be taken as only approximation and hence not reliable. The characteristics of process costing system: 1. A cost of production report is used to collect, summarize and compute total and unit costs. 2. Production is accumulated and reported by departments. 3. Costs are posted to departmental work in process accounts. 4. Production in process at the end of a period is restated in terms of completed units. 5. Total cost charged to a department is divided by total computed production of the department in order to determine a unit cost for a specific period. 6. Costs of completed units of a department are transferred to the next processing department in order to arrive at the total costs of the finished products during a period. At the same time, costs are assigned to units still in process. 3
  • 4. The procedures of process costing are designed to: 1. Accumulate materials, labor, and factory overhead costs by departments. 2. Determine a unit cost for each department. 3. Transfer costs from one department to the next and to finished goods. 4. Assign costs to the inventory of work in process (WIP) 5. If accurate units and inventory costs are to be established by process costing procedures, costs of a period must be identified with units produced in the same period 4
  • 5. DISTINCTION BETWEEN JOB COSTING AND PROCESS COSTING Job order c o st i n g a n d p r o c e s s c o s t i n g a r e t w o d i f f e r e n t systems. Both t h e s ys t em s a r e us ed fo r c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n and attachment of cost to each unit completed, but both the systems are suitable in different situations. The basic difference between job costing and process costing are Basis of Distinction 1. Specific order 2. Nature 3. Cost determination 4. Cost calculations 5. Control 6. Transfer 7. Work-in-Progress 8. Suitability Job order costing Performed against specific orders Each job many be different. Process costing Production is contentious Product is homogeneous and standardized. Cost is determined for each job separately. Costs are complied for each process for department on time basis i.e. for a given accounting period. Cost is complied when a Cost is c a l c u l a t e d a t job is completed. the end o f t h e c o s t period. Proper control is Proper controlis comparatively comparatively easier d i f f i c u l t as each as the production is product unit is different standardized and is and the more suitable. production is not continuous. There is usually not The output of one transfer from one job to process is transferred to another unless another process as input. there is some surplus work. There may or may not There is always some be work-in-progress. work-in-progress because of continuous production. Suitable to industries where production is intermittent and customer o r d e r s c a n be identified in the value of production. Suitable, where goods are made for stock and productions is continuous. 5
  • 6. Difference between job costing & process costing The primary goal of both job costing and process costing in the manufacturing profession is to determine the actual cost per unit. Job costing basically refers to the costs that are encountered in the businesses related to manufacturing goods. Job Costing ledgers, wherein such costs are recorded, form an integral part of the final account statement of the manufacturers. This type of costing involves recording the costs as per the specific jobs rather than a particular process. However, Process Costing refers to the methodology involved in calculating the costs that are incurred while performing a particular task or undertaking a specific process. This might involve the costs that are either incurred directly or indirectly. Job Costing involves the costs of every individual unit of production. However, Process Costing involves the costs that are averaged for each production unit. As per the definition, Process Costing is a method that is applied to the manufacture business that is held together by various continuous or repetitive processes. Process Costing works efficiently for the industries that are known to produce a single type of product. Both of these terms signify the costs related to labor, material and overhead costs. Process Costing helps to keep a tight reign over the monthly expenditures in a manufacturing business. As an example, Job Costing involves the costs that form salaries of labors working in a particular process whereas Process Costing involves the costs of the processed or manufactured goods undertaken by different departments. One of the major differences between Job Costing and Process Costing is that the Job Costing can be carried out while a particular job is going on. However, Process Costing can be achieved only when all the processes are completed. Moreover, when it comes to documentation, in case of Job Costing, the job cost sheet is important whereas in Process Costing a document having deposition and accumulation of various costs is important. 6
  • 7. In summary, there are various differences between Job Costing and Process Costing methods. Some of these are listed below: 1. Job Costing signifies the costs encountered for each and every job whereas Process Costing signifies the costs encountered for different departments. 2. In case of Job Costing, a final value of the costs can be calculated beforehand whereas in Process Costing, the final value of the costs is calculated only at the end of the complete process. 3. The important documents needed to carry out Job Costing are much different from those needed for Process Costing. 4. Job Costing is typically used by industries that manufacture customized and heterogenous products whereas Process Costing method is used by the industries that are involved in mass production of homogenous products. This is a method of job costing used by fabricators and manufacturers who produce unique special orders, customized products and even standardized products that are produced in small batches. Essentially, job order costing is attempting to measure the cost of manufacturing a single unit for a particular job order. It is simple to find the cost per widget. Take the sum of the cost of materials (including unusable scrap), cost of labor and allocated overhead and divide by the number of widgets produced for a particular job order. The math is easy, the tricky part is accurately tracking the material, labor and overhead with efficiency. 7
  • 8. Process Costing Unlike job order costing, process costing is a used by manufacturers who mass produce large quantities of the exact same "widget" in one continuous process flow. How this differs from job order costing is that for process costing, the cost per unit is accumulated within a specific time period for a specific department. The formula is similar to job order costing. Divide the sum of the cost of material, cost of labor and allocated overhead for a month (arbitrary time frame) by the number of widgets produced within that same month. Following are the main differences between process costing and job costing: 1. Applicability Process costing is applied to ascertain the cost of standardized products produced in mass. So, naturally, materials, labor and other facilities remain indifferent. Job costing is applied to ascertain the cost of a specific order received. The quality and quantity of materials and labor and other facilities between jobs vary. 2. Cost Collection Process costing accumulates manufacturing costs for departments or processes. Job costing uses cost sheet and accumulates manufacturing costs for each job or batch separately. 3. Time Period Process costing has a time frame of certain months or years for which costs are accumulated. Job costing has no time frame. It ends after the completion of a particular job so that costs are accumulated for each job. 8
  • 9. 4. Unit Cost Ascertainment Process costing divides total departmental process costs by the departmental process output to derive the unit cost. Job costing obtains unit cost by dividing the total cost of the job by the job order units. Necessary of process costing Manufacturing and production companies use process costing to allocate production costs to consumer goods. Process costing is most common in business industries where manufacturers produce homogenous goods. Homogenous goods represent items that are extremely similar to each other. Gasoline, kidney beans, soda pop, cotton tee shirts and plywood are a few examples of homogenous products. Business owners use process costing because it offers several advantages in the manufacturing and production environment. Saves Time Process costing saves management accountants copious amounts of time. Many types of cost allocation systems require accountants should to identify specific costs or cost drivers when allocating production costs. Process costing avoids these actions because it allocates costs based on the number of production processes a good travels through. Management accountants focus on the production costs for each manufacturing process. The number of goods leaving a production process will usually have the total process costs applied to each product. Process costing allows management accounts to apply an average per-unit cost for the direct materials, production labor and manufacturing overhead to each product. Flexible Manufacturing and production companies can have a few or several production processes based on the type good. Production processes can include selling, refining, training, filtering, bottling, labeling and shipping. The type of production process depends on the goods being produced and how much time must be spent on converting raw materials to valuable consumer goods. Companies who use process costing often have a flexible production environment. New production processes may be added to the production system and costs will be allocated for the new process. This concept also works in reverse. Companies can eliminate extemporaneous production processes and decrease product costs by reducing the total production system. Easier Than Other Costing Systems Process costing is usually an easier costing system for manufacturing and production companies. Using a basic process cost allocation system allows companies to hire and train new accounting employees in less time than other companies. Process costing may also require less paperwork and other information for management decisions. Management and 9
  • 10. cost accounting is usually responsible for providing business owners and managers with financial information for business decisions. Process costing usually provides information on current work-in-process (unfinished products) and the number of 100 percent complete goods produced. Additional information is often easy to include this process costing includes products in large batches rather than individual units. Process costing is an accounting system that gathers direct and indirect costs of manufacturing and then averages them out into a "cost per unit" for each product. Process costing is the opposite of job costing, which determines the specific cost for each task in a procedure of creating a product. Many large companies that create the same product over and over again like Coca Cola or Kellogg's use process accounting for their products, as there are many benefits for a large and active company. The Importance of process costing Costing is an important process that many companies engage in to keep track of where their money is being spent in the production and distribution processes. Understanding these costs is the first step in being able to control them. It is very important that a company chooses the appropriate type of costing system for their product type and industry. One type of costing system that is used in certain industries is process costing that varies from other types of costing (such as job costing) in some ways. In Process costing unit costs are more like averages, the process-costing system requires less bookkeeping than does a job-order costing system. So, a lot of companies prefer to use process-costing system. When process costing is applied? Process costing is appropriate for companies that produce a continuous mass of like units through series of operations or process. Also, when one order does not affect the production process and a standardization of the process and product exists. However, if there are significant differences among the costs of various products, a process costing system would not provide adequate product-cost information. Costing is generally used in such industries such as petroleum, coal mining, chemicals, textiles, paper, plastic, glass, and food. 10
  • 11. Reasons for use Companies need to allocate total product costs to units of product for the following reasons:  A company may manufacture thousands or millions of units of product in a given period of time.  Products are manufactured in large quantities, but products may be sold in small quantities, sometimes one at a time (automobiles, loaves of bread), a dozen or two at a time (eggs, cookies), etc.  Product costs must be transferred from Finished Goods to Cost of Goods Sold as sales are made. This requires a correct and accurate accounting of product costs per unit, to have a proper matching of product costs against related sales revenue.  Managers need to maintain cost control over the manufacturing process. Process costing provides managers with feedback that can be used to compare similar product costs from one month to the next, keeping costs in line with projected manufacturing budgets.  A fraction-of-a-cent cost change can represent a large dollar change in overall profitability, when selling millions of units of product a month. Managers must carefully watch per unit costs on a daily basis through the production process, while at the same time dealing with materials and output in huge quantities.  Materials part way through a process (e.g. chemicals) might need to be given a value, process costing allows for this. By determining what cost the part processed material has incurred such as labor or overhead an "equivalent unit" relative to the value of a finished process can be calculated. Process cost procedures There are four basic steps in accounting for Process cost:  Summarize the flow of physical units of output.  Compute output in terms of equivalent units. 11
  • 12.  Summarize total costs to account for and Compute equivalent unit costs.  Assign total costs to units completed and to units in ending work in process inventory. Format of process a/c Particulars To Direct material To Direct Labour To Indirect material To Other Expenses Unit Rate Rs. To Abnormal gain(B/F) Total Particulars By Normal Loss By Units transferred to other process By Abnormal loss (B/F) Unit Rate Rs. Total Format of Abnormal loss Particulars To Process a/c Unit Rs. Total Particulars By Sale of wasted units By costing P & L a/c Total Unit Rs. Format of Abnormal gain a/c Particulars To Normal Loss a/c To costing P&la/c Total Units Rs. Particulars By Process a/c (names of different process) Total Units Rs. 12
  • 13. 1)To find the cost per unit for valuation of units to be trans. to next process and also for abnormal, loss or gain = Total process cost – Salvage value of normal spoilage Total units introduced – Normal loss in units 2) To find abnormal loss (or) gain (all in units): = Units from previous process + fresh units introduced – Normal loss – units transferred to next process (If the result is positive then abnormal loss. If negative then abnormal gain) 3) In case of opening WIP and closing WIP are given then there are different methods of valuation of closing WIP i) FIFO Method ii) LIFO Method iii) Average Method iv) Weighted Average Method 4) Various statements to be prepared while WIP is given: i) Statement of equivalent production ii) Statement of cost iii) Statement of apportionment of cost iv) Process cost a/c 5) FIFO Method: In these method total units transferred to next process includes full opening stock units and the closing stock includes the units introduced during the process. In this method the cost incurred during the process is assumed as to be used a) First to complete the units already in process b) Then to complete the newly introduced units c) For the work done to bring closing inventory to given state of completion 6) LIFO Method = Cost incurred in process is used for: a) First to complete newly introduced units b) Then to complete units already in process in this method closing stock is divided into two : i) Units which represent opening stock but lie at the end of the period ii) Newly introduced units in closing stock. 7) Average Method: In this method a) No distinction is made between opening stock and newly introduced material. b) In finding cost per unit, cost incurred for opening stock is also to be added with current cost. (This addition is not done in LIFO & FIFO method as cost incurred in that process is only taken) 13
  • 14. 8) Weighted average method: This method is only used when varied product in processed through a single process. General procedure is adopted here. a) Statement of weighted average production should be prepared. Under this statement output of each products is expressed in terms of points. b) Cost of each type of product is computed on basis of Points. Points of vital importance in case of Abnormal Gain / Loss: a) Calculate cost per unit by assuming there is no abnormal loss / gain b) Cost per unit arrived above should be applied for valuation of both abnormal Loss/gain units and output of the process. c) Separate a/c for both abnormal loss/gain is to be prepared. In process costing, we study mainly following important matters 1. Process Loss It is sure that some losses will happen in processing industries. These losses may be happened due to natural activities of chemical or leakage. So, for effective control, it is necessary to record all the raw materials in each process. Normal process loss will increase the cost of unit produced in any process. So, we will credited normal wastage units only (not amount) in the credit side of process account. If there is abnormal loss which has happened due to ignorance, then we calculate value of abnormal loss and its no. of units and cost will be credited to process account. Formula of calculating the Value of Abnormal Loss 14
  • 15. If there is any cash received due to selling of scrap, then this will be credited to abnormal loss account and balance of abnormal loss account will be credited to costing profit and loss account. 2. Normal Loss: Normal loss is an unavoidable loss which occurs due to the inherent nature of the materials and production process under normal conditions. It is normally estimated on the basis of past experience of the industry. It may be in the form of normal wastage, normal scrap, normal spoilage, and normal defectiveness. It may occur at any time of the process. No of units of normal loss: Input x Expected percentage of Normal Loss. Cost of good unit: Total cost increased – Sale Value of Scrap Input – Normal Loss units The cost of normal loss is a process. If the normal loss units can be sold as a crap then the sale value is credited with process account. If some rectification is required before the sale of the normal loss, then debit that cost in the process account. After adjusting the normal loss the cost per unit is calculates with the help of the following formula: 3. Abnormal Loss: Any loss caused by unexpected abnormal conditions such as plant breakdown, substandard material, carelessness, accident etc. such losses are in excess of pre-determined normal losses. This loss is basically avoidable. Thus abnormal losses arrive when actual losses are more than expected losses. The units of abnormal losses in calculated as under: Abnormal Losses = Actual Loss – Normal Loss The value of abnormal loss is done with the help of following formula: Value of Abnormal Loss: 15
  • 16. Total Cost increase – Scrap Value of normal Loss x Units of abnormal loss Input units – Normal Loss Units Abnormal Process loss should not be allowed to affect the cost of production as it is caused by abnormal (or) unexpected conditions. Such loss representing the cost of materials, labour and overhead charges called abnormal loss account. The sales value of the abnormal loss is credited to Abnormal Loss Account and the balance is written off to costing P & L A/c. Dr. Particulars To Process A/c. Abnormal Loss A/c. Units Rs. Particulars xx xx By Bank By Costing P & L A/c. xx xxx Cr. Units xx xx Rs. xx xx xx xx : 4. Abnormal Gains: The margin allowed for normal loss is an estimate (i.e. on the basis of expectation in process industries in normal conditions) and slight differences are bound to occur between the actual output of a process and that anticipates. This difference may be positive or negative. If it is negative it is called ad abnormal Loss and if it is positive it is Abnormal gain i.e. if the actual loss is less than the normal loss then it is called as abnormal gain. The value of the abnormal gain calculated in the similar manner of abnormal loss. The formula used for abnormal gain is: Abnormal Gain Total Cost incurred – Scrap Value of Normal Loss x Abnormal Gain Unites Input units – Normal Loss Units The sales values of abnormal gain units are transferred to Normal Loss Account since it arrive out of the savings of Normal Loss. 16
  • 17. The difference is transferred to Costing P & L A/c. as a Real Gain. Dr. Abnormal Gain A/c. Particulars Units Rs. Particulars To Normal Loss xx xx By Process A/c. A/c. xx xx To Costing P & L A/c. xx xx Cr. Units xx Rs. xx xx xx 5. Inter - Process Profits If transfer from one process to another process is not on cost, then to calculate of inter process profits is very important because we will show it in process account's separated column. With this, next process will not get benefit of previous process. This inter-process profits do not show in balance sheet. It is just for deep analysis in process accounting. {* One important thing, you must remember that you have to deduct closing stock's profit from total profit earned in any process.} This profit on closing stock can be calculated with following formula : Difference between normal and abnormal loss 17
  • 18. (a) Normal spoilage arises under normal, efficient operating conditions; i.e., it is inherent in the production process and is uncontrollable in the short run. Abnormal spoilage is not expected under the normal, efficient operating conditions; i.e., it is not inherent in the production process and management usually considers it avoidable or controllable. Thus, by definition, the critical factor in distinguishing between normal and abnormal spoilage is the degree of controllability of units spoiled. Any spoilage that occurs during a production process functioning within the expected usual range of performance is considered normal. Any spoilage occurring in amounts in excess of the defined usual range is considered abnormal (controllable). (b) Conceptually the cost of normal loss should be included in the cost of good units produced because of its association with normal production. Likewise, the cost of abnormal loss should be accounted for as a loss because of its abnormal unusual nature and should be separately identified as a loss on reports for management. For practical reasons, there may be no distinction between normal and abnormal loss in reports for management, since it is sometimes very difficult (or impossible) to do so. The production process may be relatively new or the process may be altered often enough to make such a distinction impractical or too costly. Whenever possible, however should be made and accounted for as discussed in the preceding paragraphs. Formulas: 1. Cost of Abnormal Wastage = Normal cost ÷ Normal output x Abnormal Wastage inn units 2. Cost of Abnormal Effectives = Normal Cost ÷ Normal Output x Abnormal Effectives in units 3. Computation of Abnormal loss : Quantity of abnormal loss = Normal output – Actual output Normal output = Input – normal loss 4. Value of abnormal loss = Normal cost of the normal output ÷ Normal output x units of Abnormal loss 5.Value of normal cost of normal output = Expenditure of the process – Scrap value of normal Loss 18
  • 19. Definition and Explanation of Equivalent Units of Production: After materials, labor and overhead costs have been accumulated in a department, the department's output must be determined so that unit cost can be computed. A department usually has some partially completed units in its ending inventory. It does not seem reasonable to count these partially completed units as equivalent to fully completed units when counting the department's out put. These partially converted units are mathematically converted into an equivalent number of fully completed units. In process costing this is done by using the following formula: Equivalent Units = Number of partially Completed Units × Percentage of Completion Equivalent units of production for a period can be calculated in two different ways 1. Weighted Average method 2. First in First Out (FIFO) method Equivalent Units―Weighted Average Method: Weighted Average method blends together units and costs from the current period with units and costs from the prior period. In a weighted average method the equivalent units of production for a department are the number of units transferred to the next department of finished goods plus the equivalent units in the department's ending work in process inventory. VALUATION OF WORK-IN-PROGRESS Meaning of Work-in-Progress: Since production is a continuous activity, there may be some incomplete production at the end of an accounting period. Incomplete units mean those units on which percentage of completion with regular to all elements of cost (i.e. material, labour and overhead) is not 100%. Such incomplete production units are known as Work-in-Progress. Such Work-in-Progress is valued in terms of equivalent or effective production units. Meaning of equivalent production units : This represents the production of a process in terms of complete units. In other words, it means converting the incomplete production into its equivalent of complete units. The term equivalent unit means a notional quantity of completed units substituted for an actual quantity of incomplete physical units in progress, when the aggregate work content of the incomplete units is deemed to be equivalent to that of the substituted quantity. The principle applies when operation costs are apportioned between work in progress and 19
  • 20. completed units. Equivalent unit should be calculated separately for each element of cost (viz. material, labour and overheads) because the percentage of completion of the different cost component may be different. Accounting Procedure: The following procedure is followed when there is Work-inProgress (1) Find out equivalent production after taking into account of the process losses, degree of completion of opening and / or closing stock. (2) Find out net process cost according to elements of costs i.e. material, labour and overheads. (3) Ascertain cost per unit of equivalent production of each element of cost separately by dividing each element of costs by respective equivalent production units. (4) Evaluate the cost of output finished and transferred work in progress The total cost per unit of equivalent units will be equal to the total cost divided by effective units and cost of workinprogress will be equal to the equivalent units of work-inprogress multiply by the cost per unit of effective production. In short the following from steps an involved. Step 1 – prepare statement of Equivalent production Step 2 – Prepare statement of cost per Equivalent unit Step 3 – Prepare of Evaluation Step 4 – Prepare process account The problem on equivalent production may be divided into four groups. I. when there is only closing work-in-progress but without process losses II. when there is only closing work-in-progress but with process losses III. when there is only opening as well as closing work-inprogress without process losses IV. when there is opening as well as closing work-inprogress with process losses Situation I : Only closing work-in-progress without process losses : In this case, the existence of process loss is ignored. Closing work-in-progress is converted into equivalent units on the basis of estimates on degree of completion of materials, labour and production overhead. 20
  • 21. Afterwards, the cost pr equivalent unit is calculated and the same is used to value the finished output transferred and the closing work-in-progress Situation II: When there is closing work-in-progress with process loss or gain. If there are process losses the treatment is same as already discussed in this chapter. In case of normal loss nothing should be added to equivalent production. If abnormal loss is there, it should be considered as good units completed during the period. If units scrapped (normal loss) have any reliable value, the amount should be deducted from the cost of materials in the cost statement before dividing by equivalent production units. Abnormal gain will be deducted to obtain equivalent production. Situation III: Opening and closing work-in-progress without process losses. Since the production is a continuous activity there is possibility of opening as well as closing work-in-progress. The procedure of conversion of opening work-in-progress will vary depending on the method of apportionment of cost followed viz, FIFO, Average cost Method and LIFO. Let us discuss the methods of valuation of work-in-progress one by one. (a) FIFO Method: The FIFO method of costing is based on the assumption of that the opening work-in-progress units are the first to be completed. Equivalent production of opening work-in-progress can be calculated as follows: Equivalent Production = Units of Opening WIP x Percentage of work needed to finish the units (b) Average Cost Method: This method is useful when price fluctuate from period to period. The closing valuation of work-in-progress in the old period is added to the cost of new period and an average rate obtained. In calculating the equivalent production opening units will not be shown separately as units of work-in-progress but included in the units completed and transferred. (c) Weighted Average Cost Method: In this method no distinction is made between completed units from opening inventory and completed units from new production. All units finished during the current accounting period are treated as if they were started and finished during that period. The weighted average cost per unit is determined by dividing the total cost (opening work-in-progress cost + current cost) by equivalent production. (d) LIFO Method: In LIFO method the assumption is that the units entering into the process is the last one first to be completed. The cost of opening work-in-progress is 21
  • 22. charged to the closing work-in-progress and thus the closing work-in progress appears cost of opening work-in-progress. The completed units are at their current cost. (1) Format of statement of Equivalent Production: Input Particulars Opening Stock Units Introduced Output Equivalent Production Units Particulars Units Material Labour Overheads % Units % Units % Units xx Units xx xx xx xx xx completed xx Normal xx ----Loss Abnormal xx xx xx xx xx Loss xx Equivalent xx xx xx xx xx xx Xx Units (2) Statement of cost per Equivalent Units : Element of costing Material Cost (Net) Labour Cost Overheads Cost Cost Rs. Equivalent Units Xx Xx Xx xx Xx Xx xx Cost per Equivalent Units Rs Xx Xx Xx Xx (3) Statement of Evaluation Particulars Cost Rs. Material xx xx xx xx xx xx Overheads Closing WIP Cost per equivalent units Rs. Labour Units completed Equivalent Units xx xx xx Material xx xx xx Labour xx xx xx Element of cost Total Cost Rs. Xx 22
  • 23. Overheads xx xx Material xx xx xx Labour xx xx xx Overheads Abnormal Loss xx xx xx Xx xx Xx Illustration 1: (Normal / Abnormal Loss and Abnormal Gain) The product of a company passes through 3 distinct process. The following information is obtained from the accounts for the month ending January 31, 2008. Process – A Particulars Process – B Process – C Direct Material 7800 5940 8886 Direct Wages 6000 9000 12000 Production Overheads 6000 9000 12000 3000 units @ Rs. 3 each were introduced to process – I. There was no stock of materials or work in progress. The output of each process passes directly to the next process and finally to finished stock A/c. The following additional data is obtained : Process Output Percentage of Normal Loss to Input Value of Scrap per unit (Rs.) Process – I 2850 5% 2 Process – II 2520 10 % 4 23
  • 24. Process – III 2250 15 % 5 Prepare Process Cost Account, Normal Cost Account and Abnormal Gain or Loss Account. Solution: Process – A A/c. Dr. Particulars Units Rs. Particulars To Units introduced 3000 9000 By Normal Loss A/c. 7800 By Process – B A/c. 6000 Cr. (Units transferred To Material Direct To Direct Wages To Production Direct 300 2850 28500 3000 28800 Process – B A/c. Dr. To Material 150 28800 6000 3000 To Process – I A/c. Rs. @ Rs. 10/-) Overheads Particulars Units Units Rs. Particulars 2850 28500 By Normal Loss A/c. 5940 By Abnormal Loss A/c. Cr. Units Rs. 285 1140 45 9000 24
  • 25. To Direct Wages 9000 By Process – C A/c. 2520 50400 2850 52440 To Production Overheads 9000 2850 52440 25
  • 26. Process – C A/c. Dr. Particulars To Process – II A/c. To Direct Material A/c To Direct Wages To Production Overheads To Abnormal Gain A/c. Units 2520 Rs. 50400 8886 Particulars To Normal Loss A/c. To Costing P&L A/c. Rs. 1890 2250 85500 108 2628 87390 12000 4104 87390 Abnormal Gain A/c. Units 108 Rs. 540 Particulars By Process – C A/c. Cr. Units 108 Rs. 4104 108 4104 3564 108 Dr. Particulars To Process – A A/c. To Process – B A/c. To Process – C A/c. Units 378 12000 2628 Dr. Particulars By Normal Loss A/c. By Finished Stock A/c. Cr. 4104 Normal Loss A/c. Units 150 Rs. 300 285 1140 378 1890 Particulars Units By Bank A/c. (Sales) 150 Process – A A/c. Process – B A/c. 285 Process – C A/c. By Abnormal Gain A/c. 813 3330 Cr. Rs. 300 1140 270 1350 108 540 813 3330 26
  • 27. Illustration 2 (Average Costing) Prepare a statement of equivalent production, statement of cost, process account from the following information using average costing method. Opening Stock Material 25000 Labour 10000 Overheads 25000 Units Introduced Material Wages 75000 Overheads 70000 50000 Units Rs. Rs. Rs. 2000000 Units Rs. 100000 Rs. Rs. During the period 1,50,000 units were completed and transferred to Process II. Closing stock 1,00,000 units. Degree of completion. Material 100 % Labour 50 % Overheads 40 % Solution : Input Particulars Units Opening Stock Introduced Output Particula Units rs Units 50,000 Produced 200,000 Closing Stock 250000 Equivalent Production Material Labour Overheads % Units % Units % Units 150000 100 150000 100 100000 100 100000 250000 250000 50 150000 100 50000 200000 40 150000 40000 190000 27
  • 28. Statement of Cost : Element Opening cost Rs. Current cost Rs. Total Cost Rs. Equivalent units Cost per unit Material 25,000 1,00,000 1,25,000 2,50,000 0.500 Labour 10,000 75,000 85,000 2,00,000 0.425 Overheads 25,000 70,000 95,000 1,90,000 0.500 60,000 2,45,000 3,05,000 1.425 Statement of Apportionment of Cost Particulars Units 1. Units introduced & 1,50,000 transferred 2. Closing work-in-progress Material 1,00,000 Labour 50,000 Overheads 40,000 Dr. Cost per unit 1.425 0.500 0.425 0.500 Cost 50,000 21,250 20,000 Total cost 213750 91,250 3,05,000 Process I A/c. Particulars Units Rs. Particulars Units To Opening 50,000 60,000 By Units completed Stock To Materials 2,00,000 1,00,000 & transfer 50,000 To Labour 75,000 By Closing Stock 50,000 To 70,000 Overheads 2,50,000 3,05,000 2,50,000 Cr. Rs. 2,13,750 91,250 3,05,000 28
  • 29. Illustration 3: (FIFO Method) From the following information relating to KKN Company Ltd. Prepare Process Cost Account for Process III for the year 2008. Opening Stock IN Process III Transfer from Process II Direct Material added in Process III Direct Wages Production Overhead Units Scrap Transferred to Process IV Closing Stock 5000 units of Rs. 36,000 2,13,000 units of Rs. 8,27,000 Rs. 4,01,800 Rs. 1,98,100 Rs. 99,050 11,000 units 1,89,000 units 18,000 units 29
  • 30. Degree of Completion: Opening Stock Material 70 % Labour 50 % Overhead 50 % Closing Stock 80 % 60 % 60 % Scrap 100 % 80 % 80 % There was a normal loss of 5% production and unit scraped were sold at Rs. 1.50 Solution : Input Particular Units s Opening Stock 5,000 Process II Transfer 213,000 218000 Output Particulars Units Normal Loss Op. Stock Processed Introduces & Completed Abnormal Loss Closing Stock Equivalent Production Material Labour Overheads % Units % Units % Units 10000 5000 - - 184000 100 30 1500 50 2500 184000 100 184000 184000 100 100 1000 100 1000 80 800 18000 100 218000 18000 203000 80 14400 200900 60 10800 198100 1000 Note : Units Produced: Opening stock + units introduced – closing stock : 5000 +213000 – 18000 = 200000 Normal Loss : 5 % of 200000 = 10000 units 30
  • 31. Statement of Cost Cost Rs. Particulars Material – I Transfer from process Previous 15,000 Cost Per Unit Rs. 8,27,000 Less – Value of scrap (normal) Material – II Aded+ in the process Direct Wages Overheads Equivalent Units Rs. 8,12,000 2,03,000 4.00 4,01,800 1,98,100 99,050 2,00,900 1,98,100 1,98,100 2.00 1.00 0.50 7.50 31
  • 32. Statement of Apportionment of Cost Particulars Op. Processed Stock Units introduced and Completed Closing stock Abnormal loss Elements Equivalent Units Cost Per Unit Rs. Material I -- Cost Rs. Total cost Rs. -- Material II Wages Overheads Material I 1,500 2,500 2,500 1,84,000 2.00 1.00 0.50 4.00 3,000 2,500 1,250 7,36,000 Material II Wages Overheads Material I Material II Wages Overheads Material I Material II Wages Overheads 1,84,000 1,84,000 1,84,000 18,000 14,400 10,800 10,800 1,000 1,000 800 800 2.00 1.00 0.50 4.00 2.00 1.00 0.50 4.00 2.00 1.00 0.50 3,68,000 1,84,000 92,000 13,80,000 72,000 13,86,750 28,800 10,800 5,400 1,17,000 4,000 2,000 800 400 7,200 15,10,950 TOTAL Dr. Process III A/c. Particulars To Balance b/d. Units 5,000 Rs. 36,000 To Process II A/c. To Materials 2,13,000 8,27,000 4,01,800 To Wages 1,98,100 To Overheads Particulars By Normal Loss By Process IV A/c. By Abnormal Loss Cr. Units 10,000 Rs. 15,000 1,89,000 14,22,750 1,000 7,200 18,000 1,17,000 2,18,000 15,61,950 99,050 2,18,000 15,61,950 By Closing Stock 6,750 32
  • 33. Illustration 4 The following information is given in respect of Process costing 10 : 3 for the month of January 2009. Opening stock – 2,000 units made up of Direct Material – I Direct Material – II Direct Labour Overheads Rs. 12,350 13,200 17,500 11,000 Transferred from Process 2 – 20,000 units @ Rs. 6 per unit. Transferred to Process 4 – 17,000 units Expenditure incurred in process – 3 Direct Material Direct Labour Overheads Rs. 30,000 60,000 60,000 Scrap:1,000 units-Direct Materials 100%,Direct Labour 60%, Overheads 40%. Normal Loss 10 % of Production. Scrapped units realized Rs. 4/- per unit Closing stock : 4,000 units – Degree of completion. Direct Materials 80 %, Direct Labour 60 % and Overheads 40 %. Prepare Process 3 Account using average price method along with necessary supporting statements. Solution : 33
  • 34. Statement Material) of Equivalent Production Total Units Material – I 17000 100 1800 800 Closing Stock 4000 Particulars Material – II Average cost -- Abnormal Gain (weighted Labour Overheads % Units % Units % Units 17000 100 17000 100 17000 100 17000 100 800 100 800 100 800 100 800 100 4000 80 3200 60 2400 40 1600 Units Completely Processed Normal Loss 10% of (2000 + 20000 – 4000) 22000 20200 19400 18600 17800 34
  • 35. Statement of Cost Particulars Cost Rs. Material – I : Opening balance 2000 units Cost of 20000 units @ Rs. 6 Per unit Equivalent Units Rate / Equivalent Units Rs. 12,350 1,20,000 1,25,150 20,200 6.1955 13,200 30,000 43,200 19,400 2.2268 17,500 60,000 77,500 18,600 4.1667 11,000 60,000 71,000 17,800 3.9888 16.5778 Material – II : Opening Stock In Process II Labour : Opening Labour In Process II Overheads : Opening Stocks In Process II Total cost per unit Valuation of Equivalent Unit Finished goods Abnormal Units Workinprogress Material I Material II Labour Overheads (17000 units x Rs. 16.5778) (800 units x Rs. 16.5778) (4000 units x Rs. 6.1955) (3200 units x Rs. 2.2268) (2400 units x Rs. 4.1667) (1600 units x Rs. 3.9888) Dr. Particulars To Opening WIP To Process 2 To Direct Material II Rs. 2,81,822 13,262 24,782 7,126 10,000 6,382 Process III A/c. Units 2,000 Rs. 57,050 20,000 1,20,000 30,000 48,290 Cr. Particulars By Normal Loss Units 1,800 Rs. 7,200 By Finished Goods Units By Closing Balance 17,000 4,000 2,81,822 48,290 35
  • 36. To Direct Labour To Overheads To Abnormal Gain 60,000 800 60,000 13,262 22,800 3,37,312 22,800 3,37,312 36
  • 37. Illustration.5 The finished product of a factory pass through two processes : the entire material being placed in process at the beginning of the first process. From the following production and last data relating to the first process, work out the value of the closing inventory and the value of the materials transferred to the second process. Process I Opening inventory Material Labour Manufacturing Overheads Opening inventory (25 percent complete) Put into Process Transferred to II Process Closing inventory (20 percent completed) Spoilage during process Rs. 10,000 27,500 50,000 40,000 4,000 12,000 10,000 5,000 1,000 [I.C.W.A., Final] Solution : Process I A/c Particulars Opening Inventory Material Labour Kg. Amount Particulars Rs. 4,000 10,000 Transferred to Process II 12,000 27,500 Normal Loss 50,000 Closing Inventory Manufacturing Overheads 16,000 40,000 1,27,500 Kg. 10,000 Amount Rs. 1,15,750 1,000 -5,000 11,750 16,000 1,27,500 37
  • 38. Working Note : Statement of Equivalent Production Units Particulars Opening Processed Stock Completely Processed Normal Loss Closing Inventory Output Kg. 4,000 Material Qty. % 3,000 75 Labour Qty. % 3,000 75 Overheads Qty. % 3,000 75 6,000 6,000 6,000 6,000 1,000 --5,000 1,000 16,000 10,000 100 -20 1,000 10,000 100 -- --20 1,000 10,000 100 20 38
  • 39. Statement of Element of Cost on the basis of Equivalent Production Particulars Cost Rs. 27,500 50,000 40,000 Material Labour Overheads Total Equivalent Cost per Unit Units Rs. 10,000 2.75 10,000 5.00 10,000 4.00 11.75 Statement of Apportionment of Cost Particulars Op. Stock Processed Elements Equivalent Units Cost Per Unit Rs. Cost Rs. Material 3,000 2.75 8,250 Labour 3,000 5.00 15,000 3,000 4.00 12,000 Material 6,000 2.75 16,500 Labour 6,000 5.00 30,000 6,000 4.00 24,000 Material 1,000 2.75 2,750 Labour 1,000 5.00 5,000 1,000 4.00 4,000 Overheads Completely Processed Overheads Closing Inventory Overheads TOTAL Total cost Rs. 35,250 70,500 11,750 1,17,500 39
  • 40. Value of goods transferred to next process Rs. Units 10,000 35,250 70,500 4,000 6,000 1,15,750 Value of opening stock (given) Additional cost on opening stock Value of completely processed units 10,000 Illustration 6 ABC Limited manufactures a product „2X‟ by using the process normally R. T. for the month of May 2009, the following data is available. Process R. T. Material Introduced 16,000 units Transfer to next process 14,000 units Work-in-Process 4,000 units At the beginning of the month (4/5 completed) 3,000 units At the end of the month (2/3 completed) Cost records: Work-n-Process at the beginning of the month Material Rs. 30,000 Conversion cost Rs. 29,200 Cost during the month Materials Rs. 1,20,000 Conversion cost Rs. 1,60,800 Normal spoiled units are transferred to next process. 10% of goods finished output Defects in these units are identified in their finished state. Materials for the product is put in the process at the beginning of the cycle of operation, whereas labour and other indirect cost flow evenly over the year. It has no realizable value for spoiled units. Required : (1) Statement of equivalent production (average cost method) (2) Statement of cost and distribution of cost (3) Process accounts 40
  • 41. Solution : Statement of Equivalent Production (average cost method) Input units Particulars Output Units Equivalent Production Materials Conversion cost % completed Equivalet Units 4000 Opening WIP -- % Complted Equivalent Units -- 16000 Introduced and 14,400 100 14,400 100 14,400 Completed to next Normal spoilage Abnorma l spoilage 1,440 100 1,440 100 1,440 1,160 100 1,160 100 1,160 Closing WIP 3,000 100 3,000 66.67 2,000 20000 20000 20000 19000 Statement showing cost of each element Particulars Opening Cost in process Total Equivalent Units Cost per unit Materials (a) (b) (a ÷ b) 30,000 1,20,000 1,50,000 20,000 7.50 Conversion cost 29,200 1,60,800 1,90,000 19,000 10.00 41
  • 42. Statement showing distribution of cost Particulars Units completed Materials Conversion cost Normal spoilage (10 %) Closing stock : Material Conversion cost Abnormal Stock: Material Conversion Stock Dr. Particulars To Opening WIP To Material Introduced To Conversion cost Incurred Equivalent Units Cost per unit (Rs.) 14,400 14,400 1,440 7.50 10.00 17.50 1,08,000 1,44,000 3,000 2,000 7.50 10.00 22,500 20,000 42,500 1,160 1,160 7.50 10.00 8,700 11,600 20,300 2,52,000 25,200 Process A/c. Rs. 59,200 Particulars By Profit and Loss A/c. (abnormal) 1,20,000 1,60,800 340000 Cr. Rs. 20,300 By Transfer to Next Process By Closing WIP 2,77,200 42,500 3,40,000 42
  • 43. INTER PROCESS PROFITS: Normally the output of one process is transferred to another process at cost but sometimes at a price showing a profit to the transfer process. The transfer price may be made at a price corresponding to current wholesale market price or at cost plus an agreed percentage. The advantage of the method is to find out whether the particular process is making profit (or) loss. This will help the management whether to process the product or to buy the product from the market. If the transfer price is higher than the cost price then the process account will show a profit. The complexity brought into the accounting arises from the fact that the inter process profits introduced remain a part of the prices of process stocks, finished stocks and work-in-progress. The balance cannot show the stock with profit. To avoid the complication a provision must be created to reduce the stock at actual cost prices. This problem arises only in respect of stock on hand at the end of the period because goods sold must have realized the internal profits. The unrealized profit in the closing stock is eliminated by creating a stock reserve. The amount of stock reserve is calculated by the following formula. Stock Reserve = Transfer Value of stock x Profit included in transfer price Transfer Price Illustration 7 A product passes through three processes before its completion. The output of each process s charged to the next process at a price calculated to give a profit of 20% on transfer price. The output of Process III is transferred to finished stock account on a similar basis. There was no work-in-progress at the beginning of the years. Stock in each process has been valued at prime cost of the process. The following data is available at the end of 31st March, 2009. Process I Direct Material Direct Wages Stock on 31st March 2009 Sale during the year Process II Process III 20000 30000 10000 30000 20000 20000 10000 40000 30000 --15000 -- -- -- 180000 Finished Stock Rs. From above information prepare: 1. Process Cost Account showing the profit at each stage. 2. Actual realized profit and 3. Stock Valuation as would appear in the balance sheet 43
  • 44. Solution: Dr. Particulars To Materials To Wages Total Les Closing Stock c/d Prime Cost To Gross Profit (20% on Transfer Price) ToStockB/d. Process – I A/c. Total Rs. 20000 Cost Profit Rs. Rs. 20000 -- 30000 50000 30000 -50000 -- 10000 40000 10000 -40000 -- 10000 -- 50000 10000 To Process – I A/c. To Material To Wages Less : Closing Stock C/d. Prime Cost To Gross Profit (20% on Transfer Price) To Stock B/d. Total Rs. 50000 Cost Rs. 40000 Profit Rs. 10000 50000 By Process IIA/c. (Transfer) 40000 10000 10000 40000 10000 10000 -- Process – II A/c. Dr. Particulars Particulars Cr. Total Rs. 50000 Cost Rs. 40000 30000 20000 100000 Profit Rs. 10000 30000 -20000 -90000 10000 20000 18000 72000 By Process-III A/c. (Transfer) Total Rs. Cost Rs. Profit Rs. 100000 72000 28000 100000 72000 28000 2000 80000 Particulars Cr. 8000 20000 -100000 20000 20000 72000 18000 28000 2000 44
  • 45. Process III A/c Particulars ToprocessII A/c To Material To Wages TOTAL Less.Closing stock To Gross profit (20%of transfer price) To Stock b/d Total Rs. 100000 Cost Rs. 72000 Profit Rs. 28000 10000 40000 10000 40000 ------- 150000 122000 28000 30000 120000 24400 97600 5600 22400 30000 -------- 30000 150000 30000 97600 24000 Particulars 52400 5600 Cost Rs. 97600 Profit Rs. 52400 150000 ByFinished stock A/c Total Rs. 150000 97600 52400 Finished stock A/c Particulars Total Rs. Cost Rs. Profit Rs. Particulars To process III A/c (-)Stock To gross profit 115000 97600 52400 By Sales 15000 9760 5240 135000 87840 92160 45000 180000 15000 --87840 9760 45000 92160 5240 To A/c Stock Total Rs. Cost Rs. Profit Rs. 180000 87840 92160 180000 87840 92160 45
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