ROLE OF PHYTOGENIC FEEDADDITIVES IN POULTRY NUTRITION P.PONNUVEL Ph.D Student Department of Poultry Science 2010-23-110
Poultry Industry in IndiaBroiler industryNo. of birds - 1600 millionsBroiler feed need – 5.7 mmt kgsLayer industryLayer population – 300 millionLayer feed need is – 14.1 mmt ( 47 kg/b/l)
FEED ADDITIVES Mainly antibiotics Growth Feed consumption Feed utilization Decreased mortality More production as meat and eggs
Ban on AGP Primarily due to Antibiotic resistance Residues in chicken meat and egg Consumers awareness Legislations – European union 2006 Exploration of newer feed additives
Phytobiotics Phytogenic feed additives are plant-derived products used in poultry feed to improve the performance vary widely with respect to botanical origin, processing, and composition Contain several Plant Secondary Metabolites Derived from leaves, roots, tubers, fruits, barks, herbs, spices etc Solid dry ground form or extracts Preparations turmeric powder or essential oils
Plant Secondary Metabolites Medicinal plants are well known from ancient time Widely used in Ayurvedha and Sidha in India Natural, less toxic, residue free and used in human food for centuries They are responsible for the medicinal properties They are known as essential oils, alkaloids, steroids, acids saponins etc
Phytobiotics classification Herbs- product from flowering non-woody plants Botonicals- entire or processed parts of plant- roots, leaves, bark etc Essential oils – hydro-distilled extract of volatile oils Oleoresins – extract by using some solvents
Mode of actions of phytobiotics Stimulation of Digestive secretions Increases secretions of saliva, digestive enzymes, bile and mucosal enzymes Digestion process enhanced Fat and fat soluble vitamins better absorbed Improves feed intake by their flavour Increases FCR and weight gain Garlic, ginger, turmeric and radish – saliva, gastric juice and bile Essential oils used as feed additives for broiler - enhanced the activities of trypsin and amylase (Lee et al., 2003 ; Jang et al., 2004 )
Antimicrobial activity Inhibit growth of bacteria in GI tract Stimulate growth of favourable bacteria Phytogenic substances like thymol, carvacrol Eugenol- clove- inhibit salmonella Essential oil blends – thymol, eugenol, curcumin and piperin- clostridial infections – necrotic enteritis- broiler
…..Antimicrobial activity Polysaccharides from mushroom- tremella fuciformis Herbs – astragalus membranaces- control coccidiosis Turmeric powder at 0.2% in broiler feed – reduces E.coli count Stimulate intestinal secretion of mucus in broilers and impair adhesion of pathogens Hydrophobic essential oils enter into the bacterial cell membrane, disintegrate membrane structures, and cause ion leakage - nonphenolic substances, for example, limonene and compounds from Sanguinaria canadensis (Newton et al., 2002 ; Burt, 2004 ).
…..Antimicrobial activity Studies with broilers demonstrated in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (Jamroz et al., 2003 , 2005; Mitsch et al., 2004 ) Phytogenic feed additives may improve the microbial hygiene of carcasses - essential oils from oregano on the microbial load of total viable bacteria, as well as of specific pathogens (e.g., Salmonella) on broiler carcasses (e.g., Aksit et al., 2006 ).
…..Antimicrobial activitycompound Action against Studied byThymol, eugenol, C.perfringens- broiler- Mitsch et al 2004curcumin, piperin inhibit proliferationSame compounds C.Perfringens – broiler- Arbuckle,1972, Baba 1992, reduced colonisation, Sims et at,2004, inactivation of clostridial toxin by secretion of more trypsin, improves nutrient utilisationThymol E.Cloi count reduction- Jang et al 2007 broilerCapsicum, Reduced coliforms and Losa,2001, tucker,2002,cinnamaldehyde, clostridial count- chicken jamroz,2003carvacrol
Control of Coccidiosiscompound Effect against Studied byThyme Reduced oocyst, Ibrit et al 2002oregano ,, Giannenas et al 2003Eos- clove,thyme,lemon, Reduced oocyst Evans et al 2001pepper mint
Anti-inflammatory action Terpenoids and flavonoids in the phytobiotics suppress the metabolism of inflammatory prostoglandins Extracts of curcuma, pepper, cumin, cloves, cinnamon, mint and ginger( Srinivasan, 2005)
Anti-oxidative action Phenolic substances like flavoniods, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, and terpenes,vitamin E,C and A Prevent lipid peroxidation by quenching free radicals Activation of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Protect the feed or food against oxidative deterioration – herbs and spices- rosemary alone or with synthetic tocopherols- Jacobsen, 2008- extract of olive leaf / olive oil Herbal phenolic compounds improve the oxidative stability of poultry meat (Giannenas et al., 2005; Florou- Paneri et al., 2006)
….Anti-oxidative actionplant CompoundRosemary -Labiatae family (mint phenolic terpenes, such as rosmarinicplants) acid and rosmarolthyme and oregano monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol (Cuppett and Hall, 1998).Zingiberaceae (e.g., ginger and flavonoidscurcuma) and Umbelliferae (e.g., aniseandcoriander)pepper (Piper nigrum), red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.), and chili(Capsicum frutescene)
Immuno-stimulant function Herbs and spices rich in flavonoids, vitamin C and carotenoids – garlic, echinaces Improves activity of lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells. Increases phagocytosis or stimulate the interpheron synthesis – Craig, 1999
Livertonics Several herbs used as liver protective which will prevent aflatoxin problems Phyllanthus niruri - hepato-protective and anti-viral activity
Livertonics Andrographis paniculata- Andrographolide and diterpene lactone. Andrographolide - choleretic (stimulate bile secretion), anti-inflammatory, anti- diarrhoeal, immuno-stimulant and anti-oxidant activities
Livertonics Eclipta alba - wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone - hepato-protective
Livertonics Chicorium intybus - as a potent anti- hepatotoxic, hepato-stimulant and cholagogue
Effect of Eos on FCR - broiler-Garcia et al 2007 1.92 2 1.54 1.59 1.5 1 0.5 0 Control Antibiotic Eos
EOS-FCR of broiler- Ertase et al 20051.7 1.611.6 1.51.5 1.411.41.3 Control Antibiotic Eos
EOS-FCR of broiler- Jamroz et al 2003 1.86 1.85 1.84 1.82 1.81 Control 1.8 1.79 Antibiotic Eos 1.78 1.76 Control Antibiotic Eos
Performance of broilersphytobiotics Control Antibiotic EOSGarcia et al 2007ADG (g/bird) 68.90 66.50 68.80Ertase et al 2005ADG (g/bird) 61.30 65.80 71.30Jamroz et al2003ADG 48.10 48.90 49.20(g/bird)
Garlic powder in broiler feed –FI and BW pourali et al2010 3500 3197 3243 3193 3100 3068 3094 3000 2500 2000 1790 1676 1545 1532 1482 1472 FI 1500 BW 1000 500 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
Conclusion Herbs can be applicable for organic farms. Antibiotics, coccidiostats and other drugs have residual effects but herbs have no residual effect but still more research is needed. Some plants and plant extracts have bactericidal and bacteriostatic aspects. Some herbs (like-garlic) only kill the pathogenic bacteria; dont kill the helpful bacteria (lactobacillus spp.). Some herbs have antiviral effects (aloe prevents fowl pox). Herbs can be used as antimicrobial, appetizer, immune and digestive agents. Maximum herbs have no toxicity in the body, even due to the higher concentration of herbs and species in animal body (but few are toxic). More than 60 genera of plants have been found to have inhibitory properties toward the growth of E.coli and/or Staphylococcus aureus. (Newman, 1998) Herbs are environment-friendly. It acts as newer generation feed additive.
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