2009 07 (14) Ports Vs Coasts Pondy Case


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Presentation on the coastal devastation created by ports in India with the specific case study of Pondicherry coast.

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2009 07 (14) Ports Vs Coasts Pondy Case

  1. 1. Impacts of Ports & Harbours on Coastlines and Beaches - The Pondicherry Case Study -
  2. 2. NATIONAL OVERVIEW Till date 199 notified ports: - 12 Major -187 Minor Intermediate (currently around 70 are operational). Port Development - 11th five year plan of Govt. of India: Has identified 331 ports for development on the mainland (roughly one port every 20kms). Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  3. 3. ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS FOR PORTS • Minor Ports were exempted under the Environment Impact Assessment Notification (EIA notification of 1994-Aug 2006), but require environment clearance under the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) Notification (1991) • No public hearing was needed • 1997 Amendment in CRZ - Ministry of Environment & Forest transferred clearances for expansion and modernisation of ports to Ministry of Surface Transport and Shipping. • The Wildlife Protection Society of India, challenged this 1997 amendment in the Delhi High Court vide petition CWP 4198/97. (Status pending) • 2000 Amendment in CRZ - transferred back to Ministry of Environment Forest. Dhamra Port was cleared during this time (1998). Many other ports were cleared during this time. MORE A CLEARANCE REQUIREMENT THAN A REAL APPRAISAL Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  4. 4. ENVIRONMENTAL FRAMEWORKS FOR PORTS Category A Category B Central Clearance State Clearance (B1 , B2) Ports, Harbours ≥ 5 million TPA of < 5 million TPA of cargo cargo handling handling capacity and/ capacity (excluding or fishing harbours) ports/ harbours ≥10,000 TPA of fish handling capacity Ports/ harbours <10,000 TPA of fish handling capacity - NO EIA!?? WEAK SCIENCE AND POLICY Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  5. 5. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING CONCERNS • Poor science & Planning in EIAs, Coastal Management, Development and Environmental Planning • Its not about a single project and its impact, but cumulative impacts of ancillary development as well as impacts of other projects and coastal development. • Environmental deregulation of coastal management and EIA laws- e.g. CMZ , EIA , CRZ • Judicial remedies are difficult and problematic to pursue due to delays and backlog. • Most often strong environmental and legal grounds against projects are ignored as the case becomes fait accompli. • Poor planning and implementation of mitigating measures for environmental impacts. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  6. 6. CONSEQUENCES OF POOR PLANNING OF PORTS NIO Study: 25% Of India’s Coastline is eroding! • Majority of Ports and harbours are causing large scale Coastal Erosion. Erosion Hot Spots • Loss of coastal habitats. • Loss of freshwater and food resources. • Increased Vulnerability. • Coastal communities affected. • Socio-economic loss. • Unsustainable development. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  7. 7. - The Pondicherry Case Study - Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  8. 8. MEMORIES OF THE PONDICHERRY-TAMIL NADU BEACHES Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009 1950’s 1980’s
  9. 9. PRESENT SITUATION Since the construction of the harbour in1989: - 8 kms of coastline got destroyed. - 30 km of beaches affected. The coast prone to Loss of homes Agricultural land Loss of space for cyclones and tsunamis and livelihoods turned to wasteland recreation, tourism & coastal processes Salt water intrusion has turned the ground water saline Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  10. 10. S AND MOVEMENT ALONG COAS TLINE During NE Net Littoral monsoon = Drift Direction of sand movement Net Littoral Drift Equation : During SW Monsoon: 600,000 Cum. (9 months) Minus: During NE Monsoon : 100,000 Cum. (9 months) = Net displacement : 500,000 Cum. 500,000 Cu.m per year! Swell orientation Beaches are like rivers of sand. During SW This natural sand movement is a significant natural process monsoon and a factor which plays a major role along our coast.. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – August 2009 Image: source Google Earth
  11. 11. LIKE A DAM THE HARBOUR BLOCKS THE SAND MOVEMENT Beach erosion e h orelin Orig inal s ri ft Litt oral d Breakwaters Sand accumulation This triggers accretion of sand in the south of the harbor and erosion in the north. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  12. 12. A SAND BY-PASS SYSTEM WAS PART OF THE HARBOUR DESIGN Sand nourishment Submarine tunnel Dredger nal Origi ne eli shor UNFORTUNATELY IT WAS RARELY USED! Proposed by: Central Water & Power Reasearch Station (CWPRS), Pune, 1978. Designed by: Consulting Engineering Services (CES), New Delhi, 1981. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  13. 13. IMPACTS OF EROSION BEFORE (1980s) AFTER (2000+) 150 m wide Beach Beach fully Eroded Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  14. 14. WIDESPREAD DESTRUCTION IN PONDICHERRY AND TAMIL NADU Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  15. 15. INSTEAD OF SAND BY-PASSING THE GOVT DUMPED ROCKS 100 m Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  16. 16. DUMPING ROCKS IS NOT A SOLUTION • Increases erosion • Transfers problem down the coast • Has to continue forever as rocks keep sinking • Requires huge sums of public money • Does not protect us from big waves • Mountains have to be destroyed This is NOT sustainable! Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  17. 17. LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD OF TRADITIONAL FISHING COMMUNITIES Space for parking boats No access to sea Coastal erosion is advancing @ 350 m / year (1m per day) Affected Fishing Villages Seawall Thandirayan Nadu Kuppam Kuruchi Vembakira Kuppam Soudani Solai Vaithi Kuppam palayam Kuppam Nagar Kuppam Pondy Blocked Tamil Nadu Pondicherry Harbour sand Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  18. 18. EROSION CAUSED BY GROYNES BUILT IN T.N. 120 m Erosion April ’07 9th May ’07 18th July ‘07 28th June ‘07 6th June ‘07 Erosion in 12 weeks Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  19. 19. THE BEACH IS A PART OF OUR NATURAL AND CULTURAL HERITAGE It protects us from cyclones and tsunamis Sustains homes and livelihood of fishermen Prevents ground water from becoming saline natural space for recreation, tourism festivals … Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  20. 20. CONSULTATION MEET – AUROVILLE, 3rd Nov’07 “Protection and Restoration of Pondicherry-TN coastline” Experts on Coastal Management Govt officials from Pondichery and TN It was unanimously agreed that the harbour was the cause of erosion and soft options should be adopted: - Activate the sand by-pass system. - Capital dredging to make up for the backlog of 20 years - The harbor to be redesigned to minimize dredging costs - The Governments of Pondicherry and TN will jointly work for a solution. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  21. 21. CONSULTATION MEET – PONDICHERRY, 4th May ’09 “Government Policies on Ports & Harbours and its Impacts on Coastal Ecology, Livelihood Resources and Fishing Coomunities” Experts on Coastal Management Fishing Community Representatives, NGOs Resolution: Not to allow the proposed unplanned, indiscriminate and unjustified construction of coastal structures along our coastline until and unless: : - Damaged coastal areas are studied, restored and monitored. - Affected coastal communities are consulted and rehabilitated. - Fishing and coastal community land rights must be recognized Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  22. 22. IN 2003 SAND NOURISHMENT HAD SHOWN POSITIVE RESULTS Before Nourishment After Nourishment Unfortunately it was abandoned soon after. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  23. 23. AN IMPENDING DANGER -THE PROPOSED DEEP WATER PORT A small harbor caused such massive destruction, imagine the impact of a major port. Existing Harbour Proposed Port Existing harbour Proposed Deep Water Port. • Land area: 150 acres. • Land area: 400 acres (min.) • Cargo handling: 0.05 MTA. (average) • Cargo handling capacity: 20 MTA. • Breakwaters: 250 m long. • Breakwaters: 750 m long. • Depth: Max. 4 m. • Depth: Max. 14 m. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  24. 24. LEARNING FROM PAST EXPERIENCE Chennai Port is in the north of the city. Port Proposed in Pondy is in the south. Marina beach formed in the south The town is potentially under the risk but the north side got severely eroded. of getting inundated Situation in Potential situation Chennai: in Pondy: Existing Original erosion shoreline Potential erosion Original shoreline Proposed Pondy Chennai Harbour Harbour Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  25. 25. DOES PONDICHERRY NEED A PORT? Ennore Port Chennai Port Cheyur Port Pondicherry ? Erosion, Pollution and Congestion? Cuddalore Port Karaikal Port Nagapattinam Port Or Beach, Fresh air and Peace? This project will be an environmental, social and economic disaster. The port area could become a Marina cum Park for Pondicherry’s citizens and visitors. Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  26. 26. THE LARGER QUESTIONS - What is the Carrying Capacity of the coastal environment of India? How many ports, harbours, power plants? Industries can the coastal environment support? - In the absence of scientific data, shouldn’t the Precautionary Principle be adopted? - How do we go about restoring and ameliorating the coastal environment that has been damaged by human activities? - How do we address Inter-State coastal environment issues? - Social aspects and impacts of livelihoods of traditional fishing communities eg. Posco, Gangavaram, Mundra, Positra. - What is the role and strategy of communities, scientists, NGOs and civil society in the backdrop and trend of this type development of ports? - What are the solutions, alternatives or responses? Pondy Citizens’ Action Network – July 2009
  27. 27. Thank you No 34, Rue Francois Martin, Pondicherry- 605001 Ph: 91-413-4210032 E-Mail: info@pondycan.org Website : www.pondycan.org