Why sustainable sanitation in Baltic Sea Region

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Conference Sustainable Wastewater Management in River Basin Management Plans in Baltic Sea Region
Why sustainable sanitation in Baltic Sea Region

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  • 2009-11-19 World Toilet Day
  • 2009-11-19 World Toilet Day
  • > ecological sanitation and natural systems for wastewater treatment Baltic Sea’s main problem – EUTROPHICATION – to much nutrients - Main load of nutrients (approx. 70-80 %) come from small and diffuse sources o In Sweden single family-homes contribute with 1/3 of the P-load and 1/10 of the N-load, from all sources in coastal areas (agriculture run-off not included) o In Sweden, with high standard on P-removal in municipal wastewater treatment (approx 90 %) , the next step for cost-effective P-removal is higher standards for single-family homes wastewater o In Finnish coastal municipalities the pollution load from single family-homes can contribute with as much as 80 % of the nutrient load - Big point sources are not the main nutrient contributors to Baltic proper - A strategy to solve Baltic eutrophication must apply effective, long-term sustainable, cost-effective measures for P & N-reduction - Eco-technologies (sustainable systems) often cost-effective for P & N-removal (Conventional treatment in small settlements give low reduction of P & N) - Eco-technologies (sustainable systems) – important component for restoration of the Baltic Sea environment 2009-11-19 World Toilet Day
  • > ecological sanitation and natural systems for wastewater treatment Baltic Sea’s main problem – EUTROPHICATION – to much nutrients - Main load of nutrients (approx. 70-80 %) come from small and diffuse sources o In Sweden single family-homes contribute with 1/3 of the P-load and 1/10 of the N-load, from all sources in coastal areas (agriculture run-off not included) o In Sweden, with high standard on P-removal in municipal wastewater treatment (approx 90 %) , the next step for cost-effective P-removal is higher standards for single-family homes wastewater o In Finnish coastal municipalities the pollution load from single family-homes can contribute with as much as 80 % of the nutrient load - Big point sources are not the main nutrient contributors to Baltic proper - A strategy to solve Baltic eutrophication must apply effective, long-term sustainable, cost-effective measures for P & N-reduction - Eco-technologies (sustainable systems) often cost-effective for P & N-removal (Conventional treatment in small settlements give low reduction of P & N) - Eco-technologies (sustainable systems) – important component for restoration of the Baltic Sea environment 2009-11-19 World Toilet Day
  • 2009-11-19 World Toilet Day
  • World Toilet Day 2009-11-19
  • Why sustainable sanitation in Baltic Sea Region

    1. 1. „ Sustainable Wastewater Management in River Management Plans in Baltic Sea Region” Gdynia 19 – 20 November 2009 Planning for sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Why sustainable sanitation in Baltic Sea Region? Gunnar Noren CCB Secr. General
    2. 2. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation Krakow, December 18, 2008 © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    3. 3. What is CCB? Planning for sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    4. 4. Coalition Clean Baltic <ul><li>CCB – Joining forces for the Baltic </li></ul><ul><li>CCB is a network of Environmental NGOs, working in the Baltic Sea catchment area. </li></ul><ul><li>CCB was established in 1990 </li></ul><ul><li>CCB is environmental Citizens Organisations (ECO) in cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>CCB has 25 member organizations </li></ul><ul><li>CCB has members and cooperation partners in: Belarus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden, Ukraine </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    5. 5. <ul><li>Coalition Clean Baltic is a network of environmental non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in the Baltic Sea catchment area: </li></ul><ul><li>- For protection of the Baltic Sea Environment! </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    6. 6. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation Krakow, December 18, 2008 © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    7. 7.
    8. 8. Priority Areas with sub- a reas <ul><li>Promotion of good ecological water status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable wastewater management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable River Basin Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of water protection measures in Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention of installations and transports harmful to the Baltic Sea environment and coastal areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful installations and transports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of sustainable development in coastal zones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful Hydro-electric power plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development of sustainable Baltic Sea fisheries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of the naturally spawning Baltic Salmon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion of Baltic Sea sustainable fishing practices </li></ul></ul>3
    9. 9. - Contribute to solution of the Baltic eutrophication problem - Small- and medium-sized municipalities and single family-homes give substantial contribution to Baltic eutrophication - protection of the environment (lakes, streams and the sea)! Why do CCB promote Sustainable Sanitation?
    10. 10. <ul><li>conservation of natural resources (nutrients and water)! - For Public Health promotion! Also: Sustainable Sanitation can save money and make system more robust ----------------------------------------------------------------- CCB member of GWP CEE -supported the initiative - book production “Sustainable Sanitation in CEE” </li></ul>© WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    11. 11. Planning for sustainable sanitation-Open Wastewater Planning Gunnar Norén Coalition Clean Baltic
    12. 12. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS
    13. 13. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    14. 14. Open Wastewater Planning <ul><li>Focus on functions </li></ul><ul><li>Involve relevant stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the whole system </li></ul><ul><li>Consider and compare several technological options </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    15. 15. Focus on functions Private goals: Safe, comfortable, and affordable sanitation for the users. Public goals: A. Protection of Public Health B. Recycling of nutrients (and water and nutrients ) C. Protection of water recipients Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS
    16. 16. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Responsibilities? Need for environmental precautions? Monitoring? Costs, affordability? Natural conditions? Legislation? Flows and loads? Technical options? Open dialogue with stakeholders on requirements and means Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS
    17. 17. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Consider the whole system! Promotion on efficient water use and use of environmentally friendly chemicals, techniques for water saving, source separation etc ...
    18. 18. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Consider the whole system! Sealing pipe system, disconnect storm water…..
    19. 19. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Consider the whole system! Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS Internal wastewater management in industries…..
    20. 20. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se 1 Identify the problem and stakeholders 2 Identify local conditions and system boundary 3 Set up a Terms of Requirements (T&R) 4 Investigate possible solutions 5 Evaluate and compare options 6 Decide! Further investigation or implementation The planning process - step by step
    21. 21. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Step 1 : The case “Vadsbro” southern Sweden... <ul><li>Old and obsolete plant (and collecting system) </li></ul><ul><li>High consumption of electricity and chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Weak and uncertain treatment result </li></ul><ul><li>> Develop existing system or constructing new? </li></ul><ul><li>> Targets (ambitions) vs. reasonable costs? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Stakeholders <ul><li>Residents/users </li></ul><ul><li>Planners & decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Schools & commercial operators </li></ul><ul><li>Land owners </li></ul><ul><li>Contractors </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Others: neighbours, etc. </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Vadsbro case, continued...
    23. 23. Step 2: Local conditions Planning for sustainable sanitation
    24. 24. System boundaries Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS
    25. 25. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Local conditions in Vadsbro: Rural area, farmland, forest, nice lake Local water well middle of village Existing pipe system, two pump stations Vadsbro case, continued...
    26. 26. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se <ul><li>NUMBER OF PERSONS </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for: 145 </li></ul><ul><li>Today: 125 </li></ul><ul><li>WASTEWATER FLOW </li></ul><ul><li>45 m 3 /day average (320 l/person/day) </li></ul><ul><li>NUTRIENT AND ORGANIC MATTER FLOWS </li></ul><ul><li>Calculations from Swedish standard figures: </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus: 110 kg/year </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen: 700 kg/year </li></ul><ul><li>BOD 7 : 2 450 kg/year </li></ul>Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS Vadsbro case, continued...
    27. 27. Step 3: Terms of Requirement (ToR) for Vadsbro Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Vadsbro case, continued...
    28. 28. Step 4: Analysis of possible solutions Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Illustration: Peter Ridderstolpe, WRS
    29. 29. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Assessing measures at the point of origin... - source separation and onsite treatment? Vadsbro case, continued...
    30. 30. Alternatives at the source Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Vadsbro case, continued...
    31. 31. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Assessing measures at the “end of pipe” ... “ Six different options fulfil the “terms of requirement”! 1. Forest irrigation 2. Precipitation pond 3. Trickling filter and biofilter ditch 4. Wetland/Agriculture rotation system 5. Open sandfilter 6. Compact treatment plant Vadsbro case, continued...
    32. 32. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se 1. Forest irrigation ... Vadsbro case, continued...
    33. 33. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se 2. Precipitation with slaked lime, sedimentation in ponds Vadsbro case, continued...
    34. 34. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se 3. (Pre precipitation)- Trickling filter and biofilter ditch Al Vadsbro case, continued...
    35. 35. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation Krakow, December 18, 2008 © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se 5. Open sand filter Vadsbro case, continued...
    36. 36. 6. Compact treatment plant and biofilter ditch Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Vadsbro case, continued...
    37. 37. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Step 5: Final evaluation of the alternatives Vadsbro case, continued...
    38. 38. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Step 6. Implementation Vadsbro case, continued...
    39. 39. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Sludge Treatment - Drainage beds is a good option
    40. 40. Case 2: Improved sanitation in rural Bulgaria <ul><li>Low income , high unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Household farming </li></ul><ul><li>Carts bedrock, shallow soils, sensitive groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Private wells </li></ul><ul><li>Simple pit latrines </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    41. 41. Terms of Requirement (ToR) for Case 2: Bulgaria Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Bulgaria case, continued...
    42. 42. Alternatives <ul><li>Existing pit latrines improved by ventilation and continued grey water handling by throwing buckets in the yard </li></ul><ul><li>Dry urine diversion and on-site greywater management in a constructed soil filter </li></ul><ul><li>On-site water borne system with treatment in soil filters </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Bulgaria case, continued...
    43. 43. Dry urine diversion Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Illustration: Johan Palmcrantz Bulgaria case, continued...
    44. 44. Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se Open wastewater planning - conclusions <ul><li>Change preconceived thinking and create real understanding for the reasons for treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Force “decision makers” to consider the whole system </li></ul><ul><li>Create understanding for the software part of the system (user aspects, institutional aspects, economical aspect etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote public participation (democratic planning) </li></ul><ul><li>Promote locally adapted systems </li></ul><ul><li>Promote development of new techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Draw back: More effort in planning must be allocated than normal </li></ul>
    45. 45. Remember: <ul><li>Think about the user! Involve stakeholders! </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all goals/targets in mind! </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the whole system! </li></ul><ul><li>Practical aspects often determine long-term function </li></ul>Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se
    46. 46. Thank You! Planning for sustainable sanitation - CCB seminar on sustainable sanitation © WRS Uppsala AB - www.wrs.se <ul><ul><li>CCB / GWP Pl / POMCERT seminar on Sustainable Wastewater Management Gdynia 19 – 20 November 2009 </li></ul></ul>

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