Phytobiotics ponnuvel


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Phytobiotics ponnuvel

  1. 1. ROLE OF PHYTOGENIC FEEDADDITIVES IN POULTRY NUTRITION P.PONNUVEL Ph.D Student Department of Poultry Science 2010-23-110
  2. 2. Poultry Industry in IndiaBroiler industryNo. of birds - 1600 millionsBroiler feed need – 5.7 mmt kgsLayer industryLayer population – 300 millionLayer feed need is – 14.1 mmt ( 47 kg/b/l)
  3. 3. FEED ADDITIVES Mainly antibiotics Growth Feed consumption Feed utilization Decreased mortality More production as meat and eggs
  4. 4. Ban on AGP Primarily due to Antibiotic resistance Residues in chicken meat and egg Consumers awareness Legislations – European union 2006 Exploration of newer feed additives
  5. 5. Phytobiotics Phytogenic feed additives are plant-derived products used in poultry feed to improve the performance vary widely with respect to botanical origin, processing, and composition Contain several Plant Secondary Metabolites Derived from leaves, roots, tubers, fruits, barks, herbs, spices etc Solid dry ground form or extracts Preparations turmeric powder or essential oils
  6. 6. Plant Secondary Metabolites Medicinal plants are well known from ancient time Widely used in Ayurvedha and Sidha in India Natural, less toxic, residue free and used in human food for centuries They are responsible for the medicinal properties They are known as essential oils, alkaloids, steroids, acids saponins etc
  7. 7. Phytobiotics classification Herbs- product from flowering non-woody plants Botonicals- entire or processed parts of plant- roots, leaves, bark etc Essential oils – hydro-distilled extract of volatile oils Oleoresins – extract by using some solvents
  8. 8. S. No Condiments Active Principles Functional Properties 1. Fenugreek Quercitin, luteolin, diosgenin, Hypocholesterolemic, (Trigonella foenum citogenin stimulates insulin secretion graecum) (hypoglycemic), antihyperlipidemic, inhibit platelet aggregation. 2. Curry leaves Carbazole alkaloids - Antioxidant, antimicrobial, (Murrya koenigii) Koenimbine, mahanimbine. hypoglycemic. O-methylmurrayamine, murryanol, bismahanine, bismurryafoline. 3. Mustard Glucosinolates, myrosinase Antioxidant, hypoglycemic, (Brassica juncea) enzymes, isothiocyanates anticarcinogenic. 4. Cabbage, Cauliflower, Indole-3-carbinole(I3C), Antioxidant, Brocoli sulforaphane anticarcinogenic. (Cruciferae family) 5. Turmeric powder Curcumin Anti-inflammatory, (Curcuma longa) antioxidant.
  9. 9. 6. Garlic Allicin, allin, ajoene Decreases platelet (Allium sativum) aggregation, lowers serum triglycerides and LDL- cholesterol, increases serum HDL-cholesterol, fibrinolytic, antibacterial and antiviral.7. Basil leaves Flavonoids-Orientin, Antibacterial, (Ocimum basilicum) vicenin, estragole, linalool, Immunostimulant. cineole, eugenol, limonene, sabinene.8. Black pepper - Carminative, Antioxidant, (Piper nigrum) antibacterial.9. Chili pepper, red, Capsacin Hypocholesterolemic, (Capsicum family) anti-inflammatory.10. Cinnamon Cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl Antioxidant (Cinnamonum verum) acetate, cinnayl alcohol
  10. 10. 11. Cloves Eugenol, kaempferol, Antioxidant, anti- (Eugenia rhamnetin inflammatory. caryophyllus)12. Ginger Gingerols Antioxidant, anti- (Zingeiber inflammatory, officinale) anticarcinogenic.13. Onions Allyl propyl sulphide, Hypoglycemic, (Allium cepa) quercetin anticarcinogenic.14. Tomato Lycopene Antioxidant, (Lycopersicon anticarcinogenic, lycopersicum) Hypocholesterolemic.15. Rosemerry - Immunomodulators, (Labiatae family) reduces asthma attacks.
  11. 11. 16. Cumin seeds - Anticarcinogenic, digestive (Eugenia caryophyllus) stimulant.17. Oregano (or)Marjoram Thymol, carvacrol, Antioxidant. (Origanum vulgare) rosemarinic acid18. Tulsi Antiviral, antiasthamatic, (Ocimum sanctum) immunomodulators.19. Flax seed, fish oil -3- PUFA Lowers serum triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, increases serum HDL-cholesterol, reduces incidences of atherosclerosis.20. Coriander seeds Phenolic acid compound- Antidiabetic, antimicrobial. (Coriander sativum) Caffeic and chlorogenic acid Phytonutrients- geraniol, limonene, camphor, elemol, linalool Flavonoids- quercitin, kaempferol, rhamnetin and epigenein
  12. 12. Parts of plants used Plant Parts Compound Functions Cinnamon Bark Cinnamaldehyde Digestive secretion Anti-bacterial Cloves Clove Eugenol Digestive secretion Anti-bacterial Cumin Seed Cuminaldehyde Digestive secretion Anise Fruit Anethol Digestive secretion Pepper Fruit Piperine Digestive secretion
  13. 13. Parts of plants used Plant Parts Compound Oregano Extract- Plant Carvacrol, Thymol Thyme Extract - Plant Carvacrol, Thymol Garlic Pulp Disulfide,allicin, Allin Turmeric Rhizome Curcumin Chilli Fruit Capsaicin Neem Leaves Nimbin Rosemary Leaves Rosmarinic Acid And Rosmarol
  14. 14. Functions of phytobiotics Stimulate secretion of digestive enzymes Enhance immune status Anti-bacterial activity Anti-viral effect Coccidiostatic Anthelmentic effect Anti-inflammatory Anti-oxidants
  15. 15. Mode of actions of phytobiotics Stimulation of Digestive secretions Increases secretions of saliva, digestive enzymes, bile and mucosal enzymes Digestion process enhanced Fat and fat soluble vitamins better absorbed Improves feed intake by their flavour Increases FCR and weight gain Garlic, ginger, turmeric and radish – saliva, gastric juice and bile Essential oils used as feed additives for broiler - enhanced the activities of trypsin and amylase (Lee et al., 2003 ; Jang et al., 2004 )
  16. 16. Antimicrobial activity Inhibit growth of bacteria in GI tract Stimulate growth of favourable bacteria Phytogenic substances like thymol, carvacrol Eugenol- clove- inhibit salmonella Essential oil blends – thymol, eugenol, curcumin and piperin- clostridial infections – necrotic enteritis- broiler
  17. 17. …..Antimicrobial activity Polysaccharides from mushroom- tremella fuciformis Herbs – astragalus membranaces- control coccidiosis Turmeric powder at 0.2% in broiler feed – reduces E.coli count Stimulate intestinal secretion of mucus in broilers and impair adhesion of pathogens Hydrophobic essential oils enter into the bacterial cell membrane, disintegrate membrane structures, and cause ion leakage - nonphenolic substances, for example, limonene and compounds from Sanguinaria canadensis (Newton et al., 2002 ; Burt, 2004 ).
  18. 18. …..Antimicrobial activity Studies with broilers demonstrated in vivo antimicrobial efficacy of essential oils against Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens (Jamroz et al., 2003 , 2005; Mitsch et al., 2004 ) Phytogenic feed additives may improve the microbial hygiene of carcasses - essential oils from oregano on the microbial load of total viable bacteria, as well as of specific pathogens (e.g., Salmonella) on broiler carcasses (e.g., Aksit et al., 2006 ).
  19. 19. …..Antimicrobial activitycompound Action against Studied byThymol, eugenol, C.perfringens- broiler- Mitsch et al 2004curcumin, piperin inhibit proliferationSame compounds C.Perfringens – broiler- Arbuckle,1972, Baba 1992, reduced colonisation, Sims et at,2004, inactivation of clostridial toxin by secretion of more trypsin, improves nutrient utilisationThymol E.Cloi count reduction- Jang et al 2007 broilerCapsicum, Reduced coliforms and Losa,2001, tucker,2002,cinnamaldehyde, clostridial count- chicken jamroz,2003carvacrol
  20. 20. Control of Coccidiosiscompound Effect against Studied byThyme Reduced oocyst, Ibrit et al 2002oregano ,, Giannenas et al 2003Eos- clove,thyme,lemon, Reduced oocyst Evans et al 2001pepper mint
  21. 21. Anti-inflammatory action Terpenoids and flavonoids in the phytobiotics suppress the metabolism of inflammatory prostoglandins Extracts of curcuma, pepper, cumin, cloves, cinnamon, mint and ginger( Srinivasan, 2005)
  22. 22. Anti-oxidative action Phenolic substances like flavoniods, hydrolysable tannins, phenolic acids, and terpenes,vitamin E,C and A Prevent lipid peroxidation by quenching free radicals Activation of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Protect the feed or food against oxidative deterioration – herbs and spices- rosemary alone or with synthetic tocopherols- Jacobsen, 2008- extract of olive leaf / olive oil Herbal phenolic compounds improve the oxidative stability of poultry meat (Giannenas et al., 2005; Florou- Paneri et al., 2006)
  23. 23. ….Anti-oxidative actionplant CompoundRosemary -Labiatae family (mint phenolic terpenes, such as rosmarinicplants) acid and rosmarolthyme and oregano monoterpenes thymol and carvacrol (Cuppett and Hall, 1998).Zingiberaceae (e.g., ginger and flavonoidscurcuma) and Umbelliferae (e.g., aniseandcoriander)pepper (Piper nigrum), red pepper(Capsicum annuum L.), and chili(Capsicum frutescene)
  24. 24. Immuno-stimulant function Herbs and spices rich in flavonoids, vitamin C and carotenoids – garlic, echinaces Improves activity of lymphocytes, macrophages and NK cells. Increases phagocytosis or stimulate the interpheron synthesis – Craig, 1999
  25. 25. Livertonics Several herbs used as liver protective which will prevent aflatoxin problems Phyllanthus niruri - hepato-protective and anti-viral activity
  26. 26. Livertonics Andrographis paniculata- Andrographolide and diterpene lactone. Andrographolide - choleretic (stimulate bile secretion), anti-inflammatory, anti- diarrhoeal, immuno-stimulant and anti-oxidant activities
  27. 27. Livertonics Eclipta alba - wedelolactone and demethyl wedelolactone - hepato-protective
  28. 28. Livertonics Chicorium intybus - as a potent anti- hepatotoxic, hepato-stimulant and cholagogue
  29. 29. Effect of Eos on FCR - broiler-Garcia et al 2007 1.92 2 1.54 1.59 1.5 1 0.5 0 Control Antibiotic Eos
  30. 30. EOS-FCR of broiler- Ertase et al 20051.7 1.611.6 1.51.5 1.411.41.3 Control Antibiotic Eos
  31. 31. EOS-FCR of broiler- Jamroz et al 2003 1.86 1.85 1.84 1.82 1.81 Control 1.8 1.79 Antibiotic Eos 1.78 1.76 Control Antibiotic Eos
  32. 32. Performance of broilersphytobiotics Control Antibiotic EOSGarcia et al 2007ADG (g/bird) 68.90 66.50 68.80Ertase et al 2005ADG (g/bird) 61.30 65.80 71.30Jamroz et al2003ADG 48.10 48.90 49.20(g/bird)
  33. 33. Garlic powder in broiler feed –FI and BW pourali et al2010 3500 3197 3243 3193 3100 3068 3094 3000 2500 2000 1790 1676 1545 1532 1482 1472 FI 1500 BW 1000 500 0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
  34. 34. Garlic powder in broiler feed – pourali et al 2010 FCR 2.07 2.07 2.1 2.1 2.02 2 1.9 1.9 1.81 FCR 1.8 1.7 1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
  35. 35. Performance of broilersphytobiotics Dose – g/Kg feed Percent improvement Feed intake Wt. gain
  36. 36. Performance of broilersphytobiotics Dose – g/Kg feed Percent improvement Feed intake Wt. gain
  37. 37. Performance of broilersphytobiotics Dose – g/Kg feed Percent improvement Feed intake Wt. gain
  38. 38. Fucntional food from phytobiotics Antioxidants stuffed eggs and meat Feed will be supplemented with herbs like curry leaves, turmeric, oregano, Thyme, Red Yeast Rice, holy basil, white basil, rosemary & other anti-oxidant rich herbs @ 1-5 kg /ton Promising herbs used are Holi basil leaves (thulasi), white basil, curry leaves, garlic, fenugreek seeds, beet pulp,spirulina, azolla, marigold petals, grape pulp, tomato pomace, citrus pulp, cumin seeds, aniseeds, oregano, rosemary, thyme, turmeric, coriander, mint, caraway seeds = 2-10kg /ton
  39. 39. Phytobiotics Digestion Enzyme secretion Gut microbes antioxidant Immune system stress Nutrient utilisation Reduces microbial toxins Improve resistance Increase performance Increase shelf-life of poultry meat
  40. 40. Performance Enhance production of gastric secretions Exert Anti-microbial activity Reduce levels of pathogenic bacteria Exert antioxidant properties Enhance immune status Act as anthelmentic and anti-viral agent
  41. 41. Phytognic feed additives Plant parts - flowers, buds, seeds, leaves, twigs, bark, herbs, wo od, fruits, and roots Aromatic oily liquids obtained from plant material complex mixtures of secondary plant metabolites low-boiling-phenylpropenes and terpenes
  42. 42. Commercial preparations
  43. 43. Conclusion Herbs can be applicable for organic farms. Antibiotics, coccidiostats and other drugs have residual effects but herbs have no residual effect but still more research is needed. Some plants and plant extracts have bactericidal and bacteriostatic aspects. Some herbs (like-garlic) only kill the pathogenic bacteria; dont kill the helpful bacteria (lactobacillus spp.). Some herbs have antiviral effects (aloe prevents fowl pox). Herbs can be used as antimicrobial, appetizer, immune and digestive agents. Maximum herbs have no toxicity in the body, even due to the higher concentration of herbs and species in animal body (but few are toxic). More than 60 genera of plants have been found to have inhibitory properties toward the growth of E.coli and/or Staphylococcus aureus. (Newman, 1998) Herbs are environment-friendly. It acts as newer generation feed additive.
  44. 44. References Rama Rao, S.V, Reddy, V.R., and Reddy R.S. (1999) Enhancement of phytate phosphorus availability in the diet of commercial broilers and layers. Anim.Feed.Sci.Technol. 79: 211-222. Reddy, N.R., Sathe, S.K., and Salunkhe, D.K. (1982) Phytase in legumes and cereals. Advances in Food Research. 28:1-9. Selle,P.H., Ravindran,V., Ravindran,G., and Bryden,W.L. (2007) Effect of dietary lysine and microbial phytase on growth performance and nutrient utilisation of broiler chicken. Asian- Australian J. Anim.Sci. 20(7): 1100- 1107. Sebastian, S., Touchburn, S.P., Chavez,E.R., and Lague, P.C. ( 1996) Efficacy of supplemental microbial phytase at different dietary calcium levels on growth performance and mineral utilisation of broiler chickens. Poult.Sci. 75 (5): 1516-1523. Yi,Z., Kornegay,E.T., and Denbow,D.M. (1996) Supplemental microbial phytase improves the zinc utilization in broilers. Poult.Sci. 75: 540-546.
  45. 45. Thank you