October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY•                               CRASH COURSE              ...
The presentation „Technology status, outlook and                    economics” by Niels-Erik Clausen      •       is a res...
Technology status,outlook and economicsPeggy Friis (presenting)Niels-Erik Clausen              DTU Wind Energy            ...
AgendaDTU Wind EnergyOffshore wind technology overviewElements of project development and economicsOffshore wind energy pl...
DTU Wind Energy DepartmentNew                                                                •                            ...
The wind turbine (gearbox)                                        Gearbox       Generator         Blade                   ...
Typical wind turbine 2012                                                    Wind turbine 2012                            ...
New wind turbine in Østerild, 2012SWT 6MW Wind turbine 2012  6MW  Rotor Diameter 154m  Hub height 120m DTU Wind Energy,...
A material-efficient machine                                               At 10 m/s wind speed:                          ...
Up-scaling                                                     2008                                                       ...
Upscaling has been the main driver                                            Upscaling: ”Square-cube law”                ...
The wind turbine (gearbox)                                        Gearbox       Generator         Blade                   ...
Offshore wind turbines    Siemens 2.3 and 3.6 MW    Siemens 3 and 6 MW (PMG direct drive)    Vestas V90 3 MW    Vestas V11...
Vestas V90-3MW nacelle                               service crane                                                        ...
Installed offshore wind in the World                                Installed                      Accu.    Installed   Ac...
Global wind energy market perspectives                           Annual Global Wind Power Development                     ...
Offshore wind farms 2012   DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark   25 Sept 2012
Danish pilot projectsVindeby                           Tunø Knob1991: 11 x 450kW,                 1995: 10 x 500kW,2-3 km ...
Wind energy in Denmark - 26% contribution                                   offshore onshore                              ...
Full Load Hours 2011 Denmark600050004000300020001000  0   Middelgrunden      Storebælt         Nysted        Horns Rev 2  ...
Full Load Hours 2011 Denmark                        Turbines          MW           Capacity   Full Loads HoursMiddelgrunde...
Full Load Hours per MonthOffshore 2011 Denmark  600  500                                                   Rødsand        ...
Contribution from wind of electricity  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Offshore project cost in Denmark Estimated Investment: 2.6 M€/MW* O&M cost: 18 €/MWh Estimated production cost: 92-100 €/M...
Feed-in Tarif for Danish Off-shore  (Excl. Grid Costs)Feed-in tarif for 50.000 fulloadhoursHorns Rev II 209 MW (2009): 51,...
On-shore Feed-in TarifMarkedprice + Feed-in tarif for 20.000 fuldloadhours+25 øre/kWh (0,03 € c/kWh)+ 2,3 øre/kWh  DTU Win...
Why increasing investment?    Investment offshore projects in DK and UK                                                   ...
Water Depth                      Click to edit Master text styles                      Second level                       ...
Pacific Orca; built 2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Cost of land-based wind power; price level end 2009 Production price                                         Av. wind spee...
(Danish conditions)Source: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse,DanishDTU Wind ...
Anholt offshore wind farm 400 MW                                         Developer: DONG Energy                           ...
Cost of grid connection in DK0.5 mio €/MW                                                     Total cost DKK/MW           ...
South Baltic wind atlas DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark   www.southbaltic-offshore.eu
Measurement of wind and waves                                                    GSM antenna                              ...
Danish technical certification schemeMain elements:type certification and project certification (IEC61400-22)special rules...
Denmark – one stop shop  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Planning in NL: No one stop shop   Source: Ruud van Leeuwen, Evelop, We@Sea conference 13 Feb 2009, Den Helder DTU Wind En...
National differences Germany                                                    www.bsh.de DTU Wind Energy, Technical Univ...
Germany: standardised approachBSH Standarduntersuchungskonzept StUk DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Spatial planning at sea?DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Macro siting, example - Rødsand 2                      Source: Lars Bie Jensen, DONG Energy  DTU Wind Energy, Technical Un...
Macro siting, example - Rødsand 2  DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Models for installing offshore capacityTender (Government initiative)                               Open door (developer i...
DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
Strategic planning by Energy Authority                                                      l                             ...
Planning Kriegers Flak                                    Horns Rev III 400 MW (2017-2018)                                ...
Kriegers Flak – grid connectionBoth transmission of power to land grid and exchange of power   DTU Wind Energy, Technical ...
Near-shore wind farms – a new trend                                                     400 MW before 2020                ...
Translating research to practiceEnvironmental issues or ecology are one of the five cornerstones of WindFarm development:W...
Denmark National Target - 2020100% renewable energy by 2050100% renewable electricity and heating by 2035Coal and oil furn...
How to start an new marketGoals, Visions and TargetMeasurement of wind resource and wave climate (public)Collection of env...
Useful linkswww.windpower.org tour of wind energy in five languageshttp://www.wt-certification.dk Technical certification ...
Questions??DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
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Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – Technology by Niels-Erik Clausen, Peggy Friis

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The presentation „Technology status, outlook and economics” by Niels-Erik Clausen is a result of many years of investigation on offshore wind power at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø).

It was given by Peggy Friis during 'Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy' which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk. The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Project part-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.

All presentations given during this event are:

Introduction to offshore wind energy in Poland, Andrzej Tonderski, POMCERT
Offshore wind power meteorology, Alfredo Peña, DTU Wind Energy
Technology status, outlook and economics, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Design and construction of OWF, Witold Skrzypiński, DTU Wind Energy
Environmental impact assessment, Peggy Friis, DTU Wind Energy
Legal aspects and outlook for Poland, Grid connection, Mariusz Witoński, PTMEW

All of them are available on SlideShare.

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  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Figure 5-5: Actual 1990-2009 - Forecast 2010-2014 - Prediction 2015-2019
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012 De første erfaringer med havmøller fik man i 1991 og 1995 med to pilotprojekter placeret ved hhv Vindeby, vest for Sjælland og Tunø Knob placeret i Kattegat Erfaringerne pegede på at det på længere sigt ville være et realistisk økonomisk alternativ til landvindmøller At det teknisk er muligt at etablere og drive vindmøller på havet At der ikke umiddelbart er miljømæssige problemer - fugleundersøgelser i forbindelse med Tunø Knob pegede ikke på konflikter mellem fugle og vindmøller
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • ship traffic already present Ferry navigation channel Mining area for sand and rocks Protected reef area Seal sanctuary Bird conservation area, Natura 2000 area among other Migration route for birds Radar zone for watching ship traffic Prohibited area due to UXO (unexploded ordonance)
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Clausen DTU offshore wind development Klaipeda 25 Sept 2012
  • Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy – Gdańsk (26.10.2012) – Technology by Niels-Erik Clausen, Peggy Friis

    1. 1. October 26, 2012 – GDAŃSK - CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY• CRASH COURSE on OFFSHORE WIND ENERGY
    2. 2. The presentation „Technology status, outlook and economics” by Niels-Erik Clausen • is a result of many years of investigation on offshore wind power at DTU Wind Energy (formerly Risø).It was given by Peggy Friis during Crash Course on Offshore Wind Energy which was held on 26 October 2012 in Gdańsk. • The event was organized by two partners of the SB OFF.E.R (South Baltic Offshore Wind Energy Regions) Project• part-financed by the EU (European Regional Development Fund): POMCERT from Poland and DTU Wind Energy from Denmark.
    3. 3. Technology status,outlook and economicsPeggy Friis (presenting)Niels-Erik Clausen DTU Wind Energy Offshore wind crash course 26 October 2012 South Baltic Offshore Energy Regions Project DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    4. 4. AgendaDTU Wind EnergyOffshore wind technology overviewElements of project development and economicsOffshore wind energy planning and outlook DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    5. 5. DTU Wind Energy DepartmentNew • 230 employeesNational • 150 academic staffTest Station • 50 phd studentsØsterild • 12 R&D programmes • 2 year MSc programNational • From resource to gridTest Station Lyngby campusHøvsøre Risø campusBlade TestCenterSparkær(Force+DNV) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    6. 6. The wind turbine (gearbox) Gearbox Generator Blade Yaw driveWind Hub Nacelle Tower Power curve Transformer ControlHigh vol- Foundationtage cable DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    7. 7. Typical wind turbine 2012 Wind turbine 2012  Three bladed upwind  Pitch-controlled  Variable speed  Grid connected  18 % with direct drive  Average size 1.7 MW  7-10 MW being developed DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    8. 8. New wind turbine in Østerild, 2012SWT 6MW Wind turbine 2012 6MW Rotor Diameter 154m Hub height 120m DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    9. 9. A material-efficient machine At 10 m/s wind speed: 80 tons/sec: Mass of air through rotor disc Extracts energy from mass of air corresponding to it’s own total weight in 5 seconds Generates in 6-7 months electricity corresponding to the energy spent in manufacturing and erection (energy pay-back time) 90% can be recycled DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    10. 10. Up-scaling 2008 ? ? Jos Beurskens Repower Jos Beurskens DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    11. 11. Upscaling has been the main driver Upscaling: ”Square-cube law”  Power increases as diameter squared  Mass increases as diameter cubed  Cost of electricity / kwh decrease DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    12. 12. The wind turbine (gearbox) Gearbox Generator Blade Yaw driveWind Hub Nacelle Tower Power curve Transformer ControlHigh vol- Foundationtage cable DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    13. 13. Offshore wind turbines Siemens 2.3 and 3.6 MW Siemens 3 and 6 MW (PMG direct drive) Vestas V90 3 MW Vestas V112 3 MW Bard 5.0 MW Repower 5M 5 MW Repower 6M 6 MW Areva Multibrid M5000 Sinovel 3 MW WindWindD 3 MW GE 4.1 MW -113 (direct drive) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    14. 14. Vestas V90-3MW nacelle service crane gearbox transformer generator First compact design THM 75 t DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    15. 15. Installed offshore wind in the World Installed Accu. Installed Accu. MW MW MW MWCountry 2008 2009 2010 2010 2011 2011Belgium 165 195 0 195P.R. China 39 102 107.9 209.9Denmark 207 832.9 0 832.9Germany 108 168 30 198Ireland (Rep.) 0 25 0 25Netherlands 0 246.8 0 246.8Norway 0 2.3 0 2.3Portugal 0 0 2 2Sweden 0 163.3 0 163.3UK 925 1775 330 2105Total capacity - World 344 689 1,444 3,510 470 3,980Source: BTM Consult - A Part of Navigant - March 2012 Offshore is 4 GW of total 240 GW (1.7%) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    16. 16. Global wind energy market perspectives Annual Global Wind Power Development Annual Global Wind Power Development 125,000 100,000 75,000WM 50,000 25,000 0 1990 2011 2016 2021 Source: BTM Consult - A Part Offshore (Pridiction) Prediction Offshore (Forecast) of Navigant - March 2012 Forecast Existing capacity realised forecast DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    17. 17. Offshore wind farms 2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark 25 Sept 2012
    18. 18. Danish pilot projectsVindeby Tunø Knob1991: 11 x 450kW, 1995: 10 x 500kW,2-3 km off-shore 5-6 km off-shore Middelgrunden 2001: 20 x 2 MW, 1,5-2,5 km off-shore DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    19. 19. Wind energy in Denmark - 26% contribution offshore onshore • Krieger FlakEnd of 2011: 3926 MWOnshore capacity 3055 MW – 78% (2010: ~5000)Offshore Wind Energy, Technical University – Denmark DTU capacity 871 MW of
    20. 20. Full Load Hours 2011 Denmark600050004000300020001000 0 Middelgrunden Storebælt Nysted Horns Rev 2 Rønland Bonus Samsø DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    21. 21. Full Load Hours 2011 Denmark Turbines MW Capacity Full Loads HoursMiddelgrunden 20 2 40 5353 61,1%Avedøre 3 3,6 10,8 2780 31,7%Storebælt 7 3 21 2548 29,1%Vindeby 11 0,45 4,95Rødsand 90 2,3 207 1013 11,6%Nysted 72 2,3 165,6 798 9,1%Horns Rev 1 80 2 160 710 8,1%Horns Rev 2 91 2,3 209,3 599 6,8%Rønland Vestas 4 2 8 606 6,9%Rønland Bonus 4 2,3 9,2 527 6,0%Tunø Knob 10 0,5 5 2245 25,6%Samsø 10 2,3 23 3815 43,6% DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    22. 22. Full Load Hours per MonthOffshore 2011 Denmark 600 500 Rødsand Nysted 400 Horns Rev 1 Horns Rev 2 Rønland Vestas 300 Rønland Bonus Tunø Knob Samsø 200 100 0DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    23. 23. Contribution from wind of electricity DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    24. 24. Offshore project cost in Denmark Estimated Investment: 2.6 M€/MW* O&M cost: 18 €/MWh Estimated production cost: 92-100 €/MWh (corresponding to 68-75 øre/kWh) * Incl. estimated grid connection and all other costs except cost of financingSource: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse, Danish Wind IndustryAssociation, Danish Wind Turbine Owners’ Association. Feb. 2010 (in Danish) 25 Sept 2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    25. 25. Feed-in Tarif for Danish Off-shore (Excl. Grid Costs)Feed-in tarif for 50.000 fulloadhoursHorns Rev II 209 MW (2009): 51,8 øre/kWhRødsand II 207 MW (2010): 62,9 øre/kWhAnholt 400 MW (2012): 105 øre/kWh (13€ c/kWh)Transformer station and grid connection costs are PublicService (PSO) Source: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse, Danish Wind Industry Association, Danish Wind Turbine Owners’ Association. Feb. 2010 (in Danish) 25 Sept 2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    26. 26. On-shore Feed-in TarifMarkedprice + Feed-in tarif for 20.000 fuldloadhours+25 øre/kWh (0,03 € c/kWh)+ 2,3 øre/kWh DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    27. 27. Why increasing investment? Investment offshore projects in DK and UK Horns Rev II MiddelgrundenSource: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse,Danish Wind Industry Association, Danish Wind Turbine Owners’ Association. Feb. 2010 (in Danish) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    28. 28. Water Depth Click to edit Master text styles Second level  Third level  Fourth level  Fifth level DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    29. 29. Pacific Orca; built 2012 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    30. 30. Cost of land-based wind power; price level end 2009 Production price Av. wind speed in hub heightSource: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse,Danish Wind Industry Association, Danish Wind Turbine Owners’ Association. Feb. 2010 (in Danish) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    31. 31. (Danish conditions)Source: Vindmøllers økonomi (wind turbine economics) by EMD, Risø DTU, EA Energianalyse,DanishDTU Wind Energy, Technical University ofTurbine Owners’ Association. Feb. 2010 (in Danish) Wind Industry Association, Danish Wind Denmark
    32. 32. Anholt offshore wind farm 400 MW Developer: DONG Energy I operation 2013 Employment 8000 during design and construction111 x 3.6 MW 70 for maintenance in 25 years DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    33. 33. Cost of grid connection in DK0.5 mio €/MW Total cost DKK/MW Cost of transformer platform Source Energinet.dk September 2011 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    34. 34. South Baltic wind atlas DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark www.southbaltic-offshore.eu
    35. 35. Measurement of wind and waves GSM antenna How long? Wave height measurement DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    36. 36. Danish technical certification schemeMain elements:type certification and project certification (IEC61400-22)special rules for certification of modification, relocationand rules on continued certification of turbines withlimited type certificationrequirements for maintenance and service by anapproved or certified enterprisereporting of major damage and damage relevant to theturbine’s safety. DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    37. 37. Denmark – one stop shop DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    38. 38. Planning in NL: No one stop shop Source: Ruud van Leeuwen, Evelop, We@Sea conference 13 Feb 2009, Den Helder DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    39. 39. National differences Germany www.bsh.de DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    40. 40. Germany: standardised approachBSH Standarduntersuchungskonzept StUk DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    41. 41. Spatial planning at sea?DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    42. 42. Macro siting, example - Rødsand 2 Source: Lars Bie Jensen, DONG Energy DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    43. 43. Macro siting, example - Rødsand 2 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    44. 44. Models for installing offshore capacityTender (Government initiative) Open door (developer initiative)l Political agreement l Application to Energy Auth.l Typically large scale farms l Typically smaller scale andl Fixed price (50000 full load hrs) test farms l Rødsand 2 (62.9 øre/kWh l Premium (25 øre/kwh) on top l Horns Rev 2 (51.8 øre /kWh) of market price (as for land)l Grid connection paid by TSO l Cable to shore paid byl Strict time schedule investorl Conditions and penalties l Variable time schedule DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    45. 45. DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    46. 46. Strategic planning by Energy Authority l 23 sites of 200 MW identified l 4600 MW by 2025 l Enough to meet 50% of electricity demand (18 TWh) l Consultation answers are taken into account l A sensitivity analysis is too be conducted and used in the decision-making process for the actual site selection l +400 MW 2013 DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    47. 47. Planning Kriegers Flak Horns Rev III 400 MW (2017-2018) Krieger Flak 600 MW (2017-2018) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    48. 48. Kriegers Flak – grid connectionBoth transmission of power to land grid and exchange of power DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    49. 49. Near-shore wind farms – a new trend 400 MW before 2020 Near-shore means Open land: 2 km City: 3 km Special protected areas: 4 km DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    50. 50. Translating research to practiceEnvironmental issues or ecology are one of the five cornerstones of WindFarm development:Wind, grid, ecology, public acceptance and economyIn Europe we are extending our infrastructure with more renewable energy –one activity is ecological research to create the necessary basis for selectionof sites and for those sites selected to minimise the environmental impact ofwind farmsStrategic Environmental Assessment to select areasScoping exercise for each project (select the essentials)International cooperation (methods & results) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    51. 51. Denmark National Target - 2020100% renewable energy by 2050100% renewable electricity and heating by 2035Coal and oil furnace to be faded out by 2030Wind Power to supply 9% of brutto energy consumption by 2020.Wind Power to supply 50% of electricity consumption by 2020.EU obligation: 30% Renewable Energy i 2020, hereof 10% in the transportsector (Will be 35% by 2020) DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    52. 52. How to start an new marketGoals, Visions and TargetMeasurement of wind resource and wave climate (public)Collection of environmental base line data (public)Information and visit to wind farms (the public)Education of planners and project evaluatorsInformation and education of grid planners and operatorsStandards (EN/IEC)Transparently DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    53. 53. Useful linkswww.windpower.org tour of wind energy in five languageshttp://www.wt-certification.dk Technical certification scheme for thedesign, manufacture and installation of wind turbinesGood practice guidelines (e.g. at www.bwea.com )www.wind-energy-the-facts.orgwww.ewea.org The European Wind Energy Associationwww.ens.dk The Danish Energy Authoritywww.energinet.dk The Danish TSOwww.southbaltic-offshore.euhttp://www.lorc.dk/offshore-wind-farms-mapContact necl@dtu.dk DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark
    54. 54. Questions??DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark

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